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    CONFIRMATORY FACTOR ANALYSES: NUMBER OF ITEMS IN QUESTIONNAIRES AND SMALL SAMPLE APPLICATION STRATEGIES
    Hau Kittai(Faculty of Education, The Chinese University of Hong Kng, Hong Kong)Cheng Zijuan(Faculty of Education, Northeast China Normal University, Changchun, 130024)Herbert W. Marsh(Faculty of Education, University of Western Sydney ,Macarthur, Sydney,
    null    1999, 31 (01): 76-83.  
    Abstract2647)           
    Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) has been widely used in psychological andeducational research. By summarizing and referring to results of three simulationstudies, the present paper discussed strategies panicularly relevant to small samplestudies. Specifically, it was suggested that more items should be used and factorloadings can be restrained to be equal within the same factor. Generally, larger sampleis more desirable, but when resource is limited, the above two strategies may solvenon-convergence problems and increase the estimation accuracy of important parameters.Furthemore, the use of two indicators within a factor, the use of less than fourindicators when sample size is only about 100, and the combination of items intoparcels and using their averages as indicators are not recommended because they maylead to non--convergence, large standard error and biased parameter estimation.
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    A COMPARATIVE RESEARCH ON THE CONCEPT FORMATION OF CHILDREN FROM DIFFERENT AREAS AND ETHNIC GROUPS AGED 7-11
    Zuo Meng-lan,Wei Chang Study Group on Intercultural Development of Children's Cognitive Power in Yunnan Province
    null    1988, 20 (03): 38-45.  
    Abstract1390)           
    This paper is a comparative study of the concept formation of 290children from different areas and ethnic groups aged 7-11. They com-prised of a group of Han children from Kunming and another group of Han,Dai and Jingpo children from Ruili. Experiments on the cultural influenceover children's concept formation showed that in all the five researchitems, all the children in the Kunming group had a higher score than thoseof the Ruili group. Among the three nationalities in Ruili, such differe-nces were not so significant. This paper discusses the major reasons forthe differences from three perspectives: school education, family education,and social background.
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    Effects of a Stranger’s Presence and Behavior on Moral Hypocrisy
    FU Xinyuan; LU Zhiyuan; KOU Yu
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2015, 47 (8): 1058-1066.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2015.01058
    Abstract5172)      PDF (3071KB)(91984)      

    Moral hypocrisy is prevalent and the presence of a stranger and his/her moral or hypocritical behavior might affect an individual’s moral hypocrisy. Therefore, based on a donation situation, we used experimental paradigms to explore the effects of a stranger’ presence and his/her moral or hypocritical behavior on an individual’s moral hypocrisy. In the pilot study, we developed an online scenario-based questionnaire to identify whether the amount of donation would be affected by the total amount an individual had. A total of 46 university students (15 boys, Mage = 21.02, SD = 1.06) were asked to expect how much they would donate if they had 50 and 20 yuan, respectively. According to the results, the proportions of donation were equal (50 yuan: M = 0.32, SD = 0.24; 20 yuan: M = 0.32, SD = 0.33; t = 0.13, df = 45, p = 0.900) between the two conditions. Therefore, we created the indicator of moral hypocrisy by subtracting the proportion of donation an individual donated (20 yuan in total) from the proportion one expected beforehand (50 yuan in total). In Study 1, a total of 60 university students (7 boys, Mage = 20.31, SD = 1.81) were recruited and were randomly assigned to “no stranger” or “with stranger” group. The participants had expected their amounts of donation before they got into the experiment room and then their donation behaviors (i.e., the amounts of money they actually donated) were measured after they finished a filler survey. Results showed that, the proportions participants donated were both significantly lower than that they claimed in the two groups (“no stranger” group: t = 4.54, df = 29, p < 0.001, d = 1.05, 1-β = 0.97; “with stranger” group: t = 6.35, df = 29, p < 0.001, d = 1.17, 1-β = 0.99), and the degrees of moral hypocrisy were the same (t = 0.42, df = 58, p = 0.677). It indicated that a stranger’s presence could not inhibit moral hypocrisy. In Study 2, a total of 60 university students (12 boys, Mage = 20.28, SD = 1.24) were recruited and were randomly assigned to “moral stranger” or “hypocritical stranger” group. The participants had expected the amounts of donation before they got into the experiment room and then their donation behaviors were measured after they finished a filler survey. Results showed that, in “moral stranger” group, the proportions participants actually donated were the same as that they claimed beforehand (t = 0.12, df = 29, p = 0.903), while in “hypocritical stranger” group, the proportions participants actually donated were significantly lower than that they claimed beforehand (t = 6.39, df = 29, p < 0.001, d = 1.60, 1-β = 1.00). It indicated that a stranger’s moral behavior could inhibit moral hypocrisy, while his/her hypocritical behavior had no effect. Overall, findings in the present study suggested that a stranger’s presence and as well as his/her hypocritical behavior could not inhibit an individual’s moral hypocrisy, while his/her moral behavior could inhibit another one’s moral hypocrisy.

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    Influence of Female Menstrual Cycle on the Acquisition and Extinction of Conditioned Fear
    JIN Yan; ZHENG Xifu
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2015, 47 (12): 1465-1471.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2015.01465
    Abstract3915)      PDF (693KB)(80836)      

     Animal studies have shown that estrogens exert important influence on the acquisition and extinction of conditioned fear, however, the gonadal hormone regulation of fear in human is not known. The purpose of the present study is to examine effects of female menstrual phases on the conditioned fear acquisition and extinction.

    Twenty female college students in luteal phase and 20 female college students in menses phase participated in the experiment. They were exposed to three conditions: 1) predictable aversive stimuli were signaled by a cue; 2) aversive stimuli were administered unpredictably; 3) no aversive stimuli were anticipated. Aversive unconditioned stimulus (US) expectancy was used to assess anxious responses to the threat cue and to contexts associated with each condition.
    The results showed that, at the acquisition stage, females in luteal phase (FL) showed higher US expectance for the conditioned context fear in N and P context than females in menses phase (FM); at the extinction stage, FL had a significantly higher US expectancy in N and P context compared to FM. In other words, the females of luteal phase acquired the conditioned context fear response more effectively and extinguished more slowly than females of menses phase.
    These data suggest that menstrual cycle can possibly influence the conditioned context fear responses in females. This phenomenon suggests that the gonadal hormone level of luteal phase may affect fear regulation.
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    Multiple attachment relationships and the impacts on children’s socio-emotional development under the background of grandmother co-parenting
    XING Shufen; LIANG Xi; YUE Jianhong; WANG Zhengyan
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2016, 48 (5): 518-528.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2016.00518
    Abstract2936)      PDF (461KB)(76059)      

    In China, grandparent caring is a very common phenomenon. The quality of the mother-child and grandmother- child attachment relationships has a great impact on the children’s socio-emotional development. Up to now, however, the concurrent relation between children’s socio-emotional competence and the quality of their attachment to the mothers and grandmothers has not been explored. This study separately assessed the quality of children’s attachment to mothers and grandmothers, thus we could examine the quality and concordance of the mother-child and grandmother-child attachment, and could also explore their relative predictive power and joint effects on children’s socio-emotional competence. Participants were recruited from Beijing’s major communities and websites. 72 mothers, grandmothers, and their children (including 38 boys) participated in our project. All the children were the first fetus and in good health. They were taken care of by grandmothers when their mothers were at work. The time of the grandmother caregiving was not less than 10 hours per week. Using Attachment Q-Sort, 72 children’s (M = 17.51 months) attachment security of mother-child and grandmother-child was examined in two successive sessions, and children’s socio-emotional development was simultaneously measured by Infant- toddler social and emotional assessment (containing four domains: Externalizing, Internalizing, Dysregulation and Competence). The results showed that: (1) In the background of grandmother co-parenting, most of the children could form secure attachment relationships with mothers and grandmothers. The security level of the mother-child attachment was higher than that of the grandmother-child attachment. (2) There was a moderate correlation between the mother-child attachment and the grandmother-child attachment. 36 percent of the children’s mother-child attachment security was dis-concordant with the grandmother-child attachment security. (3) Regression analysis showed that compared with the grandmother-child attachment security, the quality of the mother-child attachment had greater relative predictive power on children’s socio-emotional development, supporting the hierarchical organization hypothesis. (4) With two secure attachment relationships, the children’s scores of Externalizing domain and Internalizing domain were significantly lower than those of the other three groups of children. The quality of the mother-child and grandmother-child attachment relationships could not compensate for each other. The mother-child attachment and the grandmother-child attachment had an interactive effect on children’s Dysregulation domain. We firstly examined the effects of the mother-child and grandmother-child attachment for children’s outcomes in the multiple attachments framework, so this study has certain exploration and pioneering. Up to now, studies exploring the effect of the mother-child and father-child attachment on children’s development have found that a secure attachment with at least one parent was a key factor that offset risks for children’s development. But we found that the mother-child and grandmother-child attachment relationships of the present study could not buffer or compensate each other. This shows the effects of the father caregiving and the grandmother caregiving for the children’s development, and they are perhaps essentially different. Therefore the impact of mother and father on children’s development could not be replaced with the grandmother. The influence of the grandmother on the children’s development may be regarded as “icing on the cake”, while the father can play a buffer role or compensate for the children’s disadvantages.

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    THE INFLUENCE OF SOCIAL SUPPORT AND PERSONALITY ON UNIVERSITY STUDENTS’ STRESS
    Liu Yuxin, Zhang Jianwei, Jin Shenghua
    null    2005, 37 (01): 92-99.  
    Abstract4381)      PDF (1438KB)(36991)      
    This study administered both cross-sectional and longitudinal questionnaire surveys on 660 university students. Results of the study indicated the following: Social support had significant main effect on concurrent stress; those having relatively higher level of social support experienced significantly less concurrent stress than those having lower level of social support. After controlling for earlier stress, earlier social support no longer had significant main effect on later stress. Change of types of social support (four types all together: those continuously having high level support; those continuously having low level support; those having high level support at the beginning but change to low level support two years later; those having low level support at the beginning but changed to high level support two years later) also had significant main effect on later stress. Two types of personality, “open-assertive” and “reserved-gentle”, had significant main effect on concurrent stress, with the “open-assertive” experiencing significantly less stress than the “reserved-gentle” on every corresponding stress types. Earlier personality types still had significant main effect on stress level two-years-later. Social support and personality had significant both main effects and interaction effect on stress; change of types of social support and personality had significant both main effects and interaction effect on stress
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    Attentional Bias Toward Face-related Words Among Females with Facial Negative Physical Self: Evidence from An Eye-movement Study
    KOU Hui; SU Yanhua; LUO Xiaochun; CHEN Hong
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2015, 47 (10): 1213-1222.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2015.01213
    Abstract2341)      PDF (371KB)(35392)      

     Previous studies found cognitive bias toward body-related information among individuals with fat negative physical self. However, little is known about the cognitive bias toward face-related information among individuals with facial negative physical self (FNPS).

