ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

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    Neural mechanism underlying the effects of object color on episodic memory
    ZHOU Wenjie, DENG Liqun, DING Jinhong
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2021, 53 (3): 229-243.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00229
    Abstract8654)   HTML1538)    PDF (1154KB)(15147)      

    Color diagnosticity is the degree to which a color is associated with or symbolizes a particular object. Typical color is often associated with high color diagnostic objects and activates the visual (perceptual) or semantic (conceptual) knowledge in long-term memory. However, the relationship between different processing levels (perceptual and conceptual) of object color information and episodic memory retrieval components (familiarity and recollection) remains poorly understood. It is hypothesized that color information can facilitate memory encoding at the perceptual level but inhibit it at the conceptual level. In recognition retrieval, color has a greater impact on familiarity and recollection at the perceptual level, while at the conceptual level, recollection is more affected than familiarity.

    In the present study, event-related potential (ERP) and a study-test paradigm were used to investigate the effects of color consistency (visual color input and object color knowledge) on episodic memory encoding and retrieval by using pictures and names of objects with high color diagnosticity. Twenty-seven college students participated in experiment 1. During the study phase, a picture of an object in its diagnostic color (such as a red apple) or non-diagnostic color (purple banana) was presented on a white background for 500ms. The participants were asked to determine whether the color of the object in each picture was consistent with its actual (diagnostic) color. During the test phase, participants provided old/new judgments about the objects that had appeared in the study phase and the equal number of new items. Twenty-five college students participated in the experiment. A similar procedure was used for experiment two, except that items were the names of the objects in their diagnostic or non-diagnostic color rather than pictures. During both experiments, the participants responded by pressing a mouse button. Their reaction time and EEG (electroencephalography) were recorded.

    The results of experiment 1 showed that, during the encoding phase, color-inconsistent objects were identified less accurately and more slowly, and this triggered a larger N400 than the color-consistent ones. During the retrieval phase the color-consistent objects were recalled more quickly and accurately, and this triggered larger FN400 (frontal negativity) values than the color-inconsistent objects. However, the opposite effects were observed in experiment 2. Color-inconsistent object names were identified more quickly and accurately, and they elicited the same ERP wave as the color-consistent names. During the recognition stage, the color had an effect only during the period of late positive components (LPCs).

    In conclusion, color was found to have different effects on encoding and retrieval of episodic memory at both perceptual and semantic levels. (1) Color had different effects on item coding at the perceptual and semantic levels. Color consistency was found to help the viewer identify objects at the perceptual level, but it hindered object identification at the semantic level. (2) Color congruence was here found to promote familiarity and recollection in object retrieval (perceptual level), but it only improved recollection of an object’s name (conceptual level). (3) The consistency effect in the processing of object name recognition showed that color is closely related to object name, and it also affects the semantic representation of objects, which further supports the spreading activation model.

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    The impact of gender orientation of names on individuals’ evaluation of impressions and interpersonal interaction
    ZUO Bin, LIU Chen, WEN Fangfang, TAN Xiao, XIE Zhijie
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2021, 53 (4): 387-399.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00387
    Abstract6917)   HTML825)    PDF (703KB)(11847)      

    People can infer personal traits from names and, thus, the impressions of an individual can be influenced by how others perceive his or her name. Previous research has found that people have a distinctive perception of masculine and feminine names. This raises an interesting question: How do people evaluate individuals with opposite gender-oriented names, and how will this evaluation affect interpersonal interaction based on the main two dimensions of social cognition (i.e., warmth and competence). To answer these questions, the first aim of this study was to evaluate the perception of warmth and competence of names within the Chinese context and examine the effects of an individual’s gender and name-gender orientation on impression formation. The second aim was to explore the behavioral aftereffects of evaluation of impressions based on individual’s names.
    Four studies were conducted to explore the research questions. In Study 1, a total of 100 masculine and feminine names were presented to 176 undergraduate students who were asked to rate these names according to four traits: two traits for each dimension of warmth and competence. In Study 2, 121 undergraduate participants were presented with information about target genders and names. Participants were asked to rate these targets based on warmth and competence. In Study 3a, 136 undergraduate participants were presented with two targets that had masculine or feminine names within the context of imagining going on a trip with them. Furthermore, in Study 3b, 131 undergraduate participants were asked to imagine that they would meet two individuals with different names within the context of finishing a difficult task. Participants in Study 3a and Study 3b were then asked to evaluate these individuals based on their warmth and competence traits and choose one of them as their partner to complete the corresponding activities.
    The results were as follows: (1) Feminine names were rated higher on warmth than masculine names, and masculine names were rated higher on competence than feminine names; (2) Individuals with gender-consistent names were considered to have the typical characteristics of their gender: women with feminine names were perceived as warmer than women with masculine names, and men with masculine names were perceived more competent than men with feminine names; (3) Individuals with gender-inconsistent names were considered to have the characteristics of the opposite sex: men with feminine names were perceived less competent than women with masculine names, whereas women with masculine names were perceived less warm than men with feminine names; (4) Participants intended to make friends with women whose names were consistent with their gender, and the perception of warmth completely mediated the effect of name-gender orientation on willingness to interact; and 5) Participants preferred to finish difficult tasks with men whose names were consistent with their gender, and the perception of competence completely mediated the effect of name gender orientation on willingness to cooperate.
    This is the first study to explore how gender and name gender orientation affect individuals’ impressions by applying stereotype content in China. We examined the influence of name gender orientation on individuals’ perceptions about others, as well as their behavior intention and mechanism, from the perspective of the perceiver’s motivation. This study provides new theoretical explanations and empirical support for impression evaluation and interpersonal interaction based on names, and has important implications for future research on the social cognition of names. Further studies should explore the content of gender-ambiguous names and their effects on individuals’ impressions and behavioral aftereffects. The effects of emotional and cognitive processes on names and interpersonal interaction should also be assessed.

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    The relationship between social media use and fear of missing out: A meta-analysis
    ZHANG Yali, LI Sen, YU Guoliang
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2021, 53 (3): 273-290.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00273
    Abstract6028)   HTML919)    PDF (1153KB)(10801)      

    Social media use and fear of missing out are both common phenomena in our daily life. Numerous studies have discussed the relationship between these two variables, but the results were mixed. Theoretically, there are two main arguments about the relationship between social media use and fear of missing out. To be specific, the social cognitive theory of mass communication suggested that there was a significant positive correlation between the two variables, while the digital goldilocks hypothesis argued that there may be a U-shaped relationship instead of a significant linear correlation between the two. Empirically, the effect sizes of this relationship reported in the existing literature were far from consistent, with r values ranging from 0 to 0.75. Therefore, this meta-analysis was conducted to explore the strength and moderators of the relationship between social media use and fear of missing out.

    Through literature retrieval, 65 studies consisting of 70 independent effect sizes that met the inclusion criteria were selected. In addition, a random-effects model was selected to conduct the meta-analysis in Comprehensive Meta-Analysis 3.3 software, aiming at testing our hypotheses. The heterogeneity test illustrated that there was significant heterogeneity among 70 independent effect sizes, indicating that the random-effects model was appropriate for subsequent meta-analyses. Based on the funnel plot and Egger’s test of regression to the intercept, no significant publication bias was found in the included studies.

