ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

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    The influence of the matching of modality presentation mode and perceptual learning style on the bidialectal switching cost of Cantonese-Mandarin
    XING Qiang, WU Xiao, WANG Jiawei, ZHANG Zhonglu
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2021, 53 (10): 1059-1070.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.01059
    Abstract2140)   HTML338)    PDF (626KB)(3567)      

    Bidialectal means that two language varieties have different spoken forms but a mutual written language, and bidialectal switching cost refers to the processing of a mixed-language series in language switching compared to the processing of a single-language series. It often appears as a phenomenon in which a speaker’s reaction becomes longer and the error rate increases. With the enrichment of experimental materials and the improvement of experimental methods, researchers have found that stimulus modality and perceptual learning style have an important impact on the cost of bidialectal switching, but the existing works have not yet discussed whether the relationship between these two factors has an influence as well. Therefore, this study explores the influence of the matching between the perceptual learning style of skilled Cantonese-Mandarin speakers and the stimulus modality on the cost of bidialectal switching. Three experiments were used to identify the best stimulus presentation that matches an individual’s perceived learning style.
    Experiment 1 adopted a three-factor (modality presentation mode, language, and task) within-subject design to study the influence of different stimulus modalities on bidialectal switching cost. Then, Experiment 2 used a four-factor (perception learning style, modality presentation mode, language, task) mixed experiment design to study the impact of bidialectal switching cost from the perspective of the matching between the perceived learning style and the stimulus modality. Experiment 3 used a single factor design to study the effect of learning under the optimal presentation paradigm on the cost of bidialectal switching by setting up a control group. Both Experiment 2 and Experiment 3 screened visual learners and auditory learners through The Learning Channel Preference Checklist.
    The results showed the following: (1) Skilled Cantonese-Mandarin bidialectal speakers experienced a switching cost under the different stimulus modality conditions, with the participants who were given visual cues demonstrating a lower switching cost than those given auditory cues. It should be noted that these results were quite different from previous studies, which showed a higher switching cost with visual cues compared to auditory cues. (2) There was an interaction between the perceptual learning style and the stimulus modality. Under the matching condition, the bidialectal switching cost was lower than in the non-matching condition, and under the visual-visual condition, the switching cost was the lowest. (3) The switching cost was smaller under matching conditions compared to random presentation conditions; that is, the presentation mode that matched the perception learning style with the channel presentation mode was the best stimulus presentation mode.
    Based on the above results, it can be concluded that the channel can affects the cost of bidialectal switching—namely, when the modality presentation mode matches the perceptual learning style of a bidialectal speaker—the bidialectal switching cost is smaller. With the popularization of Mandarin, an increasing number of people in China’s dialect areas have become bidialectal speakers. The results of this study will be helpful in providing theoretical support to improve teaching activities in dialect areas.

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    The role of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex on voluntary forgetting of negative social feedback in depressed patients: A TMS study
    CHEN Yuming, LI Sijin, GUO Tianyou, XIE Hui, XU Feng, ZHANG Dandan
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2021, 53 (10): 1094-1104.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.01094
    Abstract1749)   HTML171)    PDF (2048KB)(3277)      