    The current study aimed to investigate the attentional bias towards face-related words among females with FNPS. A modified dot probe paradigm was adopted. In the experiment, we used positive and negative face-related words as stimuli. A pair of words was presented in each trial. There were totally four types of word pairing conditions: positive face-related word-neutral word condition (PosNeu), negative face-related word-neutral word condition (NegNeu), positive face-related word-negative face-related word condition (PosNeg), and neutral word -neutral word condition (NeuNeu). We recorded the eye-movement while subjects were viewing the words.
    In NegNeu condition, we found that, compared to controls, females with FNPS were more frequently and faster to direct their initial gazes to negative face-related words. Furthermore, they also showed a longer fixation on the negative word. However, the total gaze durations on both types of words were not significantly different. These results implied an attention vigilance-maintenance pattern for negative face-related words. In contrary, females with FNPS showed a slower rate to direct their gazes to positive words in PosNeu condition. Consistently, in PosNeg condition, females with FNPS showed the same attentional bias toward negative face-related words compared to positive face-related words. Furthermore, behavioral results showed that females with FNPS had difficulty in attention disengagement from negative face-related words, which were evident in both NegNeu and PosNeg condition.

    In conclusion, our results demonstrated that females with FNPS had an attention vigilance-maintenance pattern toward negative face-related words.

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    Emotional Memory Enhancement Effect in Dual-processing Recognition Retrieval
    MAO Xinrui; XU Huifang; GUO Chunyan
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2015, 47 (9): 1111-1123.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2015.01111
    Abstract1581)      PDF (900KB)(31369)      

    In studies of recognition retrieval, emotional memory enhancement effect was described as better memory performance for emotional stimuli than neutral ones. Based on dual-processing theory, recognition retrieval can be divided into two different processes: familiarity and recollection. Two important event-related potential correlates, the FN400 (a negative shift in frontal regions at 300~500ms time window), and the late positive complex (LPC; a positive peak over posterior regions at 500~800ms time window) was associated with familiarity and recollection, respectively. Some researchers considered that emotional memory enhancement effect occurred in recollection but not in familiarity. However, some indirect evidences showed that emotion could enhance memory strength in familiarity-based retrieval. Our research focused on two controversies: 1) whether emotion can enhance familiarity, and 2) how arouse and valence of emotion affect memory enhancement effect. In the current experiment, we used modified “remember/know” paradigm with ERPs recorded, to investigate how emotion influences familiarity and recollection in long-term study-test duration. Subjects were instructed to learn the pictures (including neutral, negative and positive pictures). And after one week, they made “remember/know/guess/new” recognition judgments towards stimuli intermixed with learnt and new pictures. Finally, the valence and arouse of experimental pictures were evaluated by the subjects participated in the experiment. Behaviorally, for studied pictures endorsed as “know”, the memory performances of emotional pictures were better than neutral ones, and there was no significant difference between emotional valences. As for the “remember” judgments, the memory performances of negative pictures were better than positive and neutral ones. ERP results show that, for the pictures judged as “know”, the FN400 old/new effects were significant in emotion condition but not in neutral condition, suggesting that emotion arousing enhanced familiarity-based retrieval. For pictures judged as “remember”, the LPC potentials of negative pictures were more positive than positive and neutral ones, showing that emotion valence modulated recollection-based retrieval. Our findings suggest that: in long-term study-test duration, emotional pictures could result in memory enhancement effect in the familiarity-based as well as the recollection-based retrieval. The emotional memory enhancement effect was not only modulated by the arousing as well as the valence of emotion. Emotional arousing played a predominant role in enhancing memory strength for familiarity-based retrieval. Emotional valence exerts influence exclusively on recollection-based retrieval in a way that only negative pictures could make enhancement effect on recollection.

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    Attentional Guidance from Activated and Inhibitory States of  Working Memory Representations
    ZHANG Bao1,2; SHAO Jiaying1; HU Cenlou1; Huang Sai1
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2015, 47 (9): 1089-1100.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2015.01089
    Abstract1625)      PDF (404KB)(28719)      

    Attention and working memory are two of the core cognitive processes in the human’s information processing system. Working memory and visual attention are intimately related, and the contents of working memory can be referred as “activated” representations severed as ongoing cognition and action. In the meantime, working memory representations currently within the focus of attention can guide attentional selection and behavioral execution. In recent decades, a mount of studies have shown that the activated representations in working memory could top-down capture attention, even if the representations were irrelevant to the task goals, which displayed a robust working memory-driven guidance effect. However, whether the inhibitory representations in working memory can also guide attention, is still a controversial issue? Here, in 4 experiments, the authors manipulated the states of working memory representations with the directed forgetting task, and attempted to explore the effect of activated and inhibitory states of working memory representations on working memory based attentional guidance respectively in task-irrelevant and task-relevant experimental situations. The participants in present study were asked to firstly perform a directed forgetting task, then to search for a target of circle among the distractors of squares, and finally to perform a memory test. In the directed forgetting task, the remember cue in experiment 1 and 3, and the forget cue in experiment 2 and 4 were used to respectively indicate the participants to remember or forget one of two colored squares already stored in working memory. The to-be-remembered (TBR) item and to-be-forgotten (TBF) item in working memory would reappear in visual search task and might match color with one of distractors only in experiment 1 and 2 (i.e., task-irrelevant situation), and might match color with either the target or the distractor in experiment 3 and 4 (i.e., task-relevant situation). In experiment 1 and 2, the results suggested that no matter what types of cues used in the directed forgetting task, when the distractor in visual search task matched color with TBR item, the TBR-matched distractor could capture more attention and slow down the visual search, displaying the attentional guidance effect. However, when the distractor matched the TBF item, neither attentional guidance effect nor attentional inhibition effect was observed. In experiment 3 and 4, the results for the TBR items showed that the visual search was accelerated under TBR-target matching condition and slowed down under TBR-distractor matching condition both in experiment 3 and 4, suggesting that the TBR item in working memory could guide attention biased to the TBR-matched items in visual search task. The results for the TBF items showed that when TBF item matched with distractor, there was no attentional guidance effect found both in experiment 3 and 4. When TBF item matched with target, the guidance effect was still not found in experiment 3. However, an attentional inhibitory effect which was opposed to the attentional guidance effect was observed in experiment 4, suggesting that the inhibitory state of the TBF item could postpone the response to the TBF-matched target. In conclusion, these results indicated that (1) the activated working memory representation could effectively guide attention bias both to the search target and to the distractor in visual search which matched features with such representation, and these attentional guidance effect could not be eliminated or reversed by the inhibitory motivation; (2) the inhibitory working memory representation could transfer the inhibitory state to the visual search task and postpone the response to the search target which matched the features with such representation.

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    The Assessment of Marital Attachment and Its Relationship with General Attachment among Older Adults
    WANG Dahua; YANG Xiaoyang; WANG Yan; Richard B. Miller
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2015, 47 (9): 1133-1142.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2015.01133
    Abstract2102)      PDF (476KB)(28603)      

     

    According to attachment theory, during interactions with their caregivers infants build their “internal working models”, which shape their perception and reflection of social information in their future life. Collins and Read (1994) propose a hierarchical model to illustrate adults’ multiple attachment models and the differences between the general attachment model and the relationship-specific attachment model. Because marital relationships play an important role in later life, an investigation of older adults’ marital attachment and its relationship with the general attachment formed during childhood would increase the understanding of life-span development of attachment. The Older Adults’ Marital Attachment Scale (OAMAS) was recently developed targeting both the specific relationship, as well as the specific age period, and the developers have demonstrated its applicability. However, more evidence is needed using different samples to prove its reliability and validity. As a result, the current study aimed, firstly, at validating the scale, and, secondly, at investigating the association between marital attachment and general attachment among older adults.
    A total of 697 older adults, over 60 years old, dwelling in communities in Beijing participated in the current study. The participants completed the Older Adults’ Marital Attachment Scale (Zhai, et al., 2010), Relationship Questionnaire (Bartholomew &Horowitz, 1991), Marital Satisfaction subscale (Olson, Fournier, & Druckman, 1983), 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (Burke, Roccaforte, & Wengel, 1991) and the Clock Drawing Test. After 86 of them with either dementia or depression were excluded, the final valid sample size was 611 participants. The cases were divided randomly into two subsets, one for exploratory factor analysis, and the other for confirmatory factor analysis. Cluster analysis and cross-tab analysis were then conducted on the total data. The SPSS 17.0 and Mplus 7.0 were used for analysis.
    The main findings were as follows: (1) the final 15-item revised OAMAS showed a three-dimensional construct of attachment, namely anxiety, avoidance, and security; (2) the revised OAMAS exhibited acceptable reliability and good criterion-related validity; (3) the older adults’ marital attachment could be clustered into four types, including secure, preoccupied, dismissing, and fearful. The secure and the preoccupied comprised the major marital attachment style with 43.9% and 22.9%, respectively; (4) with regard to general attachment, the majority included the secure and dismissing types; and (5) about 39.9% of the total sample presented identical attachment types between marital relationship and general relationship.

    These results indicated that the three dimensioned Older Adults’ Marital Attachment Scale could be a desired measure in studies concerning marital attachment among older adults. In addition, general attachment shaped in early life might not robustly predict the specified attachment in such as marital relationship. From a developmental viewpoint, the moderate consistency between marital and general attachment styles in later life also suggested that the attachment is a contextual property, instead of a stable trait.

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    Scenes Differing in Spatial Frequencies Affect Facial Expression Processing: Evidence from ERP
    YANG Yaping; XU Qiang; ZHANG Lin; DENG Peizhuang; LIANG Ningjian
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2015, 47 (12): 1433-1444.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2015.01433
    Abstract1110)      PDF (2109KB)(27293)      
    Facial expressions are fundamental emotional stimuli as they convey important information in social interaction. Most empirical research on facial expression processing has focused on isolated faces. But in everyday life, faces are embedded in surrounding context. For example, fearful faces always accompany with tight bodies, and happy faces appear in birthday parties more often than in sickrooms. Scenes which faces are embedded in provide typical visual context. Recently some studies attempted to investigate the influence of emotional scenes on facial expression processing. Although a few previous studies in this field demonstrated the scene effects of facial expression processing existed, the studies did not further explore the specific processing mechanism of the scene effects. Because of its excellent temporal resolution, the present study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate the effects of scenes that contain different spatial frequencies on facial expression processing. Our hypothesis was that the different spatial frequencies of scenes affected facial expression processing in different ways.
    Eighteen right-handed college students (11 females; age range 17~24 years; mean age_20.67±1.91 years) were paid to participate in the experiment. Thirty-two face pictures (16 females and 16 males) with fearful and neutral expressions and thirty-two scene pictures (16 negative scenes and 16 neutral scenes) were presented. Spatial frequency content in the original scene stimuli (broad-band, BSF) was filtered using a high-pass cut-off that was > 16cpi for the higher spatial frequencycpi for the lower spatial frequency (LSF) scene stimuli. In the present study, we used a paradigm in which the scene and the facial expression were presented together, i.e., simultaneous processing of the scene and the facial expression. In simultaneous processing of the scene and the facial expression, the early mental representation of the scene has to be constructed in parallel to the construction of the facial expression. In the paradigm, after 500 ms into the presentation of the fixation, the face-scene compound stimuli appeared centrally on the scene for 800 ms. The scene and face emotions were either congruent or incongruent. Participants were instructed to perform a gender categorization task (task-irrelevant). (HSF) scene stimuli, and a low-pass cut-off of < 8
    Because the task-irrelevant task was used, our behavioral data was only used to evaluate the degree of attention. Accuracy of target stimuli did not show significant differences between conditions (above 90% for all conditions, ps > 0.1). Our ERP results showed that for scenes with broad-band spatial frequency, fearful faces which appeared in neutral scenes elicited larger N170 amplitudes than these faces which appeared in negative scenes in both right and left hemispheres. But the effects were not found for scenes with high and low spatial frequencies. In addition, neutral faces which appeared in neutral scenes elicited larger N170 amplitudes than the faces which appeared in negative scenes. The effects that were found for scenes with different spatial frequencies were distributed in different hemispheres. For scenes with broad-band and low spatial frequencies, the effects were distributed in the right hemisphere. But for scenes with high spatial frequency, the effects were distributed in the left hemisphere.