    The main effect analysis indicated a significant positive correlation between social media use and fear of missing out (r = 0.38). The moderation analyses revealed that the relationship between social media use and fear of missing out was moderated by the indicator of social media use, as well as the type of social media. Specifically, compared with the frequency, the time as well as the intensity of social media use, social media use addiction had the strongest correlation with fear of missing out; compared with Snapchat and Facebook, Instagram had the strongest correlation with fear of missing out. Other moderators such as gender, age, measurement tools of fear of missing out as well as individualism index did not moderate the relation between these two constructs. The results supported the media effect model, which suggested that social media use, especially social media use addiction may be an important risk factor for individuals’ fear of missing out. Longitudinal studies are needed in the future to explore the dynamic relationship between social media use and fear of missing out.

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    Evolution of Napoleon complex: Relative height disadvantage, mating motivation and men’s risk-taking behavior
    WU Qi, ZHONG Chunyan, XIE Jingyuan
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2021, 53 (1): 95-110.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00095
    Abstract4883)   HTML507)    PDF (1176KB)(10633)      

    Throughout the animal kingdom, larger animals are more likely to attain dominance and thus enhance their ability to acquire mates. In human males, body height is also associated with the success and failure in sexual selection. For example, studies have found that taller men have higher strength or fighting ability, are more likely to higher overall income and higher social status, and hold greater potential for acquiring mates. However, shorter men are not necessarily doomed with disadvantages. Previous studies have suggested that men have a flexible status psychology that may allow them to exercise behavioral flexibility (e.g., by showing more indirect aggression or feeling more jealousy toward sexual rivals) to compensate for their disadvantage in height. Given the importance of risk-taking behavior in signalizing the quality of ones’ genes, in the present study, we hypothesized that when encountering a taller same-sex rival, shorter men would compensate for their disadvantages in height by showing more risk-taking behavior, and their mating motives would modulate such an effect in men.
    This hypothesis was tested by four behavioral studies. We measured risk-taking behavior by employing a well-validated and computerized laboratory task (i.e., Balloon Analogue Risk Task, BART). In Studies 1 and 2, male or female participants (176 participants in Study 1, and 246 participants in Study 2, respectively) were paired with taller or shorter same-sex opponents, and were asked to compete with their opponents in a computerized game (i.e., the BART task. In Study 3 (255 male participants), we further tested our hypothesis by situationally activating the mating motives of male participants (i.e., by watching videos depicting highly attractive females) and paired them with taller or shorter male opponents in the BART task as in Studies 1 and 2. In Study 4 (90 male participants), we further investigated the effects of chronic mating motive and the relative height disadvantage on men’s risk-taking by employing the Mate Seeking scale of Fundamental Social Motives Inventory.
    The results showed that: 1) male participants had significantly higher BART scores (i.e., the average numbers of pumps per unexploded balloon) when their opponents were taller; 2) such an effect was caused by the increase in risk-taking propensity when facing a taller opponent; facing a shorter opponent didn’t affect the risk-taking of male participants (also be compared to a no-height-info control); 3) the relative height difference between participants and their opponents did not affect the risk-taking of female participants; 4) situationally activating the mating motives of male participants significantly affected the effects of relative height disadvantage on male risk-taking, after watching the mating prime, male participants were more likely to elevate their risk-propensity to compensate for their disadvantage in height; 5) male participants with higher level of chronic mating motivation were also more likely to elevate their risk-propensity to compensate for the height disadvantage.
    The above results support our hypothesis, suggesting that men may have evolved a behavioral strategy to elevate their risk-taking propensity to compensate for their height disadvantage, and this strategy iswas driven by motives of intrasexual competition and mating. Our study thus provides further evidence for the evolutionary theory of Napoleon complex.

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    Mobile phone addiction and depression: Multiple mediating effects of social anxiety and attentional bias to negative emotional information
    HOU Juan, ZHU Yingge, FANG Xiaoyi
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2021, 53 (4): 362-373.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00362
    Abstract9813)   HTML1563)    PDF (892KB)(13809)      

    Depression is an important and widely studied measure of individual psychological and social adaptation. Previous studies have explored the mechanism of depression from various perspectives and found that addiction is a significant risk factor for the development of depression. In recent years, with the rapid development of mobile Internet technology and smart phones, researchers have found that mobile phone addiction, as another important aspect of behavioral addiction, also has a potential impact on depression. Further studies have found that mobile-addicted individuals spend too much time and energy in the virtual world, thus leading to social anxiety. In addition, when social anxiety is so high that it affects the daily life of individuals, individuals are prone to suffer depressive symptoms. According to the cognitive behavioral model of social anxiety and emotional consistent effect, attentional bias to negative information is a key factor in maintaining the anxiety state among individuals with social anxiety. When an individual experiences social anxiety, they will pay more attention to negative information. Depression cognitive theory also posits that attentional bias to negative emotional information is closely related with the occurrence, development and maintenance of depression.
    Therefore, social anxiety and attentional bias to negative emotional information may be important factors in the effects of mobile phone addiction on depression. This study integrated emotional and cognitive factors and explored the effects of social anxiety and attentional bias to negative emotional information on the relationship between mobile phone addiction on depression through two studies. For study 1, a sample of 545 college students completed the Mobile Phone Addiction Index, Beck Depression Inventory and Social Interaction Anxiety Scale. For study 2, 51 college students were selected to complete questionnaires and a 2 (Emotional types of paired facial expressions: negative, neutral) × 2 (Detection point position: same as negative emotional face expression, different from negative emotional face expression) within-subjects task to investigate the serial mediating effects of social anxiety and attentional bias to negative emotional information on the relationship between mobile phone addiction and depression.
    All the data were analyzed by SPSS 20.0 and Mplus 8.3. Some valuable results were obtained as follows. (1) There were significant positive correlations among mobile phone addiction, social anxiety and depression. Social anxiety fully mediated the effect of mobile phone addiction on depression. (2) Social anxiety and attentional bias to negative emotional information serially mediated the relationship between mobile phone addiction and depression. However, attentional bias to negative emotional information did not significantly mediate the effect of mobile phone addiction on depression. Specifically, mobile phone addiction affects depression through two pathways: one is the separate mediating role of social anxiety; the other is the serial mediation pathway of social anxiety → attentional bias to negative emotional information.
    This study expands previous research on mobile phone addiction and individual psychological adaptation, enriches the field of addiction and depression research, and has significance regarding the reduction or control of the negative effects of addiction on depression. Additionally, this study also provides evidence for causal inference that social anxiety and attentional bias can alter depression levels, suggesting that attentional bias training is likely to be a promising alternative therapy for depression and providing new ideas for the intervention and treatment of clinical mental disorders.