    Depression is a common mental disorder characterized by persistent low mood and anhedonia. While healthy people can voluntarily forget unpleasant events, depressed patients cannot or have difficulty in forgetting negative stimuli. Studies focused on healthy population have found that memory suppression is not only associated with decreased neural activation in the hippocampus, but also significantly activates a wide network in the prefrontal cortex, especially the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Meanwhile, studies have demonstrated that depressed participants could not effectively recruit their frontal brain network responsible for inhibition control of negative materials. Thus, the key question of this study is to examine whether an enhancement of the neural activation in DLPFC using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) could improve the ability of voluntary forgetting of negative information in depressed patients.
    We recruited a total of 123 participants. Among them, 31 healthy participants were stimulated by TMS at the right DLPFC (right DLPFC-activated controls), 32 patients and 30 patients were stimulated by TMS at the left and right DLPFC respectively (left and right DLPFC-activated patients). The other 30 patients were assigned into a sham TMS group. This study contained three independent variables. The two within-subject variables were TMS (baseline or TMS condition) and directed forgetting instruction (remember or forget), and the between-subject variable was group (left or right DLPFC-activated patient, or right DLPFC-activated control). We focused on the memory suppression of social feedbacks in this study, since social feedback processing plays a vital role in everyday interpersonal activities. Previous studies have found that depressed patients cannot perceive and evaluate social feedbacks accurately and adaptively, which makes negative social experiences being an important inducing factor of depression. Meanwhile, evidence indicates that depressed patients have more deficits in processing social relative to nonsocial information.
    Results of the explicit memory test showed that the recall accuracy of social rejection was higher in patients than healthy controls in baseline condition, suggesting that patients had difficulty in voluntarily forgetting negative social feedback. After we used the TMS to activate the left or right DLPFC of participants, we found no significant difference in the recall accuracy of social rejection between the three groups. This result suggested that the ability of memory suppression for negative social feedback was improved by TMS in patients. Moreover, it was also found that patients rated the feedback senders as being more attractive after they had forgotten negative social feedback provided by these feedback senders.
    The main contribution of this study is that we first attempt to improve the ability of memory suppression of negative information in depressed patients using the TMS technique. Still now, there have been only two neuroscience studies focusing on the deficits of directed forgetting in depression ( Xie, Jiang, & Zhang, 2018; Yang et al., 2016). Beyond these two studies, we demonstrated a causal relationship between the DLPFC and memory suppression impairment in depressed patients by employing TMS to facilitate the function of DLPFC. Thus, we provide a potential neural target for the clinical treatment of depressed patients with voluntary forgetting deficits. In addition to depression, difficulties in voluntary forgetting is a common problem found in patients diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety disorder (including obsessive compulsive disorder), schizophrenia and many other mental disorders. Meanwhile, difficulties in forgetting the euphoria or enjoyment coming from drugs or high-calorie foods might be an important reason for the persistence and aggravation of drug addiction and bulimia. Our finding suggests that the right DLPFC may be a potential brain target for the treatment of memory suppression deficits in these disorders. Facilitating the cognitive control of this brain region using the TMS is expected to restore the inhibitory control function of patients and thus significantly improve their voluntary forgetting ability, helping them to relieve symptoms and recover from disorders.

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    Gender difference in retrieval-extinction of conditioned fear memory
    CHEN Wei, LIN Xiaoyi, LI Junjiao, ZHANG Wenxi, SUN Nan, ZHENG Xifu
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2021, 53 (10): 1082-1093.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.01082
    Abstract1938)   HTML251)    PDF (777KB)(3024)      

    For nearly half a century, the memory reconsolidation theory, which believes that even memories that have been consolidated would be reactivated during the retrieval process and temporarily return to an unstable state, has been continuously developed. Based on this understanding, the researchers proposed the retrieval-extinction paradigm. That is, after successfully learning the pairing rule between a conditioned stimulus (CS) and unconditioned stimulus (US), the original memory was un-stabilized by presenting a single CS, and then traditional extinction training was performed. This paradigm has been proven in some studies to weaken the expression of non-adaptive fear memory effectively.
    However, other studies have reached different results, indicating that this paradigm failed to suppress the fear recovery. Current research mainly focused on the boundary conditions of memory conditions and retrieval conditions to explain the difference between studies, such as prediction error, acquisition time, the intensity of acquisition, and individual differences. Gender difference, as an essential variable of individual differences, is an influential factor in the study of boundary conditions. In the standard extinction paradigm, research has concluded that women easily acquire fear memory but that such fear memory is more difficult to extinct than that in men. However, it is relatively rare to explore gender differences in the research of the retrieval-extinction paradigm. Therefore, this study considered gender as a variable, using geometric figures as CS, wrist electric shock as the US, and skin conductance response as an indicator of fear response, to explore whether there is a gender difference in the fear extinction effect.
    The results showed no gender difference in the spontaneous fear recovery of the retrieval-extinction paradigm because all subjects successfully suppressed the spontaneous fear recovery. Nevertheless, there was a significant gender difference in the reinstatement test, in which men showed increased skin conductance responses (SCR), whereas women did not show any increased SCR. Besides, there were gender differences in the spontaneous fear recovery and reinstatement test of the standard extinction paradigm. After training by this paradigm, women showed increased SCR in spontaneously fear recovery and a tendency to fear generalization. In contrast, men showed suppressed spontaneous fear recovery but showed increased SCR in the reinstatement test.
    Our study proved a gender difference in the extinction effect of the retrieval-extinction paradigm (women showed the best extinction effect) and verified that the extinction effect of the retrieval-extinction paradigm was better than that of the standard extinction paradigm. From the results, we could demonstrate that the retrieval-extinction paradigm is an effective intervention method, especially for women. It will be beneficial to further verify evidence about the effectiveness of the retrieval-extinction paradigm and clarify its object and scope in clinical applications. Our study suggests that the retrieval-extinction paradigm in clinical transformation needs to provide more personalized treatment plans for male and female patients, thus improving clinical applicability and treatment effectiveness.