    In conclusion, our findings demonstrated that the visual processing characteristic of the scene effects was different for different facial expressions. The scenes had an influence on fearful face processing. The scene effects which happened in early structural perceptual encoding of faces depended on broad-band spatial frequency information of scenes. And the scene effects could happen in the task-irrelevant condition. However, the scenes had a different influence on neutral facial expression. Neutral facial expressions are less salient than fearful facial expressions. So it was easy for negative scenes to disturb the early perceptual encoding of neutral facial expressions. Additionally, this disturbance could happen in the condition in which scenes only retained coarse global information or detailed edge information.

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    The Influence of Power State on the Consumers’ Preference for Consumption Boundaries
    TONG Luqiong
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2015, 47 (11): 1371-1378.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2015.01371
    Abstract1640)      PDF (673KB)(24755)      

     

    Different degrees of power exist in consumers’ everyday life. It can arise from structural factors (e.g., hierarchical roles), cognitive factors (e.g., episodic recall), and physical factors (e.g., physical position). Despite the long-recognized value and experimental investigation of power in social science, until recently, scholars start to pay attention to the influence of power state on consumer behavior. However, the current research paid special attention to the effect of power state on a common but novel aspect in consumer behavior – the preference for consumption boundaries (that is, visual borders that separate and contain a focal object).
    Prior literature suggests that state of relatively high power fosters an agentic orientation, which tends to express dominant acts and increases the desire for control. Moreover, one way that people gain personal control is by seeking order and structure in their consumption environment and choices, for example, seeking boundaries in their consumption environment. Thus we argue that as relatively high (vs. low) power state fosters desire for control, consumers in high (vs. low) power state prefer objects that are bounded over those that are unbounded.
    The author conducted three experiments to examine whether and how power states affect consumers’ preference for consumption boundaries. In Study 1A and 1B, we manipulated participants’ power state by asking them to recall a particular incident in which they had power over another individual or individuals (or in which some else had power over them), and then asked them to indicate their preferred option from bounded and unbounded pairs. The results illustrated that feeling powerful (vs. powerless) led the consumers to prefer options (e.g., product display, picture display and brand logo) that were bounded (vs. unbounded). In Study 2, we further manipulated participants’ power state by role playing task (boss vs. employee), and then measured their desire for control, mood, arousal, attentional overload, as well as their preference for boundaries. The findings proved that the desire for control (especially the desire for control of one’s own life) mediated the influence of power state on boundary preference, and ruled out mood, arousal as well as attentional overload as alternative explanations.

    In summary, the results of three studies reported in the present research demonstrated that one way high−power (vs. low−power) individuals express power is by seeking structured consumption, in other words, consumption boundaries in various forms. The findings theoretically enrich and advance our understanding of the impact of power state on consumer behavior from a novel perspective, and provide further knowledge about the role of control in the influence of power. Given the findings of this research, marketers should be more aware of the match between consumers’ power state and consumption boundary settings.

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    Interaction between Native and Second Language Processing: Evidence From A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Chinese-English Bilingual Children
    GAO Yue; WEI Na; WANG Zhengke; JIAN Jie; DING Guosheng; MENG Xiangzhi; LIU Li
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2015, 47 (12): 1419-1432.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2015.01419
    Abstract1651)      PDF (2891KB)(22516)      
    More than half of the world’s population are actively learning or speaking a second language. Research in this field thus far has focused primarily on the second language processing alone, but neglect the interaction of the two languages. In addition, majority of the previous studies investigated this issue using bilingual adults. Do bilingual children recruit both native and second language neural networks in second language reading as adults do? Does second language and native tongue affect one another in bilingual children’s brain?
    To answer these questions, we tested 28 early Chinese-English bilingual children, assigning participants phonological and orthographical processing tasks in both languages while performing brain scans using fMRI. Phonological tasks required participants to determine whether or not displayed Chinese characters were homonyms, while orthographical tasks required these children to judge whether or not the given stimuli were visually similar. In addition to these tasks, participants also undertook four behavioral tests to assess their proficiency in both languages. These tests comprised of a Chinese character recognition test, a Chinese reading fluency test, and an English dictation test.
    From whole-brain analysis, we found that the two tasks recruited largely similar brain networks across both languages despite of some language differences. Based on an meta-analysis on cross-language comparison, we defined our regions of interest (ROI). ROI analysis revealed that some Chinese-specific regions (bilateral inferior occipital gyrus, cingulate gyrus, and right fusiform gyrus) were significantly activated in English tasks. Similarly, some English-specific regions (left fusiform gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, and medial frontal gyrus) were significantly activated in Chinese tasks. Among these regions, Increased activation of the Chinese-specific cingulate gyrus was negatively correlated with English dictation test scores, suggesting that the higher the second language proficiency was, the less the native language network was involved. However, while increased activation in the English-specific left superior temporal gyrus was negatively correlated with Chinese reading fluency and character recognition test scores, activation in the English-specific left inferior frontal gyrus was positively associated with greater Chinese reading fluency scores - suggesting that second language processing may be affected by native language proficiency.

    Summarily, these results suggest that while bilingual children do develop a distinct neural network to process their second language, it is also partly supported by the brain’s native language network. Additionally, this study further indicates that the neural networks supporting native and second language in bilinguals' brain interact with one another, and this interaction is affected by language proficiency.

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    Predictive Effect of Implicit Safety Attitudes on Safety Performance in Aviation Safety Culture
    YAN Bihua; JI Ming; ZHAO Xiaojun; TU Jinlu; YOU Xuqun
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2015, 47 (1): 119-128.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2015.00119
    Abstract784)      PDF (797KB)(20983)      

    The fundamental feature of safety culture is represented by safety attitudes. In terms of measuring safety cultures, many researchers have mainly focused on explicit safety attitudes and generally relied on specific survey instruments. It is questionable, however, whether self-report measures can capture all aspects of organizational safety culture. Instead of getting direct answers, it is necessary to introduce implicit measures and the implicit safety attitudes test into safety culture evaluation. The basic hypothesis of this study was that while various enterprises share different safety culture, the structure and intensity of implicit and explicit safety attitudes differ for employees. The present study was aimed at investigating the complete model of aviation safety culture and the importance of implicit safety attitudes by detecting the relationship between explicit and implicit safety attitudes as well as the prediction effect of implicit safety attitudes. The Flight Management Attitudes Questionnaire (FMAQ 2.0, international version) was adopted in this study which was based on the work characteristics of modern airlines pilots. With the purpose of evaluating explicit safety attitudes under the background of aviation safety culture, FMAQ 2.0 is comprised of three subscales, including basic organizational attitudes, cockpit work attitudes, and flight automation attitudes. Moreover, Evaluative Implicit Association Test and Affective Implicit Association Test were developed for aviatic implicit safety attitudes test. 134 pilots were involved in the investigation, 126 valid cases were obtained. Safety performance were obtained from airline company on four dimensions, including safety regulation, flight style, flight skill and organizational management was applied for validity criterion. The results showed that (1) IAT of aviation safety attitudes indicated a high effect value, aviation safety led to more positive evaluation and feelings while flight risk and adventure were more connected with negative evaluation and emotion. (2) Implicit and explicit safety attitudes were both relevant and relative separation. There was a positive relation between evaluative implicit safety attitudes and cockpit work attitudes. Affective implicit safety attitudes showed significant positive correlation with cockpit work attitudes and flight automation attitudes. And the model data showed that implicit and explicit safety attitudes were separation structure. (3) Both the flight management attitudes and implicit safety attitudes were able to predict safety performance. The former were doing better on predicting flight style, flight skill and organizational management, while the latter had higher prediction rate on safety regulation. The common prediction model fitted well. The study demonstrated a high intensity of aviation safety attitudes. IAT can be used as an effective evaluation tool for implicit safety attitudes. Explicit and implicit safety attitudes are both unified and separated structure. The explicit safety attitudes, implicit safety attitudes and safety performance together constitute a complete model of aviation safety culture. And in this model, the outer layer is aviation safety performance, the middle layer is explicit safety attitudes which can be measured directly, the inner layer is implicit safety attitudes which can be evaluated by indirect measurement methods.

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    Can Self-Sacrificial Leadership Promote Employee Proactive Behavior? The Mediating Effect of Felt Obligation and Its Boundary Conditions
    TIAN Xiaoming; LI Rui
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2015, 47 (12): 1472-1485.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2015.01472
    Abstract1332)      PDF (485KB)(19447)      
    The existing literature on the relationship between self-sacrificial leadership and employee work-related behaviors has primarily focused on the influence of this leadership on “good soldier” behaviors. Empirical investigations of the effect and the impact mechanism of self-sacrificial leadership on “good change agent” behaviors remain blank. Using proactive behavior as an example, this study aimed to expand the behavioral outcomes of self-sacrificial leadership to employees’ “good change agent” behaviors to fill the gap mentioned above. Specifically, we examined the influence of self-sacrificial leadership on employee proactive behavior, and investigated the mediating role of felt obligation as well as the moderating roles of proactive behavior efficacy and ambiguity tolerance playing in the relationship between self-sacrificial leadership and employee proactive behavior.
    A structured questionnaire was employed as the research instrument for this study. It consisted of five scales designed to measure the variables of interest, namely self-sacrificial leadership, proactive behavior, felt obligation, proactive behavior efficacy, and ambiguity tolerance. To avoid the Chinese people’s tendency of choosing the mid-point of the scale regardless of their true feelings or attitudes, all of the items on the survey were responded to on 6-point Likert scales which did not include a mid-point. Data were collected in two waves from 309 dyads of employees and their immediate supervisors from five high technology companies located in southern Jiangsu. Cronbach’s alpha coefficients for the above measures were from 0.79 to 0.92, demonstrating good measurement reliabilities. Results of confirmatory factor analysis indicated the discriminant validity of the measurement was also satisfactory. Hierarchical regression modeling and PROCESS were used to test the hypotheses proposed.
    Results revealed that: (1) Self-sacrificial leadership had a significant positive influence on employee proactive behavior. (2) In the process of self-sacrificial leadership impacting on employee proactive behavior, the simple mediating effect of felt obligation was insignificant, while both proactive behavior efficacy and ambiguity tolerance moderated the relationship between felt obligation and proactive behavior, as well as the mediated relationship self-sacrificial leadership and employee proactive behavior via felt obligation. The relationships were stronger for employees high rather than low in proactive behavior efficacy or ambiguity tolerance.
    The present study, with dyadic and time-lag design, offered robust evidence for the role of supervisors’ self-sacrificial leadership in facilitating employee proactive behavior. Moreover, our study confirmed the mediating role of felt obligation and its boundary conditions. As to the practical implications, this study suggested that more efforts should be made to encourage managers’ self-sacrificial leadership. Meanwhile, organizations should strengthen employees’ felt obligation in order to promote proactive behavior. Another important managerial implication of our findings is that higher proactive behavior efficacy and ambiguity tolerance can enhance the positive effect of self-sacrificial leadership on employee proactive behavior via felt obligation, so managers should take steps to enhance employees’ efficacy beliefs of proactive behavior, and pay attention to the behavioral response of employees high in ambiguity tolerance.
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    Structural Equation Modeling of Latent Interactions Without Using the Mean Structure
    WU Yan,WEN Zhong-Lin,LIN Guan-Chyun
    null    2009, 41 (12): 1252-1259.  
    Abstract1221)      PDF (318KB)(19254)      
    Estimating the interaction between variables is a particularly important theoretical, substantive, and empirical issue in psychology, as well as in many other social and behavioral sciences. Interactions between (multiple indicator) latent variables are rarely used because of the implementation complexity especially when the mean structure is known as a necessary part of any latent interaction model. There are four types of parameters related to the mean structure, which are namely, the intercepts of the y-measurement equations, the intercepts of the x-measurement equations, the intercepts of the structural equations, and the means of the exogenous latent variables. In this article, it is shown that the mean structure in the latent interaction model comes from the non-zero mean of the latent interaction construct ξ1ξ2 (the product of the two first terms). Thus, the means of the exogenous latent variables and the intercepts of the y-measurement equations are always necessary even if all indicators are mean-centered when the traditional latent interaction construct is used. By building a new latent interaction construct so that its mean is zero, we obtain a structural equation model of latent interaction in which the mean structure is no longer necessary and the parameters of main and interaction effects are unchanged. A simulation study comparing the estimated parameters and goodness of fit indices of the two latent interaction models with and without the mean structure by using the matched-pair product indicators and the unconstrained approach is demonstrated. The simulation results are consistent with the theoretical predictions. This research unambiguously shows that the mean structure problem which has unduly deterred the applied researchers for a long time can now be solved.
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    Information Amount and Obviousness Influence Hypothesis Generation
    LIU Zhiya; ZHENG Chen
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2015, 47 (12): 1445-1453.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2015.01445
    Abstract1005)      PDF (508KB)(19167)      