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    Eliminating threat or venting rage?The relationship between narcissism and aggression in violent offenders
    LIU Yuping, LI Shanshan, HE Yun, WANG Doudou, YANG Bo
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2021, 53 (3): 244-258.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00244
    Abstract4655)   HTML769)    PDF (771KB)(9785)      

    Narcissism is a component of “the dark triad” and it is closely related to maladaptive and even antisocial behaviors. Aggressive behavior is a typical anti-social behavior, and serious aggression constitutes violent crime. Narcissism is often divided into grandiose and vulnerable narcissism. Aggression also has many subtypes, such as premeditated and impulsive aggression. Previous studies have shown that narcissists are aggressive, especially when facing provocation. On the one hand, narcissists feel threatened when they are challenged. To maintain their ego and eliminate threat, narcissists may show aggressive behavior, which is explained by the theory of threatened egotism. On the other hand, when challenged, narcissists also show strong negative emotions because of their inflated but fragile ego, leading to out-of-control behaviors and even triggering them to attack others, which is the so-called “narcissistic rage.” However, most studies are in the background of Western culture, and the participants are mainly college students. Most judicial field studies use questionnaires, and experimental studies to confirm the relation of narcissism and aggression are lacking. The mechanism how they operate is also unknown. Previous studies failed to make distinctions of the subtypes of narcissism and aggression, especially the subtype of vulnerable narcissism. To overcome the disadvantages of previous studies, this study explored the relationship between narcissism and aggression with a questionnaire in experiment 1 and analyzed the manipulating function of provocation with a competitive response time in experiment 2.

    In study 1, we administered the Narcissism Personality Inventory-13, Hypersensitivity Narcissistic Scale, The Trait Anger Scale, Entitlement Scale, and Impulsive/Premeditated Aggression Scales in 498 violence offenders to establish a structural equation model. Then, the significance of effects was examined using Bootstrap to explore the relationship between narcissism and aggression and its mechanisms. In study 2, we recruited 90 violent offenders for scenario-based experiment. Participants were randomly divided into a provocation group (n = 46) and a no-provocation group (n = 44). Participants in both groups completed the questionnaire for narcissism. Then, they finished the first stage to manipulate provocation. Participants were told to compete with another participant (a fake participant) in racing the speed of reactions. In the provocation group, participants lost the game and received negative feedback from their rivals; in the no-provocation group, participants won the game and received positive feedback from their rivals. Then, they completed the questionnaire for manipulation testing and measured negative affect and perceived threat for the mediating variables. Finally, they finished the second stage in which they could send their rivals’ noises, which can be considered as the aggressive indicator.

    Experiment 1 showed that narcissism can predict aggression and that the trait anger and entitlement play multiple mediating roles. Significant effects were found in the mediating paths of grandiose/vulnerable narcissism→trait anger→premeditated aggression, grandiose/vulnerable narcissism→trait anger→impulsive aggression, and grandiose/vulnerable narcissism→entitlement→premeditated aggression. However, the effect of the mediating path grandiose/vulnerable narcissism→entitlement→impulsive aggression was not significant. Compared with grandiose narcissism, vulnerable narcissism was a stronger indicator of premeditated and impulsive aggression. Experiment 2 showed that under provocation, grandiose narcissism and aggression exhibited significant correlation. Meanwhile, perceived threat and negative affect served a mediating function. Grandiose narcissism cannot predict aggression behaviors if not provoked, but the mediating role of perceived threat was still significant. For vulnerable narcissism, the influence on aggression and the mediating role of perceived threat and negative affect were all significant whether provoked or not.

    The following conclusions can be obtained from the two experiments: (1) The association between narcissism and aggression was still effective in violent offenders in Chinese culture; (2) “Threatened egotism” and “Narcissistic rage” could explain the relationship between narcissism and aggression. In specific, “threatened egotism” could predict premeditated aggression rather than impulsive aggression, and “narcissistic rage” could predict both subtypes of aggression; and (3) Vulnerable narcissism was non-adaptive, exerting a larger effect size on aggression and a wider applicability compared with grandiose narcissism. Researchers should pay attention to the effects of vulnerable narcissism on maladaptive behaviors, such as aggression, and distinguish the subtypes of narcissism and aggression. Furthermore, the above results could be used in the prevention of crime and the management and correction of criminals by judicial practice departments.

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    Effect of power on conspicuous prosocial behavior
    YAO Qi, WU Zhangjian, ZHANG Changqing, FU Guoqun
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2020, 52 (12): 1421-1435.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2020.01421
    Abstract5591)   HTML738)    PDF (790KB)(9317)      

    Conspicuous prosocial behavior refers to prosocial behaviors that are publicly displayed to enhance the image of the helper in the eyes of others. The existing research suggests that sense of power simultaneously generates self-interested behaviors and inhibits individual prosocial behavior. However, an increased number of recent researches indicate that several personal traits and environmental factors encourage individuals with power to conduct more prosocial behaviors. Moreover, less research has been conducted to explore the relationship between power and conspicuous prosocial behavior. The present study proposes that powerful (vs. powerless) individuals are more willing to engage in conspicuous prosocial behaviors with self-presentation as a mediating variable.
    Five experiments (Experiments 1, 2a, 2b, 3, and 4) were performed to test the hypotheses. Experiments 1 and 3 explored the relationship between power and conspicuous prosocial behaviors using the class role imagination task to manipulate sense of power. Experiment 1 participants (139 adults, 50 men) were provided with information about two backpacks. Experiment 3 participants (237 adults, 121 men) were shown an advertisement. Experiment 2a participants (147 adults, 75 men) involved powerful and powerless individuals who were instructed to report donation willingness and amount under two conditions, namely, public acknowledgment and control. Experiment 2b is a field study in which participants (210 adults, 93 men) who completed a recall task decided whether to write down their e-mail after perusing the information about a public service advertisement. Lastly, Experiment 4 examined the mediating role of self-presentation for which 117 adults were asked to indicate their sense of power, self-presentation motivation, and willingness to participate in blatant benevolence by a random sequence.
    Experiment 1 indicated that the powerful (vs. the powerless) tend to buy conspicuous green products with clear environmental labels. Experiment 2a demonstrated that powerful individuals display higher levels of willingness to donate and donate more compared with the powerless and under the public acknowledgment condition. Experiment 2b revealed that the powerful rather than the powerless tend to write down their e-mail under the public acknowledgment condition. Experiment 3 provided evidence that a strongly conspicuous inclination among powerful participants is not attributed to a general tendency to show off when engaging in prosocial behaviors. Finally, Experiment 4 not only replicated the effect of power on conspicuous prosocial behaviors, but also established the mediating role of self-presentation.
    The current study demonstrates the relationship between power and conspicuous prosocial behaviors. That is, individuals with high (vs. low) power are more willing to engage in conspicuous prosocial behaviors with self-presentation as a mediating factor. The findings of this work have important practical significance for marketing managers in terms of the utilization of sense of power to effectively guide individuals to engage in prosocial behaviors.