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    Mechanisms of different purposes of social media usage on employees’ job performance
    LI Qiaoling, ZHAO Junzhe, QIAO Shiqi, GUO Tengfei, WANG Minghui, ZHAO Guoxiang
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2021, 53 (11): 1260-1270.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.01260
    Abstract1041)      PDF (465KB)(2237)      
    Most previous studies have explored the effect of employees’ usage of social media from a single perspective and resulted in inconsistent findings. In addition, some studies ignored the possible interactions among different characteristics of social media usage, leading to an incomplete understanding of social media. Therefore, this study attempts to examine two characteristics of social media usage, integrate the two paths of resource buffer and resource gain, and explore the influence mechanism of social media usage on employees’ job performance.
    Specifically, based on the job demands-resources theory, social media has an impact on an organization as a job resource. From the perspective of resource gain path, employees can obtain information about their work through social media to improve their working ability; In addition, the increase in interactive communication through social media deepens mutual understanding and enhances trust. From the perspective of resource buffer path, social media provides employees with a wealth of professional and personal resources. These resources help employees cope with the demands of the workplace, such as distractions and conflicts. Therefore, from the two paths, we assume that work state and interpersonal relationships can act as parallel multiple mediations between social media usage and job performance, respectively.
    Using a “leader-subordinate” pairing survey, 519 questionnaires were distributed in enterprises in Shanghai and Henan, and 369 valid questionnaires were collected. We found that work-based and social-based social media usage both affect job performance through work engagement. Additionally, the social-based social media usage also affects job performance through relationship conflict mediation. Interaction effect tests further suggest that work-based and social-based social media usage are mutual substitutions for influencing work performance through work engagement.
    This study has three main contributions to the literature. First, this study investigates the influencing mechanisms of different types of social media usage. Second, the study draws on the job demands-resources theory to explain the impact of social media usage on job performance, enhancing our understanding of reasons we use social media. Finally, the study highlights the substitution between different types of social media usage, offering clarification on the internal mechanism between social media usage and job performance.
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    The effect of the angry emoji position on consumers’ perception of the sender’s anger
    WU Ruijuan, CHEN Jiuqi, LI Yan
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2021, 53 (10): 1133-1145.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.01133
    Abstract2858)   HTML320)    PDF (689KB)(3088)      