     This study focuses on the availability of rule learning. Cherubini, Castelvecchio & Cherubini (2005); Cherubini, Rusconi, Russo, Di Bari, & Sacchi (2010) confirmed that the availability of rule learning was influenced by the information amount of the rule. Information amount was explained by how many examples could be covered by a rule. For a rule, the more number of examples could be converted, the less information amount would have. For example, in 2-4-6 task, the information amount in the rule of “even number increase” is 1/n and in the rule of “the third number is the sum of other two” is 1/n2. The information amount theory suggests that a rule with higher information amount is generated more easily than a lower one. However, Some researches (Barsalou,1982; Rips,1989; Medin, Lynch, Coley, & Atran,1997; Shafto, Coley, & Baldwin,2007; Guhe, Pease, & Smail,2011) showed that rule learning would be impacted by the information background of participants.

    In this paper, information background was defined as the obviousness of the rule. Inspired by dual process model of deductive reasoning (Evans, 2003, 2010; Sloman, 1996; Barrouillet, 2011), This study assumed that the cognitive process of rule learning might be impacted by the information amount and obviousness both. Dual process model suggested that there were two independent cognitive systems, system 1 was usually described as unconscious and automatic; the system 2 was inherently conscious and controlled. This paper assumed that there might be two independent cognitive systems that manipulating rule learning process. This hypothesis was tested by experiment 1. Additionally, Ashby (1998) also suggested that there were two kinds of category learning. One was the rule-base category learning, the other was information integration. In the case of rule-based learning, participants could abstract a linguistic and explicit rule from materials, while they cannot discover an explicit rule but still can classify materials when doing information integration tasks, which seems to be implicit. This article assume that rule learning process may also conducted by both explicit and implicit systems and which system would be adopted may related to the information amount and obviousness of rules. Experiment 2 was designed to test this hypothesis. With 70 college students' participated, a revised 2-4-6 task was used to examine our hypothesis. Both experiments were presented by Psychtoolbox 3.0 on MATLAB.

    Experiment 1 found that there were two independent factors, the information amount and the obviousness of the rule, significantly influence availability of rule learning. Experiment 2 is the same as experiment 1 except a rule description between every block of learning. The result of experiment 2 indicated that rules with high information amount and obviousness are more easier to be learned and expressed, while rules of low information amount combine with less obvious could be learned either but hardly be expressed clearly. These results consist with the dual process model in deductive reasoning and reveal that the rules with high amount information and obviousness are processing by an explicit rule system, and with lower amount information and less obviousness are processing by an implicit rule system.

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    The Impact of Parent-Child Attachment on Adolescent Problematic Internet Use: A Moderated Mediation Model
    CHEN Wu; LI Dongping; BAO Zhenzhou; YAN Yuwen; ZHOU Zongkui
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2015, 47 (5): 611-623.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2015.00611
    Abstract2834)      PDF (581KB)(18803)      

    Problematic Internet use (PIU) and its detrimental effects on adolescents’ adjustment has become a hot topic of research in developmental psychology. Among many factors influencing adolescent PIU, the role of parent-child attachment has increasingly received attention of both practitioners and researchers over the past few years. There is substantial literature documenting that parent-child attachment has an important influence on adolescent PIU, but little is known about the mediating and moderating mechanisms underlying this relation. Under the basic framework of development system theories and attachment theory, the present study constructed a moderated mediation model based on the social development model and the organism-environment interaction model to examine the effect of family factors (parent-child attachment), peer factors (deviant peer affiliation) and individual factors (effortful control) on PIU and the underling mechanisms. Specifically, the present study examined whether parental attachment would be indirectly related to adolescent PIU through deviant peer affiliation, and whether this indirect association would be moderated by adolescent effortful control. This integrated model can address questions about both mediation and moderation in one model which was helpful to answer the issues such as “what works for whom”, and provide valuable information for early identification and prevention that cannot be obtained by separately testing the two questions. A total of 2758 junior high school students (mean age = 13.53 years, SD = 1.06) participated in this study. Adolescents’ perceived attachment to their parents was measured by the subscale of parental attachment adapted from the short form of Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA). Adolescent affiliation with deviant peers was assessed with deviant peer affiliation questionnaire. The short form of Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire-Revised was used to assess effortful control. Adolescent PIU was assessed with questionnaire for screening of PIU. All the measures have good reliability and validity. Multiple regression analysis showed that: (1) After controlling for gender, age, and socioeconomic status, the parent-child attachment has a negative effect on adolescent PIU. (2) The negative association between parent-child attachment and adolescent PIU was mediated by deviant peer affiliation. (3) The mediating effect of deviant peer affiliation was moderated by effortful control. The indirect effect was stronger for adolescents with low self-control than for those with high self-control. These findings contribute to our understanding of how and when parent-child attachment impacts adolescent PIU from different subsystems of development system theories. On the one hand, peer relationships relative to the parent-child attachment, may be a stronger social control factors in a way that parents and educators should be actively concern about whether the child was associated with deviant peers, and give reasonable guidance to help solve their confusion encountered in peer interactions. On the other hand, more attentions should be paid to the low self-control individuals (especially improve their parent-child attachment condition) and low parent-child attachment individuals (especially improve their self-control abilities). Last but not the least, the prevention and interventions for adolescent PIU should not only pay attention to the effect of family factors, peer factors (especially deviant peer affiliation) and individual factors (especially self-control), but also to the combined influence of those factors.

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    Total Contents of Acta Psychologica Sinica, Vol. 47, 2015
    bjb
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2015, 47 (12): 1529-1538.  
    Abstract844)      PDF (365KB)(18440)      
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     The influence of Chinese and English background pop music to the memory of Chinese and English words in Chinese undergraduates
    GAO Qi, BAI Xuejun
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2018, 50 (1): 1-8.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00001
    Abstract12546)      PDF (366KB)(17629)      
     It was generally found that pop music would do harm to the efficiency and accuracy of visual activity when it was as a kind of background music. This is called irrelevant sound effect, which means that the presence of irrelevant sound significantly impairs people’s performance on main visual task. Some researchers believe that the reason of this phenomenon is because the lyrics of the background pop music add extra workload to the working memory, which interferes with the visual task. Moreover, it was shown that the first language lyrics impaired participants’ performance more seriously than a strange language. To participants, the second language is less familiar than the first language but more than a strange language. So how about the irrelevant sound effect when lyrics are participants’ second language? And how about it when the visual task contains the second language? This study aimed to investigate the influence of different language lyrics to the visual memory task, the familiarity of whose materials was different in two experiments. It was hypothesized that there would be significant irrelevant sound effects in different language background musics with different language materials, and languages of the lyrics and materials would have reciprocal actions in both experiments. 180 participants from a university (90 for each experiment)who have passed CET6 (College English Test 6) attended this study to research the effect of lyrics in background pop music on short-term memory for familiar and unfamiliar Chinese and English words. There were three kinds of background sounds: no background sound, Chinese background pop music and English background pop music. In order to control effects caused by instruments, this research used Let it go sung by Yao Beina (Chinese) and Demi Lovato (English) as the background music in both two experiments. Only the refrain was used as music materials. In the first experiment, participants should remember 32 Chinese and 32 English familiar nouns and finish an instant recall task. In the second experiment, participants should remember 10 unfamiliar Chinese and 10 unfamiliar English nouns and finish an instant recognition task. Memory materials were displayed by Eprime 1.0 randomly. In the first experiment, the main effect of music types was significant, F(2,87) = 15.67, p < 0.00, ηp² = 0.15. The scores in the condition of no background music (M = 14.12) were significantly higher than the other two conditions. Participants’ scores in English background pop music (M = 12.50) were significantly higher than that in Chinese background pop music (M = 10.30). In the second experiment, the results showed that the scores in the condition of no background sound (M = 6.87) were still significantly higher than the other two conditions (M = 6.03 for Chinese music, M = 5.83 for English music). F(2,87) = 4.69, p < 0.05, ηp² = 0.05. The difference between two experiments was a significant reciprocal action in the second experiment, F(2,87) = 19.23, p < 0.01, ηp² = 0.20. The scores in the condition of Chinese background pop music were higher when the materials were Chinese words (M = 7.03), and the scores in the condition of English background pop music were higher when the materials were English words (M = 6.93). The conclusion was that lyrics in background music would effect the main visual task no mater what kind of lyrics’ language was, but different familiarity of languages indeed had different influences on the efficiency and accuracy of the main task. When memory words were familiar, the familiar language of lyrics would do more harm to the memory. While the words were unfamiliar, which means the task was more difficult, lyrics would do more harm to the memory of words that with the same language. The level of difficulty of the task and the familiarity of lyrics’ language both can effect the memory, while the former is more important.
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    Effects of Administration of Morphine on Sign-tracking/Goal-tracking under Different Distances
    CHANG Fengjin; LI Xinwang; CUI Ruisi
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2015, 47 (12): 1454-1464.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2015.01454
    Abstract689)      PDF (700KB)(15378)      
    Pairings of a conditioned (CS) and unconditioned (US) stimulus can result in approach to either the CS (sign tracking) or the US (goal tracking). The distance between the conditioned stimulus and the site of US delivery affects the sign / goal tracking response and impairs the associative learning; the addictive drugs can enhance the incentive effects of a reward and thus increase individual reward seeking behavior. There are no reports on the relationship between impairments of associative learning by the distance and the incentive amplifying effects of addictive drugs. Therefore, this experiment attempted to investigate the effects of administration of morphine on sign-tracking and goal-tracking when the spatial separation between the CS and a US food was 8、30 and 60 cm.
    Fifty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats participated in the approach conditioning experiment of different distances consisted of habituation, food receptacle training, acquisition, administration of morphine which was given daily injection of morphine (5mg/kg) or saline for 7 days, extinction phases and reversal learning. Two different material objects served as CS+ and CS−, and a 10-sec food as US while approach duration of the CS (sign-tracking) and US (goal-tracking) was measured. Each CS+ was always followed by food delivery any of the experiment phases except the extinction phases, whereas the CS− was not.
    The results were as following: (1) Sign tracking of rats developed when the CS was 60 cm from the US. Increasing the spatial separation between the CS and US resulted in a decline in sign tracking and had no effect on goal tracking under non-drug conditions. (2) Acute administration of morphine (5.0 mg/kg) decreased measures of sign-tracking, from 8 to 60cm, while simultaneously increasing measures of goal-tracking when the CS was 8 and 60 cm from the source of the US. Repeated administration of morphine decreased measures of sign-tracking while simultaneously increasing measures of goal-tracking when the CS was 8 and 30 cm from the source of the US. In the extinction test, prior morphine exposure decreased sign-tracking when the CS was 8 and 60cm from the source of the US, and increased goal-tracking when the spatial separation between the CS and US was 60 cm. (3) In the discrimination reversal learning, rats pre-exposed to morphine showed less contact to new CS+ compared to saline controls from 8 to 60cm, showed worse discrimination and biased to old CS+ when the spatial separation was 30 and 60 cm.
    The results of this study suggested that distance had little effect on suppression of sign-tracking but had enhancing effects on goal-tracking by morphine. Morphine pre-exposure impairing discrimination reversal learning was facilitated by distance. Research shows the distance is an important factor, which facilitates impairments of associative learning and has no effect on the incentive amplifying effects of following administration of addictive drug.
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    The Impact of Supra- and Sub-liminal Facial Expressions on the Gaze-cueing Effect
    ZHANG Meichen; WEI Ping; ZHANG Qin
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2015, 47 (11): 1309-1317.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2015.01309
    Abstract1435)      PDF (858KB)(15128)      