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    The relationship between musical training and inhibitory control: An ERPs study
    CHEN Jiejia, ZHOU Yi, CHEN Jie
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2020, 52 (12): 1365-1376.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2020.01365
    Abstract4718)   HTML639)    PDF (4267KB)(9331)      

    Inhibitory control, a fundamental component of executive function, refers to the ability to control one’s attention and suppress internal and external interferences effectively to achieve the setting targets. It plays a crucial role in allowing us to adapt to the environment, and serves as a basis of other cognitive functions, such as reasoning, planning and learning. Moreover, several psychiatric disorders, such as addictions, attention deficit hyperactivity and obsessive-compulsive disorder have been shown to involve deficits in inhibitory control. Thus, establishing ways in which inhibitory control can be improved constitutes an important issue for psychologist and medical scientist. In recent years, musical training has been suggested to be associated with improved executive functions, such as inhibitory control. However, the overall findings in these studies have been mixed. While some studies indicated a positive relationship between musical training and inhibitory control, other studies showed no facilitative effect of musical training. Importantly, however, inhibitory control is not a single function, but can be divided into response inhibition and interference control. Previous studies that assessed the relationship between musical training and inhibitory control failed to investigate these two separate components within the same experiment. Furthermore, its underlying neural mechanism remain elusive. Based on these considerations, the present study aimed to examine the relationship between musical training and inhibitory control through the Go/No-go (response inhibition) and Stroop (interference control) tasks by using event- related-potentials (ERPs).
    Experiments were carried out in an acoustically and electrically shielded room, and lasted approximately 40 minutes. In the Go/No-go task, participants had to press a keyboard button in response to white shapes (Go trials, 75%), while they had to inhibit responding to purple shapes (No-go trials, 25%). Each stimulus was presented for 500 ms with an interstimulus interval of 1000 ms. The experiment consisted of 320 trials, presented in a random order. Performance was evaluated using a Signal Detection approach by calculating perceptual sensitivity via: d′ = z(No-go hit rate) - z(Go false alarm rate). Higher d’ values indicate better response inhibition. In the Stroop task, participants were presented with Chinese color words (red, green, blue, yellow), printed in different colors. Stimuli were divided into word-color consistent trails (congruent, 50%) and word-color inconsistent trails (incongruent, 50%). A stimulus was presented for 1000 ms with a random interstimulus interval of 1000~1500 ms. Participants had to name the color in which the word was presented without paying attention to the word’s meaning. The experiment consisted of 240 trials, presented in a random order. The difference between accuracy in the congruent and the incongruent conditions is referred to as Stroop interference effect. Smaller effects are indicative of better interference control. The experimental sequence was balanced between participants.
    The behavioral results showed that music group had smaller interference effect than the control group in the Stroop task, while both groups performed similarly in the Go/No-go task. As for the ERP results, in Go/No-go task, the amplitudes of the N2 (N2d) and P3 difference waves, contrasting No-go and Go trials, were larger in music group than in control group. In the Stroop task, the amplitude of the N450 (N450d) difference wave, contrasting congruent and incongruent trials, were also larger in music group than in control group. However, the amplitude of the SP (SPd) difference wave, which serves as an index of conflict resolution, was similar between the two groups.
    The aim of present study was to explore the influence of music training on the cognitive and neural mechanisms governing inhibitory control. The present results supported the hypothesis that individuals that received music training had stronger conflict monitoring and motor inhibition abilities when completing the response inhibition task, as well as a better conflict monitoring ability when completing the interference control task. This indicates a potential association between music training and inhibitory control.

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    Reciprocal relations between relative deprivation and psychological adjustment among single-parent children in China: A longitudinal study
    XIONG Meng, LIU Ruojin, YE Yiduo
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2021, 53 (1): 67-80.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00067
    Abstract4421)   HTML543)    PDF (567KB)(9132)      

    Increasing divorce rates in China have led to greater numbers of children growing up in single-parent homes. Previous studies have indicated that such single-parent children reported greater senses of relative deprivation and more psychological adjustment problems than their counterparts in undivided families. However, few studies have yet examined associations between relative deprivation and psychological adjustment and their directions. We thus explored characteristics of relative deprivation, psychological adjustment, and associations among them over 1.5 years beginning March, 2017. A sample of 273 single-parent children (50.5% boys) was recruited from two primary schools and two junior middle schools in Hubei, China. Attrition was relatively minor, namely, 93.4% of participants completed all surveys during three assessment waves.
    Participants provided self-report data on individual and group cognitive and individual and group affective relative deprivation, and depression, loneliness, social anxiety, and self-esteem, as well as demographic variables (i.e., gender, academic period, and family economic status). All the measures had good reliability and validity. Results indicated that relative deprivation of single-parent children was not obvious, and psychological adjustment was generally good. Boys reported higher levels of depression and loneliness than girls. Moreover, single-parent children with poor family economic status reported higher levels of relative deprivation, depression, and loneliness, as well as lower levels of self-esteem than their counterparts.
    To explore the possible reciprocal relations between relative deprivation and psychological adjustment, as well as to separate between-person effects from within-person effects, we analyzed data by using the random intercepts cross-lagged panel model (RI-CLPM). Results showed that there were reciprocal relations between relative deprivation and psychological adjustment at the within-person level when controlling for between-person effects and key demographic variables. Specifically, initial relative deprivation significantly negatively predicted psychological adjustment at Time 2, which in turn negatively predicted relative deprivation at Time 3. Moreover, relative deprivation at Time 2 also negatively predicted psychological adjustment at Time 3. These reciprocal relations between relative deprivation and psychological adjustment did not differ by gender and academic period (i.e., primary or secondary school). However, the association between psychological adjustment and relative deprivation was stronger for single-parent children with poor family economic status than for those with good family economic status.
    These observations expand the understanding of the complex relations between relative deprivation and psychological adjustment among single-parent children in China. Additionally, they have important implications for intervention and improvement of mental health for vulnerable groups, especially single-parent children. For instance, programs that aim to improve the mental health of single-parent children and to reduce the levels of relative deprivation among this vulnerable group may be helpful in breaking the detrimental cycle between relative deprivation and psychological adjustment.

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    “You were what you eat”: Food gender stereotypes and their impact on evaluation of impression
    ZUO Bin, DAI Yuee, WEN Fangfang, GAO Jia, XIE Zhijie, HE Saifei
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2021, 53 (3): 259-272.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00259
    Abstract5199)   HTML889)    PDF (717KB)(9089)      

    Interpersonal evaluations refer to people’s perception of someone and how they judge personalities based on existing information. Recent research has focused on food gender stereotypes and their effect on impression evaluations. However, past studies on food gender stereotypes were mostly conducted within Western cultural context, while few studies were based on non-Western culture, and unsystematically only focused on the impressions of sexual attractiveness, personal qualities, or masculinity/femininity. Therefore, this study examined whether food gender stereotypes exist in the Chinese cultural context while investigating these stereotype effects on impression evaluations based on the Big Two model, which provided a good theoretical basis and measurement index. We hypothesized that the Chinese also held food gender stereotypes and had different impression evaluations on individuals consistent or inconsistent with food gender stereotypes of different genders. To test these hypotheses, we performed two separate studies. In total, 788 participants were recruited online and 132 through advertising on campus. Study 1 comprised examining whether participants held explicit and implicit food gender stereotypes using open nomination, self-reporting, and semantic priming paradigms. Study 2 involved measuring participants' evaluation of competence and warmth on individuals with given food gender stereotypes using questionnaires and Implicit Relational Assessment Procedures. Results revealed that both genders held the explicit food gender stereotype of “men like masculine food and women like feminine food,” but only women held implicit food gender stereotypes. Additionally, participants reported higher evaluations for competence and lower evaluations for warmth on men who were consistent with the food gender stereotype, while for women who were consistent, participants thought they were warmer but less competent. Implicitly, both genders held stereotyped evaluations that inconsistent men were warmer. In conclusion, this research explored and examined the unique content of food gender stereotypes in the Chinese cultural context, which deepens the understanding of food gender stereotypes and contributes significantly to the field of cross-cultural food gender stereotypes. Furthermore, we creatively combined our study purposes with the Big Two model and systematically investigated people’s evaluation of individuals with consistent/inconsistent food gender stereotypes in two aspects, which has important implications for future research.