    Emoji are widely adopted in smartphones, for input methods, and on social networks. As ubiquitous characters, emoji transcend linguistic borders and are gaining worldwide popularity. The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of the position of the angry emoji in negative online consumer reviews on the consumers’ perceptions of the sender’s anger. The present study first proposed the main location effect of the position of the angry emoji on the consumers’ perception of the sender’s anger. That is, compared with the angry emoji at the end of a sentence, the angry emoji in the middle of a sentence led to a stronger perception of anger. Based on visual information processing of the location effect, the current research proposed that the position salience perception and the sentiment-strengthening perception of the angry emoji serially mediated the above main effect. Further, we hypothesized that word review extremity moderated the effect of the position of the angry emoji on the consumers’ perceptions of the sender’s anger.
    For this paper, we conducted one eye-tracking experiment and three laboratory experiments. In Study 1, we conducted a pretest, which was the eye-tracking experiment. The product used in the pretest was a thermos mug. Study 1 was a 3 (one emoji at the end of a sentence vs. one in the middle of a sentence vs. no emoji) × 2 (feature description: feature one precedes feature two vs. feature two precedes feature one) between-subjects design. The product used in Study 1 was a laptop. Study 2 was a 2 (the position of the angry emoji at the end vs. in the middle of a sentence) × 2 (feature description: feature one precedes feature two vs. feature two precedes feature one) between-subjects design. Study 2 used a gel-ink pen refill as the target product. In Study 2, we measured the consumers’ perceptions of the sender’s anger, the angry emoji sentiment-strengthening perception, and the position salience perception created by the angry emoji. Study 3 was a 2 (the position of the angry emoji at the end vs. in the middle of a sentence) × 2 (word review extremity: moderate vs. extreme) between-subjects design. Study 3 used a coat as the target product.
    The results of the pretest demonstrated the effectiveness of visual information processing on the location effect. The position of the angry emoji influenced the participants’ attention. The angry emoji in the middle of a sentence led to higher fixation counts and longer fixation durations. The results of Study 1 demonstrated the main effect in this paper, which was that an angry emoji in the middle of a sentence led to a stronger perception of the sender’s anger than did an angry emoji at the end of a sentence. The results of Study 2 replicated the results of Study 1 and tested the serial-mediating roles of the position salience perception and the sentiment- strengthening perception of the angry emoji. The results of Study 3 replicated the results of Study 2 and tested the moderating role of word review extremity in the relationship between the position of the angry emoji and the consumers’ perception of the sender’s anger. When we considered the extreme word review, the influence of the position of the angry emoji on the sender’s perception of anger was not significant; however, when we considered the moderate word review, the angry emoji in the middle of a sentence significantly enhanced the consumers’ perception of the sender’s anger.
    The current research extended the extant literature in several dimensions. First, it supplemented the literature in the field of marketing on the effects of the emoji on consumers’ responses. Second, it supplemented the literature of application contexts and the influence of the location effect. Third, the present research provided empirical evidence for emoji functions. Fourth, the present study supplemented the literature of online consumer reviews.

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    How can successful people share their goodness with the world: The psychological mechanism underlying the upper social classes’ redistributive preferences and the role of humility
    BAI Jie, YANG Shenlong, XU Buxiao, GUO Yongyu
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2021, 53 (10): 1161-1172.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.01161
    Abstract2324)   HTML210)    PDF (451KB)(2339)      

    A large number of studies conducted in Europe and the Americas have explored the negative relationships between social class and redistributive preferences in recent years. However, few studies have addressed the cross-cultural consistency or explored the internal mechanism and intervention strategies of the effects of social class on redistributive preferences. The present study aimed to systematically and deeply explore the relationships between social class and redistributive preferences through three studies in the context of Chinese society.
    Study 1 explored the direct relationship between social class and redistributive preferences. Based on national data from the Chinese General Social Survey of 2015, 8376 participants from all provinces and autonomous regions of China and indexes of measuring social class and redistributive preferences were obtained. Based on the inequality maintenance model of social class, Study 2 further explored the mediating role of attribution for the rich-poor gap between social class and redistributive preferences. 621 urban and rural residents were investigated by using objective and subjective socioeconomic status (SES) scales, a rich-poor attribution questionnaire, and a redistributive preferences scale. Study 3 was devoted to exploring the intervention effect of humility on the redistributive preferences of the upper social classes. A sample of 103 undergraduates from the upper social class were randomly assigned to humility priming group or control group.
    The results showed that all social class indexes can strongly and negatively predict redistributive preferences, meaning that, as in Western society, upper social-class Chinese individuals also tend to have lower redistributive preferences than those from lower social classes. In addition, the influences of social class on redistributive preferences could be partly mediated through the attribution for the rich-poor gap. Compared with individuals from a subjectively lower class, upper-class individuals tended to attribute the gap between rich and poor to internal causes. That is to say, they tended to attribute the rich-poor gap to personal factors, such as abilities, efforts, and ambition. This attitude lowered upper-class individuals’ redistributive preferences even further. Finally, a short video was used to prime participants’ feelings of humility. Compared with a control group that watched a neutral video, those upper-class undergraduates who watched life stories of people with humble qualities experienced higher states of emotional humility. Priming a humble state lowered their tendency to attribute the gap between rich and poor to internal causes, and further improved their redistributive preferences to a significant extent.
    In conclusion, these three studies deeply explore the relationships between social class and redistributive preferences in the context of Chinese society. Combined with other studies performed in Western societies, these results showed that, to some extent, the negative relationship between social class and redistributive preferences is cross-cultural. The exploration of this mechanism provides supporting data and enrichment for the inequality maintenance model of social class. The finding that humility is an important intervention strategy will further insight into social redistribution. These results suggest that, in order to render the benefits of economic development accessible to more people, social governance could cultivate individual humility through moral education, cultural development, and fostering a community spirit.