     

    Studies have shown that attention tends to shift to locations gazed by others. The gaze-cuing effect (GCE) means that targets presented at periphery are detected faster when the eyes in a central face are gazing at the same direction of the target than when the eyes are gazing at the opposite side. In the present study, we investigated the impact of consciously or unconsciously presented emotional faces on the gaze-cuing effect.
    A positive, neutral, or negative cue face with its eyes gazing at left or right side was presented supraliminally or subliminally in the center of the screen, followed by a target letter presented at the gazed (cued) location or the opposite (un-cued) location. Participants were asked to make localization responses to the target as accurately and quickly as possible.
    Results showed that, the GCE, in terms of RTs in the un-cued condition minus RTs in the cued condition, was significant and was not affected by facial expression when the face was presented supraliminally. However, when the cue was presented subliminally, the GCE effect was also significant and was modulated by the emotionality of the central face. Specifically, in the un-cued condition, RTs were significantly longer in the positive and negative conditions than that in the neutral condition. In other words, GCE was larger in the positive and negative conditions than in the neutral condition.

    These results indicated that GCE can be modulated by faces with biological importance. The emotional information conveyed through supraliminally presented face might be suppressed by the top-down control setting, whereas the subliminally presented gazing cue was processed automatically and was escaped from top-down suppression.

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    The status quo of China's contemporary college students’ affective diathesis and its influencing factors
    LU Jiamei; LIU Wei; HE Wen; WANG Junshan; CHEN Nianqu; XIE Dengfeng
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2017, 49 (1): 1-16.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2017.00001
    Abstract7060)      PDF (625KB)(14850)      

    A large-scale research on the affective diathesis of college students in China is a significant though challenging endeavor. Based upon the theory of affective diathesis and thoughts of developmental affection with classified thoughts, current study developed an original investigative tool with solid reliability and validity—“Questionnaire on College Students’ Affective Diathesis”. This instrument dealt with the complexities in affect measurement and is of great theoretical and practical significance. The questionnaire was used to investigate college students’ affect development on thirty-three different kinds of affects, including patriotism, responsibility, integrity, credibility, dedication, fairness, public benefit; curiosity, exploration, self-confidence, achievements, learning happiness, major interest; intimacy, cooperation, forgiveness, emotionally appealing, gratefulness, care; self-improvement, self-reliance, self-esteem, cherish, happiness, optimism; aesthetic for nature, aesthetic for humanity, aesthetic for science, aesthetic for deportment; emotional understanding ability, emotional expression ability, emotional control of oneself, emotional control of others. They belong to six categories (moral affection, rational affection, interpersonal affection, life affection, aesthetic affection and emotional intelligence) evolving from the identity layer of affection and the operational layer of affection. The questionnaire was administered to 11982 college students, including vocational college students and university students. The geological regions encompassed well-developed, developing and less-developed regions in China involving 100 colleges and universities of 14 major cities (Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Nanjing, Changchun, Zhengzhou, Xi'an, Wuhan, Xining, Lanzhou, Guiyang, Nanning, Haikou, and Kunming). The results showed: (1) The questionnaire meets the criteria of an effective measurement tool and serves as an original investigative tool for affective diathesis of college students. (2) The college students’ affective diathesis has a multilevel structure. On the whole, the affective diathesis of college students in China is positive. The developmental level of moral affection and life affection is relatively higher, and the developmental level of interpersonal affection, aesthetic affection, rational affection and emotional intelligence were relatively lower. Affections of integrity, public benefit, dedication, exploration, learning happiness, self-confidence, forgiveness, intimacy, emotionally appealing, aesthetic for humanity, aesthetic for science and ability of emotional expression were still in urgent need of improvement. (3) A structural difference mainly existed between males and females. Females scored higher in intimacy, emotionally appealing and self-esteem, but males performed better on integrity, curiosity, exploration, self-confidence, aesthetic for science and emotional expression. (4) Those who received awards, reported achieving higher academic performance, or experienced no negative life events showed higher level of affective diathesis, especially reflected in self-confidence, achievements, learning happiness, self-improvement, happiness etc. (5) The factors affecting the affective diathesis development of the college students mainly derived from four aspects: individuals, families, schools and society. Strong interpersonal relationship, more public awareness, sound moral values, high self-expectations, democratic family education style et al. all had positive effects on college students’ affective diathesis. This investigation equips educators with abundant first-hand information on how to improve the affective diathesis of college students as well as for academics on the theoretical implications for affective diathesis research.

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     Mobile phone addiction and sleep quality in adolescents: Mediation and moderation analyses
    LIU Qingqi, ZHOU Zongkui, NIU Gengfeng, Fan Cuiying
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2017, 49 (12): 1524-1536.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2017.01524
    Abstract11259)      PDF (509KB)(14828)      
     Mobile phones have integrated into people’s daily lives. Proper mobile phone use would help individuals meet diverse needs in learning and shopping, as well as in recreation and communication. However, the problem that more and more people are getting addicted to mobile phones has been salient. Studies have revealed that mobile phone addiction would bring about significant adverse impacts on mental health such as depression, anxiety, and even suicidal ideation. Poor sleep quality is also one of the major undesirable outcomes of mobile phone addiction. Research documented that mobile phone addiction significantly predicted sleep quality, and sleep quality deteriorated with increasing level of mobile phone addiction. Prior studies have focused mainly on the direct association between mobile phone addiction and sleep quality, however, little is known about the underlying mediating mechanism (i.e. how mobile phone addiction influences sleep quality) and moderating mechanism (i.e. when mobile phone addiction influences sleep quality). To address these gaps, the present study constructed a moderated mediation model to examine the effect of mobile phone addiction on sleep quality in adolescents since both the use rate of mobile phone and the occurrence rate of mobile phone addiction are very high among adolescents. Specifically, the present study would examine the mediating role of affect balance in the relation between mobile phone addiction and sleep quality of adolescents, and test whether the direct effect and the indirect effect would be moderated by rumination and mindfulness. A sample of 1258 high school students completed a battery of self-report questionnaires measuring their mobile phone addiction, sleep quality, affect balance, rumination and mindfulness. All the measures showed good reliability and validity in the present study. Data were analyzed using SPSS 17.0 and the SPSS macro PROCESS which was specifically developed for assessing the complex models including both mediators and moderators. The results were as followings: (1) After controlling for gender and grade, mobile phone addiction significantly exerted direct effect on sleep quality and indirect effect on sleep quality through the mediation of affect balance. (2) Both the direct effect of mobile phone addiction on sleep quality and the indirect effect of affect balance were moderated by rumination, and these two effects were stronger in adolescents with high level of rumination. (3) Both the direct effect and the indirect effect of were moderated by mindfulness, and these two effects were weaker in adolescents with high level of mindfulness. The present study highlights the mediating role of affect balance and the moderating role of rumination and mindfulness in the effect of mobile phone addiction on sleep quality. It may contribute to a better understanding of the effects as well as its paths and conditions of mobile phone addiction on sleep quality of adolescents. Moreover, it can also provide constructive suggestions for protecting and improving affect balance and sleep quality of adolescents in the mobile Internet era.
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    Influence of time stress on mood-congruent false memories
    Yiping ZHONG, Wenjie ZHANG, Yalei LI, Wei FAN
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2018, 50 (9): 929-939.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00929
    Abstract12001)   HTML221)    PDF (517KB)(13376)      

    A large number of studies have revealed that memories not only easily fade away but also can occasionally be changed spontaneously; memory errors are everywhere, reminding us that memories are not an exact copy of the experienced events. The influences of the various types of stimulus and emotional states on false memories were first studied by using the classical DRM paradigm. Furthermore, we investigated the influence of time stress on mood-congruent false memories.
    The first experiment was performed to identify the influences of different emotional stimuli on false memories under time pressure. The hybrid design method was used, namely, 2 (time stress: stress group and control group) × 3 (word titer: positive word, negative word, and neutral word). The between-subject variable was time pressure, the within-subject variable was word titer, and the dependent variable was the number of the false recognitions of the critical lures. The results of experiment 1 showed that the main effect was remarkable under time stress, as was the valence of words. The interaction between the time stress and valence of words was significant. The results demonstrated that the number of false recognitions for the subjects in the stress group with respect to the negative critical lures was much higher than were those of the neutral and positive ones.
    The second experiment sought to uncover the influences of different emotional states on the false memory under time pressure. The design method of 2 (time stress: stress group and control group) × 3 (emotion titer: positive emotion group, negative emotion group, and neutral group) was used, and the dependent variable was the number of the false recognitions of the critical lures. The results of experiment 2 showed that the main effect was marginally significant under the time stress, and the emotion was significant. The interaction between time stress and emotion was significant. The results revealed that the false recognition for the subjects in the positive emotion group with respect to the critical lures had the largest number.
    The third experiment utilized the hybrid design method of 2 (time stress: stress group and control group) × 4 (mood type: positive mood-congruency, negative mood-congruency, positive mood-inconsistency, and negative mood-inconsistency) to investigate the influences of time pressure on mood-congruent false memories, demonstrating that both the pressure group and the control group subjects showed a significant mood-congruent false memory. The results of experiment 3 showed that the number of false recognitions with respect to the mood-congruency for the subjects in the stress group and the control group were both higher than that of the mood-inconsistency, and the stress group had a larger number of false recognitions than did the control group under the condition of mood-congruency.
    The results of three experiments show that time pressure has a positive effect on false memories and further promotes negative mood-consistency false memories. Individual negative emotions can undermine the generation of false memories under time pressure.