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    The establishment of Chinese Emotion Regulation Word System (CERWS) and its pilot test
    YUAN Jiajin, ZHANG Yicheng, CHEN Shengdong, LUO Li, RU Yishan
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2021, 53 (5): 445-455.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00445
    Abstract4744)   HTML533)    PDF (906KB)(8364)      

    Implicit emotion regulation has become a hotspot of emotion regulation research recently. However, currently there is no standardized emotion regulation word system for researchers in the field of implicit emotion regulation. The purpose of this study is to establish a Chinese Emotion Regulation Word System (CERWS) by multi-dimensional ratings and analysis of emotional regulation words, and then to verify the effectiveness of the system by experiments.
    In Study 1, two hundred and twenty-six emotion regulation words (N = 226) were selected as preliminary materials by group discussion. Among them, 176 were judged as emotion regulation words that corresponded to five commonly used strategies (acceptance, distraction, venting, suppression and reappraisal) and 50 as neutral words. One hundred and twenty-eight participants (N = 128) rated the representativeness of words on five emotion regulation strategies. To ensure that the selected words are not mixed in strategic meanings, the words that exclusively represent one regulatory strategy or neutral meanings were selected into CERWS as emotion regulation words or neutral words, respectively. The words of CERWS were further rated by participants on the dimensions of valence, arousal, dominance, motivational tendency, familiarity and spelling complexity (N = 128). Thirty participants were randomly selected and retested one month later (N = 30).
    In Study 2, the emotion regulation effect of words in CERWS was further investigated. The regulatory effect of 5 strategies of CERWS on negative emotion was tested using a typical implicit emotion regulation paradigm (sentence unscrambling task). One hundred and ninety-six participants (N = 196) were involved in Study 2, who were divided into six groups (five implicit emotion regulation groups and one control group). Before viewing neutral and disgust pictures, the participants in implicit emotion regulation groups were required to complete the sentence unscrambling tasks to prime the emotion regulation strategy, while the participants in the control group were required to complete the sentence unscrambling task that was unrelated to emotion regulation.
    The CERWS was established in Study 1. One hundred and forty-nine emotion regulation words (N = 149) were selected into 6 groups (acceptance, distraction, venting, suppression, reappraisal and neutral) of CERWS. Comparing the attributes of emotion regulation words with those of neutral words, we found that five emotion regulation strategies had different affective connotation. For example, acceptance strategy was characterized by high pleasure, high dominance, high approach tendency and low arousal. In terms of gender differences, males were more pleasant with the words of distraction strategy, while females were more familiar with the words of acceptance strategy. The test-retest reliability was more than 0.7 after one month. The Cronbach’s α coefficients and Kendall’s coefficients of concordance of CERWS fit with relevant criteria. Moreover, results of Study 2 showed that implicit reappraisal and implicit suppression strategies decreased the emotional valence and arousal ratings significantly, and implicit distraction strategy decreased the emotional arousal ratings significantly.
    In conclusion, this study has established a standardized emotion regulation words system with good reliability. Moreover, this study has verified the regulatory effect of implicit reappraisal, suppression and distraction strategies on negative emotions, which provides a reference for the future use of the system.

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    “Will I be judged harshly after trying to help but causing more troubles?” A misprediction about help recipients
    SHANG Xuesong, CHEN Zhuo, LU Jingyi
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2021, 53 (3): 291-305.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00291
    Abstract4782)   HTML676)    PDF (745KB)(8106)      

    In many cases, people intend to offer help but unfortunately cause more troubles to help recipients. After doing so, helpers often expect negative evaluations from help recipients. However, is this prediction accurate? The present research proposes a misprediction: helpers will overestimate the negative impacts (underestimate the positive impacts) of their behaviors on help recipients when they try to help but cause more troubles. The reason for this misprediction is that in contrast to helpers’ predictions about help recipients, help recipients pay more attention to helpers’ warmth and less attention to helpers’ competence.

    We conducted six studies (N = 1, 763) to test the proposed misprediction and test its underlying mechanism. Study 1 adopted a 2 (outcome: success or failure) × 2 (role: helper or help recipient) between-subjects design. Helpers predicted help recipients’ reactions (gratefulness, satisfaction, the likelihood to seek help again, the likelihood to recommend helpers to others), whereas help recipients rated their own reactions. The results showed a misprediction such that helpers exaggerated the negative reactions of help recipients. In addition, the misprediction was specific to failure. In the success condition, helpers made accurate predictions about help recipients’ reactions. These results also ruled out alternative explanations of the spotlight effect and social desirability bias.

    Studies 2a and 2b adopted an identical design to that in Study 1 and replicated the results in Study 1 in a different scenario by bounded and unbounded scales. In addition, we found the existence of the misprediction made by helpers in both proactive and reactive helping. Study 3 replicated the results by using indicators involving money.

    In Study 4, with an identical design to that in Study 1, helpers made predictions about how help recipients rated their warmth and competence, whereas help recipients rated helpers’ warmth and competence. Afterwards, helpers predicted help recipients’ reactions, whereas help recipients rated their own reactions. The results showed that helpers underestimated help recipients’ ratings of warmth and competence in the failure condition and that this underestimation accounted for the overestimation of help recipients’ negative reactions.

    In Study 5, we recorded participants’ real-time thoughts during their prediction or rating process. We found that helpers considered their competence (warmth) earlier and more (later and less) than help recipients, indicating that helpers focused more on their competence and less on their warmth when making predictions about help recipients than help recipients did. The query order and content accounted for the overestimation of help recipients’ negative reactions in the failure condition.

    We show that people who try to help others but eventually cause more troubles mispredict the reactions of help recipients. Helpers overestimate the negative consequences (underestimate the positive consequences) of their behaviors to help recipients. We also reveal the underlying mechanism of this misprediction that helps recipients pay more attention to helpers’ warmth and less attention to helpers’ competence compared to helpers’ predictions about help recipients. Understanding this misprediction helps alleviate the concerns of helpers when they are intended to offer help but actually do harm to others and helps promote subsequent helping behaviors.

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    The influence of anger on delay discounting: The mediating role of certainty and control
    SONG Xiyan, CHENG Yahua, XIE Zhouxiutian, GONG Nanyan, LIU Lei
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2021, 53 (5): 456-468.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00456
    Abstract5196)   HTML725)    PDF (771KB)(8011)      

    Delay discounting occurs when, compared to current or recent benefits (or losses), people give future benefits (or losses) less weight and choose current or recent benefits (or losses). Delay discounting is an important research direction in the field of decision-making. Based on the Appraisal-Tendency Framework, the present study aimed to examine how anger influences an individual’s delay discounting and then explore the underlying mechanism of the effect of anger on delay discounting.
    The key hypotheses--that anger would influence delay discounting and that certainty and control appraisal tendencies would drive this effect--were tested across three experiments. Experiment 1 investigated the effect of anger on delay gratification. In Experiments 2a and 2b, an experimental-causal-chain design was used to test (a) whether anger increases certainty-control relative to fear and neutral feelings, and (b) whether experiencing certainty-control increases one’s delay gratification. In Experiment 3, a measurement-of-mediation design was used to test whether feelings of certainty-control stemming from anger predicted delay gratification. Simultaneously, we explored whether positive emotions associated with certainty-control produced increases in delay gratification. The focus was on pleasure as a positive, certainty-control-associated emotion.
    In Experiment 1, the results showed that compared with fear and neutral participants, angry participants were more likely to choose large and delayed rewards. In Experiment 2a, the results showed that compared with fear and neural participants, angry participants were more likely to experience certainty-control feelings. Then, in Experiment 2b, the results showed that compared with low certainty-control participants, high certainty-control participants were more likely to choose large and delayed rewards. In Experiment 3, the results showed that compared with fear and neutral participants, angry and pleasant participants experienced more certainty-control feelings and were more likely to choose large and delayed rewards. Furthermore, the mediation analysis showed that certainty-control feelings played a complete mediating role in the effect of anger and pleasure on delay discounting.
    Converging evidence from the three experiments indicated that incidental anger can influence delay discounting. Compared with fear and neutral feelings, those experiencing anger were more likely to choose larger and delayed rewards (Experiment 1). Importantly, these two experiments provide direct process evidence by showing that the certainty and control appraisal tendencies triggered by anger may underlie its delay gratification-enhancing effects (Experiments 2 and Experiment 3). Furthermore, experiencing certainty- control-associated emotions (i.e., anger and pleasure), regardless of valence, increased to the likelihood that individuals would choose larger and delayed rewards (Experiment 3). The current research supports the hypotheses that anger increases delay gratification and that certainty and control appraisal tendencies drive this effect. These findings have important implications for understanding the mechanism underlying the effect of specific negative emotions on intertemporal choice.

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    Co-experiencing the same negative emotional events promotes cooperation
    MIAO Xiaoyan, SUN Xin, KUANG Yi, WANG Zuojun
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2021, 53 (1): 81-94.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00081
    Abstract4141)   HTML456)    PDF (596KB)(7629)      

    Cooperation plays an essential role in the development and survival of humans. Previous research suggests that experiencing negative emotional events typically decreases cooperation. Yet the research has primarily focused on experiencing negative emotional events alone. People living in a social environment often co-experience negative emotional events with others. Less understood is the impact of co-experiencing the same negative events on interpersonal cooperation. The present research hypothesized that 1) co-experiencing the same negative emotional events (i.e., failure) increases cooperation between co-experiencers compared with experiencing negative emotional events alone; 2) the need to belong mediates the relationship between those co-experiencing negative emotional events and their cooperation. Four experiments were conducted to examine the two hypotheses.
    In Experiments 1-3, the negative emotional events were manipulated either by failing in a lottery (Experiment 1) or in the Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices (Experiment 2 and 3), and the cooperation was measured by a public goods game. The results of the three experiments showed that co-experiencing a negative emotional event promoted cooperation between the co-experiencers compared with experiencing the negative emotional event alone. Furthermore, to examine the underlying mechanism of this effect, three possible mediator variables, the need to belong, social bonds, and common in-group identity, were also measured in Experiment 2. The results showed that the need to belong, but not social bonds or common in-group identity, mediated the relationship between co-experiencing a negative emotional event (i.e., failure) and the promoted cooperation. In Experiment 3, the need to belong was manipulated rather than measured to further examine its effect on the increased cooperation between the co-experiencers. The results showed that when the need to belong was satisfied, the participants who co-experienced the negative emotional event did not behave more cooperatively than when they experienced the emotional event alone. Experiment 4 investigated whether people would be more willing to cooperate when they co-experienced the same negative emotional events compared with when they experienced different negative emotional events or when they experienced the negative emotional events alone. The results showed that only the participants who co-experienced the same negative emotional event, but not those who co-experienced a different negative emotional event, were more likely to cooperate than when they experienced the emotional event alone. The implication of the present findings on the formation of small groups and enhancing group cohesion was discussed.

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    The influence of maternal negative parenting, peer victimization and FKBP5 gene on adolescent depressive symptoms
    TIAN Xiangjuan, CAO Yanmiao, ZHANG Wenxin
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2020, 52 (12): 1407-1420.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2020.01407
    Abstract3738)   HTML443)    PDF (904KB)(7477)      

    Depression is one of the most prevalent mental health problems during adolescence. Research has indicated that distal stress and proximal stress as well as their interaction are important predictors of adolescent depressive symptoms. There are two different hypotheses — cumulative stress hypothesis and match-mismatch hypothesis — to understand the interaction between distal stress and proximal stress. It has been suggested that an individual’s genetic susceptibility may determine which of these two hypotheses is relevant, but very little empirical research has considered the impact of genetic predisposition on these issues. Furthermore, recent researchers have paid attention to the cumulative genetic score (CGS) of multiple loci rather than to single polymorphism. The present study was designed to extend prior research by exploring whether the interaction effects of distal maternal negative parenting and proximal peer victimization were consistent with the cumulative stress hypothesis or the match-mismatch hypothesis, for adolescents who carried higher or lower CGS of FKBP5 gene.
    In this study, 970 adolescents (48.8% male) were followed from Grade 6 to Grade 9. At T1 (Mage = 12.31 years, SD = 0.47), adolescent depressive symptoms were assessed using Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI). Mothers reported their negative parenting via the Chinese version of Child-Rearing Practices Report (CRPR). At T2 (Mage = 15.32 years, SD = 0.47), saliva samples of adolescents were collected and genotyped for three FKBP5 gene polymorphisms. Peer victimization and depressive symptoms were tested using Multidimensional Peer Victimization Scale (MPVS) and CDI, respectively. A series of hierarchical regressions and internal replication analyses were conducted to test the three-way interaction among maternal negative parenting, peer victimization and CGS of FKBP5 on depressive symptoms, separately for male and female adolescents.
    The results showed that, after T1 depressive symptoms were controlled for, maternal negative parenting, peer victimization and CGS had a significant three-way interaction on male adolescent depressive symptoms at T2. Specifically, among male adolescents who had higher CGS, maternal negative parenting negatively predicted depressive symptoms in the context of higher peer victimization, which fitted better with the match-mismatch hypothesis. The interaction between negative parenting and peer victimization was not significant among males with lower CGS, but showed a cumulative stress trend. The three-way interaction was not observed among females.
    By examining the interaction effect of maternal negative parenting, peer victimization and CGS on depressive symptoms, the present study highlights the important role of individuals’ genetic susceptibility in understanding the distal and proximal stress interactions during adolescence. This underscores the complex environmental and multiple loci underpinnings of depressive symptoms and lends some support for both the cumulative stress and match-mismatch hypotheses on the etiology of depressive symptoms.