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     Access to awareness is improved by affective learning
    ZHANG Xiuling, PANG Zhaoyang, JIANG Yunpeng, ZHANG Ming, JIANG Yi
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2018, 50 (3): 253-259.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00253
    Abstract9979)      PDF (600KB)(13192)      
     Increasing evidence has indicated that emotional information, and particularly threatening visual input, elicits faster behavioral responses than non-threatening stimuli. This superior processing of threatening information is also found under conditions where consciousness is absent. However, recent studies found that faster unconscious detection of emotion-associated stimuli than neutral stimuli may be due to their unmatched physical characteristics, rather than by their emotional content. Thus, it is necessary to test whether emotional stimuli still have the processing advantage over neutral ones in unconscious conditions when low-level visual properties are matched. In order to investigate whether unconsciously prioritized processing still occurs with emotion-associated stimuli which are physically identical, we used the conditioning paradigm to manipulate the affective significance of Gabor patches. Participants performed two challenging visual detection tasks under the breaking Continuous Flash Suppression (b-CFS) paradigm. In experiment 1, differently oriented Gabor patches (45° and 135°) were used as material. During an initial learning phase, one oriented Gabor patch (e.g., 45°) was paired with an alarm sound (CS+), whereas the other was never paired with the alarm sound (CS–). The emotional rating indicated that negative emotion could be elicited by the alarm sound in the participants. The orientation of CS+ Gabor patches was counterbalanced across participants. In the subsequent testing phase, participants were required to discriminate the location of the Gabor patch relative to the central fixation as quickly and accurately as possible. In this phase, Gabor patches were suppressed by dynamic noise using b-CFS. The procedure in experiment 2 was the same with that in experiment 1, except that the color of the Gabor patches was also varied, between red and green. In experiment 1, there was no difference in the accuracy rates between CS+ stimuli and CS– stimuli (99% vs. 99%). Suppression time results showed that CS+ stimuli emerged from suppression faster than CS– ones. In experiment 2, there was no difference in the accuracy rates for different learning condition. For the analysis of suppression time, the “learning effect” was computed to represent difference between experimental conditions and control condition. Integrated learning showed a significant learning effect, while there was no remarkable learning effect in orientation learning or in color learning condition. These findings revealed an unconscious processing advantage for aversive conditioned stimuli. Furthermore, the learning effect was specific to the conditioned stimuli and could not generalize to other similar objects. Taken together, this study provided further evidence for the optimized processing of affectively significant visual stimuli in unconscious conditions.
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    A STUDY ON IMPLICIT MEMORY OF CHINESE CHARACTERS
    Yang Zhiliang, Ye Gewei, Wang Xinfa (East China Normal University)
    null    1994, 26 (01): 1-7.  
    Abstract1609)           
    Ten treatments constituting of attention factor, task factor, and block factor were studied. The indirect measure of task factor was divided into four subtasks according to global and local process of Chinese characters, Instruction in the test phase created different discrimination tasks which were matched in all other characteristics. It was discovered that there were three necessary conditions of the existence of implicit memory, namely uncued characters, preference discrimination(indirect) measure and global process, in which the performance of indirect measure is significantly greater than chance level while that of direct measure is the opposite, The experiment proposed an alternative branch based on Reingold and Merikle's logic, attempting to form a perfect alternative approach to study implicit memory compared with the dissociation paradigm. The application of matched method is vital.
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    Are Pregnant Women More Foresighted? #br# The Effect of Pregnancy on Intertemporal Choice
    LI Aimei; PENG Yuan; XIONG Guanxing
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2015, 47 (11): 1360-1370.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2015.01360
    Abstract1780)      PDF (504KB)(12718)      

     

    People often have to consider and compare the importance of different things that occur at different time points and then make decisions. When making intertemporal choices, individuals have to choose between a smaller and sooner reward (SS) and a larger and later reward (LL). Pregnancy as a critical life event inevitably comes with a series of physiological and psychological changes. We hypothesized that such changes would make the pregnant women more future oriented and hence would reduce their delay discounting.
    We tested our hypotheses by using a quasi-experiment design (Study 1) and an experiment design (Study 2). Pregnant women were recruited in Study 1, and non-pregnant women were primed with maternal mind set in Study 2. In both studies, control groups were non-pregnant women without any manipulation. All the participants in both studies completed the Consideration of Future Consequences Scale (Strathman, Gleicher, Boninger, & Edwards, 1994; α = 0.71) and Intertemporal Decision-making Tasks (Wang & Dvorak, 2010). In Study 3, we manipulated future orientation to determine whether it was causally related to intertemporal decision. The manipulations in Study 2 and Study 3 were both successful. They showed that pregnant women were more future-oriented than their peer control groups. Pregnant women had a much lower delay discounting rate in intertemporal decision-making. Furthermore, it was found that the level of future orientation mediated this effect.

    This research explored the differences in intertemporal choice between pregnant women and their peer group. Our results revealed that pregnant women had a ‘maternal mind’ which focuses more on future events. This mindset promotes future-orientation and a greater preference for LL options in intertemporal choice.

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    The Influence of Facial Attractiveness and Personality Labels on Men and Women’s Mate Preference
    WANG Yuqing; YAO Pengfei; ZHOU Guomei
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2015, 47 (1): 108-118.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2015.00108
    Abstract5503)      PDF (659KB)(12575)      

    As a complex social, cultural and psychological phenomenon, mate selection has in recent years become a hot research topic in both psychology and sociology. Some studies have found that when it comes to mate selection, physical attractiveness of a romantic partner such as appearance, figure are more important to men than they are to women while ability, resources and personality of a romantic partner show an opposite pattern. However, this view has recently been challenged by researchers who propose that a partner’s physical attractiveness may be as important to women as it is to men (Eastwick, Eagly, Finkel, & Johnson, 2011; Eastwick & Finkel, 2008; Fisman, Iyengar, Kamenica, & Simonson, 2006). Choosing a lover is an important and complicated issue that deserves further study with experimental investigation. The present study manipulated the degree of face attractiveness and personality traits. We evaluated the partner choices made by both men and women. As for face attractiveness and personality traits, people think that beautiful people have more positive qualities, and their unique characteristics or qualities can get more favorable perception (Lorenzo, et al, 2010). On the other hand, people who have positive qualities are often judged as more beautiful (Gross, Crofton, 1977). To understand the influence of facial attractiveness and personality labels on men and women’s mate, we included the two independent variables in one experiment and examine their interactive effects on men and women's mate preferences. Chinese male faces and female faces along with Big-Five personality information materials were presented to 30 female students and 30 male students for rating of attractiveness and desirability as a lover (only for opposite-sex photos) .The results showed as that: (1) When seeing a photo of a beautiful opposite-sex face, men were more willing to have her as a lover than women. (2) Those people whose photos were labeled with positive personality were more likely chosen as lovers by women. (3) Compared with those labeled with negative personality, photos with positive personality were more likely to be chosen as lovers and such likelihood was clearly increased when the photos were more beautiful. (4) All five dimensions of Big-Five personalities influenced mate preferences of men and women, with the power gradually decreasing from conscientiousness, agreeableness, openness, emotional stability to extroversion. While women preferred extrovert men, whether or not women were extrovert had no effect on men’s mate preferences. These findings provide further evidence for understanding sex differences in mate selection.

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    The influence of shame on deceptive behavior: The role of self-control
    FAN Wei,REN Mengmeng,XIAO Junze,JIAN Zengdan,DU Xiaoming,FU Xiaolan
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2019, 51 (9): 992-1006.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2019.00992
    Abstract9991)   HTML180)    PDF (1000KB)(12310)      

    Shame, as a typical moral emotion, has an influence on individual behavior that is both complex and controversial. Previous studies have found that shame produces both an unpleasant experience and a moral emotion that encourages individuals to produce positive behaviors. In recent years, Hooge’s research has proceeded from the perspective of motivation. He believes that, no matter how shame makes individuals perform, their motivation is to restore and protect the damaged self. Therefore, based on Hooge's theory, this research will examine this typical immoral behavior as an example to discuss the impact of shame upon it and its ways.

    In this study, students from a university were randomly selected as participants, and the number of each experiment’s participants was arranged according to the experimental requirements. Questionnaires and behavioral experiments were used throughout the experiment, and the experimental procedures were completed in accordance with the regulations of each experiment. The requirements for each experiment were different and the procedures for conducting the experiment were different. The statistical methods of the study were also based on the requirements of each experiment.

    Experiment 1 examines whether shame has an effect on deceptive behavior. Its results show that the number and tendency of deception in the shamed group were significantly lower than in the control group. To more fully explore the impact of shame on deceptive behavior in different contexts, Experiment 2 improved upon the deficiencies of Experiment 1 and divided shame situations into two types: moral anomie and lack of ability. It was found that the number of deceptions in the moral anomie shamed group was significantly lower than that in the control group, and the number of deceptions in the lack of ability shamed group was significantly higher than that in the control group. To examine the specific methods and mechanisms of shame in affecting deception, we propose that shamed individuals increase their self-control resources and, thus, reduce the theory of fraud. Experiment 3a examined the impact of shame on self-control resources and found that the self-control resources of the shamed group were significantly higher than those of the control group. Experiment 3b explored the specific mechanisms of shame affecting deceptive behavior. It was found that self-control resources played a complete mediating role in the process of shame in affecting deception.

    In summary, these findings suggest that shame can deter deception under certain conditions. The condition is that shame is caused by moral disorder rather than lack of ability; the mechanism of shame in affecting behavior may be: Individuals who feel shame will restore and protect the damaged moral self by mobilizing more self-control resources to influence behavior.