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    The multiple phonological activation in Chinese spoken word production: An ERP study in a word translation task
    ZHANG Qingfang, QIAN Zongyu, ZHU Xuebing
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2021, 53 (1): 1-14.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00001
    Abstract2747)   HTML372)    PDF (1819KB)(7355)      

    A debatable issue between serial discrete models and interactive models is whether non-target lemmas activate their phonological words in spoken word production. Serial discrete models assume that only target lemma activates its corresponding phonological node to articulation, whereas interactive models assume that the semantic and phonological nodes linked to multiple candidates are co-activated during the retrieval of target word. Multiple phonological activation has been supported by evidences from alphabetic languages, but it remains unknown whether this finding can be generalized to non-alphabetic languages. Therefore, the current study aimed to investigate whether the not-to-be named pictures activate their phonological nodes in Chinese spoken word production.
    Using electrophysiological measures, the present study employed a word translation task in native Chinese speakers with a high level of English proficiency. Thirty-two participants (13 males, average 22.94 years) were presented with an English probe word and a context picture (semantically related or unrelated, phonologically related or unrelated to target word) simultaneously. Eighty-six English probe words from CELEX database and forty-three black and white line pictures from a standardized picture database in Chinese were chosen as stimuli. Participants were asked to translate English probe words into Chinese as accurately and quickly as possible while ignoring context pictures presented simultaneously.
    Behavioral results showed a typical semantic facilitation effect, with faster translation latencies in the semantically related condition than in the semantically unrelated condition. More importantly, phonological overlap, which generally elicits priming in Indo-European languages, resulted in a null finding for Chinese production. Electrophysiological results revealed that semantic relatedness induced significant effects of ERPs after stimuli presentation: a widely distributed positivity in the 400- to 600-ms interval, while marginally significant effects were observed for phonological relatedness in the time interval of 600~700 ms in the right middle region. Furthermore, a negative correlation between the difference of translation latencies (semantically related minus semantically unrelated) and the difference of mean amplitudes (semantically related minus semantically unrelated) approached significance in the 400~600 ms time window in the middle posterior region, suggesting that more positive mean amplitudes were associated with shorter translation latencies.
    Although speakers present a weak but reliable neural activation, we suggest that phonological overlap between context pictures and target words had no impact on the translation processing in behavioral. That is, the non-target lemma did not activate their phonological node, and multiple phonological activation was absent in Chinese spoken production. Meanwhile, the semantic information of context pictures was indeed activated, and according to the temporal course of word translation, the time window of 400~600 ms was estimated for conceptual preparation when Chinese-English bilinguals completed a word translation task, although this activation was not transmitted from semantic level to phonological level. Overall, the present findings support a serial discrete model rather than an interactive model in Chinese spoken word production.

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    How visual novelty affects consumer purchase intention: The moderating effects of self-construal and product type
    ZHU Zhenzhong, LI Xiaojun, LIU Fu, Haipeng (Allan) Chen
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2020, 52 (11): 1352-1364.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2020.01352
    Abstract4057)   HTML592)    PDF (831KB)(8470)      

    This paper studies the effect of self-construal on consumers' purchase intention of products that vary in visual novelty, its underlying mechanism and boundary conditions. Specifically, we propose that products with low (high) visual novelty should increase the purchase intention among interdependent (independent) consumers through decreased social risk perception (increased consumer needs for uniqueness). In addition, the interaction between visual novelty and self-construal should be reduced when product type (hedonic and utilitarian) is made salient. This is because all consumers should prefer utilitarian products with low visual novelty but prefer hedonic products with high visual novelty, regardless of self-construal. Three experiments provide empirical support for these predictions.
    Study 1 uses 2 (visual novelty: low/high) × 2 (self-construal: independent/interdependent) between-subjects design. A night-light with an ambiguous product type is selected as the stimulus in the form of a color print advertisement. We recruit 112 participants, design different models, distribute product pictures with different appearances, and use an existing scale to measure participants' self-construal. We confirm the interaction between visual novelty and self-construal on purchase intention.
    Study 2 uses a similar between-subjects design, and a wrist-watch with an ambiguous product type as the stimulus. We recruit 140 participants and manipulate the product's visual novelty and self-construal. Consistent with our prediction, we find an interaction between self-construal and visual novelty on consumers' purchase intention. In addition, we provide supporting evidence for the proposed mechanism for the interaction effect that is due to consumer needs for uniqueness and perceptions of social risks.
    Study 3 uses a 2 (visual novelty: low/high) × 2 (self-construal: independent/interdependent) x 2 (product type: hedonic/utilitarian) between-subjects design, to test the moderating effect of product type. Product visual novelty and self-construal are manipulated in similar manners as in Study 2. Desk-lamp is used as the stimulus. In order to minimize confounds, we manipulate the product type and verify our manipulation in a pretest. In another pretest we also verify the effectiveness of the visual novelty manipulation and rule out the potential confound of functional novelty. We recruit 302 participants for this study. The results provide support for the moderating effect of product type. Specifically, we find that, regardless of self-construal, all consumers prefer a utilitarian product with lower appearance novelty, but prefer a hedonic product with higher appearance novelty. In addition, these effects are mediated by consumer needs for uniqueness and perceptions of social risks.
    In summary, the results of three studies provide convergent evidence for an interaction between self-construal and product visual novelty on consumers' purchase intention, the moderating effect of product type, and the underlying mechanism due to consumer needs for uniqueness and social risk perceptions.

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    How interpersonal factors impact the co-development of depression and non-suicidal self-injury in Chinese early adolescents
    HUANG Yuancheng, ZHAO Qingling, LI Caina
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2021, 53 (5): 515-526.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00515
    Abstract4380)   HTML518)    PDF (663KB)(7127)      

    Adolescent depression and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) are major public health concerns worldwide. Identifying the developmental trajectories that lead to these problems can help to design effective prevention programs. Previous research has reported 3 to 6 developmental trajectories of depressed mood and 3 to 4 developmental trajectories of NSSI. However, depressed mood and NSSI often co-occur, and little research has explored their joint developmental trajectories. Importantly, various interpersonal factors may affect the development of both depression and NSSI. For example, research has suggested that adolescents’ relationships with their parents and peers plays a crucial role in developing depression and NSSI. Yet, to date, no research has examined the effect of teacher-student relationships. Therefore, the present study aimed to characterize the joint developmental trajectories of adolescents’ depressed mood and NSSI, and examine the importance of peer, parent and teacher relationships in these trajectories.
    A sample of 859 adolescents (56.43% males;Mage = 14.73, SD = 0.43) was followed up for three years from the first year to the third year of junior middle school, in a central western Chinese city, Xi’an. Participants reported their depressed mood and NSSI at three time points, one year apart. They also completed self-measures of friendship quality, parent relationships and teacher relationships at Time 1, and nominated their classmates’ peer status at Time 1. All measures were conducted anonymously and approved by school administrators. Latent class growth analysis was used to identify the independent and joint developmental trajectories of depressed mood and NSSI, while logistic regression was used to examine the effects of relations with parents, peers and teachers.
    We found 4 developmental trajectories of depressed mood and 3 developmental trajectories of NSSI. Moreover, we identified three joint developmental trajectories of adolescents’ depressed mood and NSSI. The first trajectory class (91%), labeled “low depression- low NSSI- stable”, included adolescents with low depression and NSSI across all timepoints. The second trajectory class (5%), labeled “moderate depression- moderate NSSI- decrease”, consisted of adolescents whose depression and NSSI were moderate at baseline and then decrease over time. The third trajectory class (4%) labeled “low depression- low NSSI- increase”, consisted of adolescents whose depression and NSSI were low at baseline and then increase over time. Furthermore, the level of parental psychological control differentiated adolescents in the first joint trajectory class from those in the second and third joint trajectory class. In addition, peer acceptance distinguished adolescents in the third joint trajectory class from those in the first and second joint trajectory class.
    This study examined the independent and joint developmental trajectories of depressed mood and NSSI during adolescence and revealed important roles of parents and peers in these developmental processes. These findings extend our knowledge of the dynamic relationships between depression and NSSI, and the interpersonal factors that influence this. By improving adolescents’ relationships with their parents and peers, school practitioners can reduce rates of depression and NSSI in this group.

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    Healthy context paradox in the association between bullying victimization and externalizing problems: The mediating role of hostile attribution bias
    LIU Xiaowei, PAN Bin, CHEN Liang, LI Tengfei, JI Linqin, ZHANG Wenxin
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2021, 53 (2): 170-181.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00170
    Abstract4017)   HTML580)    PDF (712KB)(6561)      

    Bullying victimization represents the experience of being the target of aggression by one or several peers while not being able to defend oneself. This phenomenon has high prevalence among children and youth, with approximately 32% school-aged children across the world being bullied by their class- or schoolmates. Exposure to bullying victimization puts children at risk for a variety of social-psychological maladjustment, both internalizing and externalizing. However, the likelihood of victimization leading to maladjustment might vary across contexts. Recent research found that victims were more likely to be maladjusted in relatively healthier contexts (i.e. classrooms with low overall levels of victimization) -- a phenomenon that has been referred to as the "healthy context paradox (HCP)". Specifically, extant studies found that victimized children were more likely to exhibit internalizing problems in classrooms with low levels of victimization. However, little is known about whether classroom-level victimization moderates the link between bullying victimization and externalizing problems.

    More importantly, no empirical study has specifically examined the underlying mechanisms of HCP. According to the social information processing theory and existing studies, it is reasonable to assume that in relatively healthier contexts, victimized children are more likely to feel targeted by peers and develop a hostile attribution bias, which in turn leads to more externalizing problems. Therefore, hostile attribution bias, a tendency to attribute hostile intent to another person in ambiguous and even neutral situations, can be a potential mechanism explaining the paradoxical effect of classroom-level victimization on victim's externalizing behaviors.

    The present study examined whether classroom-level victimization moderated such victimization-externalizing associations, and further examined the mediating role of children’s hostile attribution bias in the associations. The sample comprised 1764 fifth- to eighth- graders (956 boys, Mage = 14.46) from 47 classes in 5 schools in Shandong, China. Bullying victimization was assessed via the Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire. Hostile attribution bias was measured through the Assessment of Intent Attributions for Ambiguous Provocation Situation. Externalizing problems were assessed on the Child Behavior Checklist-Youth Self-Report (CBCL-YSR). Classroom-level victimization was calculated by averaging individual bullying victimization scores for each classroom. All measures had good reliability and validity. Multi-level structural equation models were conducted to test the hypothesis.

    The results revealed that: (1) after controlling for sex, parental education, grade, and class size, classroom-level victimization moderated the association between bullying victimization and externalizing problems, such that the victimization-externalizing association was stronger in classrooms with a lower level of victimization compared with those in the classrooms with a higher level of victimization; and (2) low levels of classroom-level victimization strengthened victims' hostile attribution bias, which in turn was associated with externalizing problems.

    The present study has two major strengths. First, we extended the literature on the healthy context paradox by examining the role of classroom-level victimization in the victimization-externalizing association. In line with the hypothesis regarding the healthy context paradox, victimized children were more likely to exhibit externalizing problems in classrooms with a low level of victimization. Second, a mechanism regarding the healthy context paradox was identified, such that low classroom-level victimization had an impact on victims’ externalizing problems by increasing their hostile attribution bias. These findings highlight the importance of concentrating on specific victims and providing help for them in prevention/intervention practices. Specifically, to alleviate victims’ maladjustment, teachers and school counselors could take efforts to reduce their hostile attribution. Future studies would benefit from replicating these findings using a longitudinal design, and multiple informants to assess externalizing problems. Moreover, future studies need to test more possible explanations for the healthy context paradox.

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    The generalization effect in gap evaluation: How large is the gap between you and me?
    WANG Tianhong, CHEN Yuqi, LU Jingyi
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2020, 52 (11): 1327-1339.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2020.01327
    Abstract5195)   HTML548)    PDF (834KB)(8774)      

    In many social comparisons, people know exactly how they and others do. These comparisons induce a self-other gap. A variety of important decisions are made on the basis of judgments of the gap between ourselves and other people. Existing research indicates biased judgments of self-other gaps, with unknown absolute performance of others. However, the question we are interested in is whether judgments of a self-other gap will be accurate when both absolute performance of oneself and others are specified. This research investigated how the self-other gap was shaped by absolute and relative performances. We proposed the generalization effect, in which individuals generalized their absolute performance to rate their relative position to others though the actual self-other gap was specified.
    We conducted seven studies (N = 2766) to test our proposed generalization effect on perceived self-other gap. Study 1 adopted a 2 (absolute performance: gain or loss) × 2 (relative performance: gain or loss) between-subjects design. The participants, who were informed their performance as well as their classmate's performance in a test, rated the gap between themselves and the classmate. The result indicated that absolute gain caused a larger perceived self-other gap for relative gain (“I am far ahead of her”) than for relative loss (“I am not far behind her”). Conversely, absolute loss caused a larger perceived self-other gap for relative loss (“I am far behind her”) than for relative gain (“I am not far behind her”).
    Studies 2 and 3 replicated the results in Study 1 with investment and social media scenarios. Besides, Study 2a excluded the influence of information order and Study 2b excluded the effect of emotion. Studies 3a and 3b ruled out the alternative explanations of numeric size.
    Study 4 tested the association mechanism by cutting off the associations between multiple dimensions. We adopted a 2 (association: cutting-off or control) × 2 (absolute performance: gain or loss) × 2 (relative performance: gain or loss) between-subjects design. In the cutting-off condition, we designed a debiasing intervention where general associations among multiple dimensions were cut off. As a result, the effect found in Studies 1 to 3 persisted in the control condition but disappeared in the cutting-off condition where associations among multiple dimensions were cut off. The result indicated that generalization among dimensions accounted for the effect we found. The result also ruled out the explanations of egocentrism and focalism.
    Study 5 manipulated the reference point in social comparison and found a null effect for reference point on the generalization effect, which ruled out the explanation of reference point.
    We reveal that assessments of relative performance are biased even when people have sufficient information about their own and others' absolute performances because people generalize their absolute performance to relative performance. The generalization effect reflects the overgeneralization bias in social comparison. People fail to realize that absolute performances are not necessarily related to relative performances. Moreover, the current research offers a feasible approach to reduce such a bias.

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