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     Beauty is in the eye of the beholder: The halo effect and generalization effect in the facial attractiveness evaluation
    HAN Shangfeng, LI Yue, LIU Shen, XU Qiang, TAN Qun, ZHANG Lin
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2018, 50 (4): 363-376.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00363
    Abstract9987)      PDF (719KB)(12284)      
     Even though people usually agreed that “a book should not be judged by its cover”, researches had repeatedly demonstrated that individuals spontaneously and very swiftly formed impression on others based merely on the appearance of their faces. Facial attractiveness is an important content in the first perception. Which had been linked to outcomes as diverse as mate choice, job hunting, and cooperation. Given these real world consequences of the first impressions, it is important to understand how these impressions are formed. Some studies found that facial physical characteristics, such as symmetry, averageness and sexual dimorphism, had a great impact on facial attractiveness. While different individuals have different experience, when faced with the same face in the same context, different individuals have different evaluations on facial attractiveness. Some researchers put forward a new theory, namely, the observer hypothesis, which demonstrated that beauty is in the eye of the beholder. However, the processing of unfamiliar facial attractiveness remained unclear. The goal of the current study was to explore how we processed the impression of unfamiliar facial attractiveness. 19 males and 27 females took part in the experiment one and 16 males and 22 females participated in the experiment two, each experiment contained two phases that were learning tasks and evaluation tasks. In the learning phase, participants firstly learned to associate faces with negative, neutral, or positive trait words or imaged the behavior of the individuals to form different impression, which was contribute to the same valence between the neutral face and trait words or sentence. When participants could evaluate the valence of the face correctly, they could proceed to the next phase. In the experiment one, 13 males and 25 females had passed learning phase and evaluated the original faces and the unfamiliar faces. In the experiment two, 12 males and 17 females had done the learning task and evaluation task successfully. And in the evaluation phase, extend of warmth, competence and facial attractiveness of the unfamiliar faces, which had 50% similarity with the learned faces, were evaluated. Both of the two experiments had the same results, which showed that there are two ways to form unfamiliar facial attractiveness: (1) the first one is that generalization effect occurred after halo effect, compared with negative familiar faces, positive familiar faces were evaluated more attractive, so did the unfamiliar faces that were familiar with positive familiar faces; (2) the second one is that halo effect occurred after generalization effect, unfamiliar faces which were similar with positive familiar faces were not only evaluated more positive but also more attractive. The results suggested that generalization effect occurred after halo effect and halo effect occurred after generalization effect were the two ways to form unfamiliar facial attractiveness. In conclusion, halo effect and generalization effect play an important role in the processing of unfamiliar facial attractiveness.
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    Perceived societal fairness and goal attainment: The differnet effects of social class and their mechanism
    HU Xiaoyong; GUO Yongyu; LI Jing; YANG Shenlong
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2016, 48 (3): 271-289.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2016.00271
    Abstract1980)      PDF (679KB)(11978)      
    Goals contribute significantly to the meaning of event and outcome. The attainments of important life goals, such as higher education and employment, are the source of individual well-beings, as well as an effective way to reduce the gap between the rich and the poor. Motivation is one of the most widely studied factors that affect goal attainment. However, according to a series of latest studies, relative to upper-class individuals, lower-class individuals’ goal commitment is more easily affected by societal fairness. Based on the aforementioned studies, the present research intended to explore the effect and mechanism of societal fairness on goal attainment of people from different social classes and hypothesized that goal attainment is affected by (a) the perceived societal fairness, (b) social class, and (c) the interaction between perceived societal fairness and social class. Moreover, we also expected that the interaction effect between perceived societal fairness and social class on goal attainment is mediated by goal commitment.
    We conducted 3 studies to test our hypothesis. The first two studies are the naturalistic design. In Study 1, we measured participants' perceived of social justice, subjective social class, objective social class, and goal commitment and attainment toward educational investment. In Study 2, we randomly assigned participants to two different priming conditions (fairness vs. unfairness), and then measured their subjective social class, objective social class, academic goal commitment, and academic goal attainment. In Study 3, we brought our research question into the lab. This study involves a 2 (fairness: fairness vs. unfairness) × 2(social class: higher-class vs. lower-class) between-subject design. Participants in study 3 completed both fairness and social class manipulation.
    In Study 1, respondents reported higher motivation to invest more educational resource to their child to the extent that they believed that educational rewards were distributed fairly; this effect was stronger for members of lower-class than for members of higher-class. In Study 2, the lower-class participants had higher academic goal commitment and higher academic goal attainment when they were under fair priming condition. However, it did not apply for higher-class participants. In Study 3, the interaction between fairness and social class significantly affected goal commitment, and goal commitment positively affected goal achievement. Moreover, fairness positively related to goal commitment for lower-class members, but not for higher-class members. Taken together, these studies support the hypothesis that social fairness can affect goal attainment through goal commitment and that this connection is significant among participants low in social class but non-significant among participants high in social class.

    The findings of present research suggests that the low class members’ goal commitment and attainment were more susceptible to societal fairness, which is consistent with the ideas of social class psychology who claims that low social class members are situation-oriented and more sensitive to context factors, but those with high social position could freely set their goals and not be limited by the environment. To some degree, our research has provided support for the idea of social class psychology.

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    The effect of emotion on directed forgetting for continuous events
    REN Xiaoyun,LI Yuting,MAO Weibin,GENG Qiuchen
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2019, 51 (3): 269-279.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2019.00269
    Abstract10222)   HTML149)    PDF (1124KB)(11531)      

    Forgetting is an adaptive process that can limit the interferences from irrelevant distractors and update valuable information. With regard to negative events, intentional forgetting can effectively help us to recover from trauma. The research on the intentional forgetting of emotional information usually adopts the directed forgetting paradigm. The better memory performance of R items relative to F items is referred to as the typically directed forgetting effect. Although emotional information is thought to be easier to remember than neutral information because of the attentional capture and elaborative process, whether emotional information is more resistant to forgetting is obscured. Most studies on emotional directed forgetting used various discrete items, such as words and pictures, and few addressed continuous events that are actually common in our episodic memory. Directed forgetting is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon because specific and general information appears to be forgotten at different rates. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the influence of emotions on the directed forgetting effect of continuous events. This study also explores the differences in forgetting rates between general/gist memory and specific memory.
    In the present study, we adopted the event directed paradigm that embeds memory instructions into continuous videos. In experiment 1, 36 participants were equally divided into two groups: one group watched a neutral video, and the other group watched a negative one. Each video contained nine R segments and nine F segments that were surrounded by green and purple borders. The colored borders acted as memory instructions. The participants were asked to remember the video segments when the border was green and to forget the video segments when the border was purple. The test phase involved free recall and recognition. The participants were requested to recall all information about the video regardless of the classification of the memory instruction (R or F segments). Then, the participants were asked to identify the old pictures among the distractors. The old pictures were taken from the studied videos, and the distractors were slightly similar to the old pictures. The participants’ responses were classified as general/gist memory and specific memory on the basis of previous studies. In experiment 2, we disrupted the play order of segments to further explore the influence of continuity on the directed forgetting effect.
    The results of experiment 1 showed that the directed forgetting effect was lower in the negative video than in the neutral video. In addition, the participants demonstrated good memory for the general/gist information of the negative video in free recall. In the recognition phase, no directed forgetting effect was observed for specific memory in the negative video. The result indicated that emotions impaired or eliminated directed forgetting for continuous events. However, the performance of the gist-only memory for the R and F segments was not significant in the neutral and negative videos. Therefore, we speculated that the sequential play of segments might have led to the possibility of participants correctly guessing the general gist of the content. Therefore, we disrupted the order of segments in experiment 2, and the results showed a typically directed forgetting effect for gist-only memory.
    In conclusion, directed forgetting could appear in continuous events. However, emotions impair the directed forgetting effect for a specific memory. For gist-only memory, the directed forgetting effect is affected by the continuity of events.

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    Dose Violent Offenders Have Lower Capacity of Empathy for Pain: Evidence from ERPs
    GAO Xuemei; WENG Lei; ZHOU Qun; ZHAO Cai; LI Fang
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2015, 47 (4): 478-487.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2015.00478
    Abstract1531)      PDF (994KB)(10916)      

    As a typical form of empathy, empathy for pain refers to the perception, judgment of others’ pain, as well as corresponding affective responses. Deficit in empathy for pain may lead to withdrawal, indifference to other’s pain or aggressive behavior.Some contextual factors, especially the observers’ traits, may have an influence on empathy for pain. Previous studies have focused on empathy for pain of special groups like physicians and offenders, but most of these studies are questionnaire surveys and there is little research on the cognitive neural mechanisms.Moreover, observing stimuli in different perspectives also affects empathy for pain, and whether this effect exists in special groups remains unknown. Investigating the capacity of empathy in violent offenders can deepen our understanding about the mechanisms of empathy and provide some supports for their training program. Using a picture-priming paradigm, the present studypresented painful and non-painful stimuli toviolent offenders and ordinary (control) participants and simultaneously recorded their ERP data. The experiment consisted of two blocks and the participants were asked to view stimuli in first-person and other-person perspectives, respectively. Painful or non-painful pictures were presented for 1000ms, which werefollowed by a fixationlasting randomly for 1500-1700ms. In order to make sure that the participants viewed the pictures carefully, only 10% pictures were randomly chosen and needed participants’ responses. These pictures were accompanied by a response screen showing that “Painful picture: F; Non-painful picture: J”. The screen disappeared after a button pressing.For the remained trials, the participants just needed to view pictures carefully. The results showedthat the latencies and amplitudes of N110, P2 and P300 were different between violent offenders and control group. When viewing painful pictures, violent offenders had longer latency of N110 and P2 than what, and the amplitude of P2 was larger than what. When they viewed pictures under other-person perspective they also had longer latency of N110 than what?. Furthermore, for the amplitude of P300, control grouphad smaller amplitude when viewing painful pictures in both perspectives, while for violent offenders this effect only existed under other-person perspective. Our results indicated that violent offenders might have lower capacity of empathy for pain than control group. The present study supports the Communications Model of empathy for pain and expands previous studies to some extent. This may also provide some empirical support for the training program of offenders. However, we also have some limitations that need further investigations in the future.

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    Self-Deception: Deceiving Yourself to Better Deceive Others
    LU Hui-Jing
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2012, 44 (9): 1265-1278.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2012.01265
    Abstract4424)      PDF (444KB)(10015)      
    Existing research has approached self-deception mainly as an intrapersonal process representing personality traits, motivational biases in information processing, and inconsistencies between explicit and implicit self-systems. Using an evolutionary approach, we treat self-deception as an interpersonal process whereby individuals deceive themselves to better deceive others. This approach advances two new theoretical developments in the understanding of self-deception. We propose that the probabilities of deception detection should affect the likelihood and activation of self-deception, and that a dual-retrieval memory system can be used to operationalize inter-personal self-deception. We first review the existing literature by highlighting three characteristics. First, self-deceptive individuals show contradictory responses between self-report and physiological or behavioral reaction, and these inconsistencies are motivated by the desire to maintain high self-esteem. Second, self-deception is driven by self-enhancing motivations in information processing that includes perceiving, evaluating, and retrieving information. Third, self-deception is also viewed as a personality attribute, representing individual differences in viewing oneself in an overly positive light. These studies also examine affective effects of self-deception and the correlations among emotion, cognition, motivation, and decision-making behaviors. We then present our evolutionary explanation of self-deception which we believe advances the development of this psychological construction and research both theoretically and methodologically. Theoretically, as proposed by the evolutionary biologist, Robert Trivers, self-deception is the result of the “arms race” between deception and deception detection. Because deception is prevalent in all animals including human beings, deception detection has evolved to prevent oneself from being deceived. Cues such as signs of nervousness may be leaked through changes in facial and eye muscle contraction, voice volume and pitch, and other observable physiological and bodily changes. The evolutionary adaptation to avoid these physiological cues of detection is self-deception that leaks out no cues for detection because the individual is unaware of the ongoing deception. Methodologically, we propose a way to test the evolutionary hypothesis about self-deception. Because self-deception evolves to better escape detection, it must respond to social conditions that register the probabilities of deception detection so that individuals should self-deceive when they sense high rather than low probabilities of detection. Social status, moral standing, and the mere number of the deceived, relative to that of the deceiver, represent the detection-registering conditions that should affect the likelihood and activation of self-deception. We also propose a dual-retrieval memory procedure to operationalize self-deception. In the first retrieval that takes place in front of the deceived, the deceiver fails to retrieve encoded information due to the motivation to deceive and to escape detection. In the second retrieval after successful deception has been achieved, the deceiver retrieves the true or full information to achieve fitness gains. The difference between the two retrievals in the self-serving direction proves self-deception.
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     Perceptual difference between internet words and real-world words: temporal perception, distance perception, and perceptual scope
    PENG Ming, JING Wenying, CAI Mengfei, ZHOU Zongkui
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2017, 49 (7): 866-874.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2017.00866
    Abstract3270)      PDF (861KB)(9971)      
     According to embodied cognition theory, cognitive activity takes place in the context of a real-world environment, and it inherently involves perception and action, therefore our cognitive process is grounded in our sensorimotor systems. Internet is a virtual environment, in which sensorimotor system is inhibited. Therefore, our cognitive process is different in internet environment compared to real-world environment. In this study, we aimed to compare the cognitive differences between internet environment and real-world environment on temporal perception, distance perception, and perceptual scope. Because internet words and real-world words are used in our life frequently and can be processed proficiently, we use internet words (such as “website”, “WeChat”), and real-world words (such as “school”, “canteen”) to induce the internet environment and real- world environment. In Experiment 1, we compared the temporal perception on internet words and real-world words by using temporal generalization method. A random line square presented 800 ms or 2000 ms, then a word appeared. The word presented 600 ms, 800 ms or 1000ms when square presenting 800 ms; 1600 ms, 2000 ms, or 2400 ms when square presenting 2000 ms. Then the participant was asked to judge whether the time that word presented was the same with the square. In Experiment 2, we used a picture-word version of Stroop task to test the difference of psychological distance between internet words and real-world words. Participants indicated whether the target word appearing within the picture was near or far. In Experiment 3, we used prime paradigm to test whether the internet words priming decreased participants’ perceptual scope compared to real-world words. Participants were judged the letters (“E” or “H”) appeared in different places (center or peripheral) in the screen after priming words presenting 2s. In Experiment 1, we compared the ratio that participants judged the time the word presenting was the same with square between the internet and real-world condition. The results showed that the ratio was higher in the internet condition than real-world condition when the word presented 600 ms, and the ratio was lower in internet condition than real-world condition when the word presented 2400 ms.The results suggested the temporal perception of internet words was longer than real-world words. In Experiment 2, we did not find any significant interaction effect between distance and the word type. Therefore, there was no difference of psychological distance between internet words and real-world words. In Experiment 3, the results showed that there was no difference on reaction time between the letters appeared in center and peripheral screen after the real-world words, but it’s significantly faster when the letters appeared in the center screen than peripheral screen after the internet words. The results suggested that internet words decreased the perceptual scope. In summary, current study showed that participants judged internet words presenting longer than real-world words, the perceptual scope was decreased after internet words presented, and no difference between internet words and real-world words was found on the psychological distance perception. The temporal perception and perceptual scope differed between internet environment and real-world environment. This study suggested that internet environment influenced people’s perception processing compared to real-world environment.
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    THE RELATION BETWEEN PERSONALITY TRAITS AND SELF-ESTEEM UNDER CHINESE CULTURE
    Zhou Fan, Wang Dengfeng
    null    2005, 37 (01): 100-105.  
    Abstract7260)      PDF (1046KB)(9879)      
    Self-esteem is thought to be a stable evaluation toward self. A large number of studies found significant correlation between self-esteem and personality traits. In recent years scholars in social cognition studies have presented a structure called “implicit self-esteem”, which is regarded to be independent from “explicit self-esteem” measured by traditional self-report methods. In this study an attempt was made to disclose the relationship between personality traits and self-esteem, both explicit and implicit. Since previous studies have found a systematic discrepancy in personality structure from western Five-factor model (FFM) under Chinese culture -that is, Chinese personality is a seven-factor structure and the content of each factor is quite different from what in factor of FFM, an indigenous personality scale developed under Chinese culture based on verbal assumption, QZPS, was adopted to assess personality traits. Implicit self-esteem was measured by Implicit Association Test (IAT). The results indicated that self relevant personality traits in QZPS predicted explicit self-esteem. However, no correlations were significant between implicit self-esteem and personality traits. Possible explanations for the results were discussed
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    Suffering a Loss is a Blessing: Is It Real Gold or Fool’s Gold?
    TANG Hui; ZHOU Kun; ZHAO Cui-Xia; LI Shu
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2014, 46 (10): 1549-1563.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2014.01549
    Abstract1431)      PDF (834KB)(9588)      

    In classical decision theory, choices are guided by the principle of value maximization, such that when offered a set of attributes or dimensions, a decision maker chooses the option with the highest value (value-based choice). In real life, however, people often choose options that will make them suffer a loss. To explain this behavior, Tang (2012) and Zheng (2012) proposed and demonstrated a so-called “worth-based choice” model, in which the decision maker chooses the option with the highest “worth” rather than the highest “value”. To explore what gives an option its worth, and to study the rationale underlying such a choice, we conducted two substudies, as described below. In Study 1, we created two scenarios — one in which a decision maker makes a “value-based choice” and the other in which a decision maker makes a “worth-based choice.” We recruited 134 subjects and assessed their responses to the two decision makers’ choices as a means of comparing the latent benefits associated with each type of choice. We found that decision makers who had suffered an offered loss when applying the “worth-based choice” would gain more in the long term by securing the good opinions of others. In contrast, decision makers who had maximized their immediate benefits by making a “value-based choice” would be subject to revenge or punishment later. These findings suggest that it is potential or deferred benefit that may lead people to make “worth-based choices”. Study 2 consisted of two substudies. The first study explored the underlying dimensions constantly considered by decision makers when assessing each option’s worth to make a “worth-based choice” (Study 2a). The second study examined the linear correlation between “worth-based choice” and real benefit (Study 2b) in a real-world setting. In Study 2a, a random sample of undergraduates and employees (N = 72) was surveyed to collect typical cases of “worth-based choices.” Exploratory factor analysis was then conducted with a random sample of 224 undergraduates and employees (aged between 18 and 60), and four factors (i.e., 惠(favor), 善(virtuous), 义(righteousness) and 法(law)) underlying “worth-based choice” were extracted. The four-factor construct was further proved to be reliable and valid by the results of a confirmatory factor analysis. In Study 2b, we used a sample of 178 salespersons in the real estate and pharmaceutical industries to compare the latent benefits generated by “value-based choice” and “worth-based choice”. The results confirmed our hypothesis that individuals who made a “worth-based choice” would gain more benefit later. We concluded that, in the “worth-based choice” model, though an individual may suffer an offered loss in the short term, he might gain more benefit in the long term. In the process, we managed to explain, for the first time, the philosophy reflected in a Chinese proverb, “chi kui shi fu” (suffering a loss is a blessing). The implications of the present study are also discussed.

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    Mediating roles of gratitude, social support and posttraumatic growth in the relation between empathy and prosocial behavior among adolescents after the Ya’an earthquake
    Wenchao WANG,Xinchun WU
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2020, 52 (3): 307-316.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2020.00307
    Abstract7752)   HTML79)    PDF (646KB)(9265)      

    Empathy refers to the traits, or tendencies, of a person to affectively experience emotions of concern at the suffering of others and to cognitively adopt another person’s perspective. Possession of empathy has been assumed to encourage prosocial behavior. The mechanisms by which empathy affects prosocial behavior for adolescent survivors of disaster, however, are unclear. Posttraumatic growth (PTG) was considered a common positive change following trauma events and was identified as having a high prevalence rate in various trauma types. After experiencing natural disasters, individuals with high empathy are more vulnerable to their adverse environment and the traumatic situations of others. This results in more psychological pressure and fear, and these pressures and negative emotions force individuals to think about the meaning of trauma, thus promoting the generation of PTG. The emergence of PTG brings positive behavioral change among survivors after the disaster. Therefore, it was suggested that empathy may exert indirect effects on prosocial behavior through PTG.
    According to current theories, empathy has different emotional and cognitive components. When individuals empathize with others, these components are activated, which may lead to gratitude and, in turn, result in prosocial behavior. As a moral barometer, gratitude informs the beneficiary that a benefactor has bestowed a gift. The prosocial behavior of a benefactor toward a beneficiary is thought to produce gratitude within the beneficiary. This then stimulates the beneficiary’s prosocial behavior, further strengthening the benefactor’s own prosocial behavior.
    Furthermore, traumatized survivors with greater empathy may improve communication with others, increase the sense of intimacy, and perceive more support from others—meaning that empathy may lead individuals to have more social support. Social support refers to an individual’s perception of the support provided by others. That perception can be influenced by gratitude. Adolescents with low social support are more likely to interpret other people’s ambiguous actions as aggressive. Thus, stable social relationships seem to promote PTG and prosocial behavior. Taken together, it is possible that empathy can promote prosocial behavior through gratitude, social support, and PTG in post-disaster contexts. The utility of these predictions, however, was unclear.
    To examine the relation between empathy, gratitude, social support, PTG and prosocial behavior, this study used an interpersonal reactivity index scale, gratitude questionnaire, social support questionnaire, posttraumatic growth inventory and prosocial behavior questionnaire to assess 542 adolescents following Ya’an earthquake. The results indicated that after controlling the trauma exposure, empathy have a positive association with prosocial behavior through the following routes: three one-mediator paths of gratitude, social support and PTG, respectively; three two-mediator paths of gratitude via PTG, social support via PTG and gratitude via social support, and one three-mediator path from gratitude to PTG via social support. These findings suggested that following a natural disaster, adolescent survivors’ empathy may have an indirect and positive relation with prosocial behavior by gratitude, social support and PTG.

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     Effect of family socioeconomic status on reading autonomy among elementary school students: The mediating effects of parents' encouragement and reading motivation
    GU Honglei, LIU Jun, XIA Tiansheng
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2017, 49 (8): 1063-1071.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2017.01063
    Abstract4536)      PDF (389KB)(9227)      
     Reading ability is one of the most extensively investigated topics in education research. Several studies found that self-regulated reading was the core to improve reading ability while social economic status was important to self-regulated reading. However, the inner mechanisms were unknown. Both external factor (e.g., parents' encouragement) and internal factor (e.g., reading motivation) were likely to be mediating factors between socioeconomic status and reading autonomy. Therefore, it’s important to discuss the mediating effect of parents' encouragement and reading motivation on reading autonomy. The present study investigated the mediating effect between family socioeconomic status and reading autonomy among elementary school students. Three hypotheses were tested: Hypothesis 1: family socioeconomic status directly affects the reading autonomy. Hypothesis 2: family socioeconomic status affects the reading autonomy through parents' encouragement and reading motivation, respectively. Thus, parents' encouragement and reading motivation are parallel mediator factors. Hypothesis 3: family socioeconomic status affects reading motivation through parents' encouragement, and then affects the reading autonomy. Hence, parents' encouragement and reading motivation are chain intermediary roles. Participants were 313 fourth-grade students from two cities. All students completed the reading autonomy scale and questionnaire test. Participants were 175 (55.9%) male students and 138 (44.1%) female students. They completed four measures: socioeconomic status questionnaire, parents' encourage reading questionnaire, reading motivation questionnaire and reading autonomy scale. Preliminary and descriptive analyses showed that Cronbach’s alpha of parents' encourage reading questionnaire, reading motivation questionnaire, and reading autonomy scale was 0.828, 0.843, 0.749, respectively. Firstly, the statistic analysis showed that the total effect of family socioeconomic status on reading autonomy was significant, γ = 0.32, p < 0.01. Model fit indices in SEM were χ2/df = 2.05, TLI = 0.90, CFI = 0.91, RMSEA = 0.063, SRMR = 0.053. Secondly, after the intervening variables (i.e. parents' encouragement and reading motivation) were included in the model, the direct effect of family socioeconomic status on reading autonomy was not statistically significant, but other path coefficients were statistically significant. Model fit indices in SEM were χ2/df =1.39, TLI = 0.93, CFI = 0.94, RMSEA = 0.038, SRMR = 0.052. Finally, the bias-corrected bootstrap method was used for significant tests. The results indicated that the direct effect of family socioeconomic status on reading autonomy was not significant and three intermediary effects were statistically significant. In conclusion, parents' encouragement and reading motivation play the intervention role between family socioeconomic status and reading autonomy.
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