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    Mobile phone addiction and depression: Multiple mediating effects of social anxiety and attentional bias to negative emotional information
    HOU Juan, ZHU Yingge, FANG Xiaoyi
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2021, 53 (4): 362-373.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00362
    Abstract9813)   HTML1563)    PDF (892KB)(13809)      

    Depression is an important and widely studied measure of individual psychological and social adaptation. Previous studies have explored the mechanism of depression from various perspectives and found that addiction is a significant risk factor for the development of depression. In recent years, with the rapid development of mobile Internet technology and smart phones, researchers have found that mobile phone addiction, as another important aspect of behavioral addiction, also has a potential impact on depression. Further studies have found that mobile-addicted individuals spend too much time and energy in the virtual world, thus leading to social anxiety. In addition, when social anxiety is so high that it affects the daily life of individuals, individuals are prone to suffer depressive symptoms. According to the cognitive behavioral model of social anxiety and emotional consistent effect, attentional bias to negative information is a key factor in maintaining the anxiety state among individuals with social anxiety. When an individual experiences social anxiety, they will pay more attention to negative information. Depression cognitive theory also posits that attentional bias to negative emotional information is closely related with the occurrence, development and maintenance of depression.
    Therefore, social anxiety and attentional bias to negative emotional information may be important factors in the effects of mobile phone addiction on depression. This study integrated emotional and cognitive factors and explored the effects of social anxiety and attentional bias to negative emotional information on the relationship between mobile phone addiction on depression through two studies. For study 1, a sample of 545 college students completed the Mobile Phone Addiction Index, Beck Depression Inventory and Social Interaction Anxiety Scale. For study 2, 51 college students were selected to complete questionnaires and a 2 (Emotional types of paired facial expressions: negative, neutral) × 2 (Detection point position: same as negative emotional face expression, different from negative emotional face expression) within-subjects task to investigate the serial mediating effects of social anxiety and attentional bias to negative emotional information on the relationship between mobile phone addiction and depression.
    All the data were analyzed by SPSS 20.0 and Mplus 8.3. Some valuable results were obtained as follows. (1) There were significant positive correlations among mobile phone addiction, social anxiety and depression. Social anxiety fully mediated the effect of mobile phone addiction on depression. (2) Social anxiety and attentional bias to negative emotional information serially mediated the relationship between mobile phone addiction and depression. However, attentional bias to negative emotional information did not significantly mediate the effect of mobile phone addiction on depression. Specifically, mobile phone addiction affects depression through two pathways: one is the separate mediating role of social anxiety; the other is the serial mediation pathway of social anxiety → attentional bias to negative emotional information.
    This study expands previous research on mobile phone addiction and individual psychological adaptation, enriches the field of addiction and depression research, and has significance regarding the reduction or control of the negative effects of addiction on depression. Additionally, this study also provides evidence for causal inference that social anxiety and attentional bias can alter depression levels, suggesting that attentional bias training is likely to be a promising alternative therapy for depression and providing new ideas for the intervention and treatment of clinical mental disorders.

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    The relationship between positive parenting and adolescent prosocial behaviour: The mediating role of empathy and the moderating role of the oxytocin receptor gene
    ZHANG Wenxin, LI Xi, CHEN Guanghui, CAO Yanmiao
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2021, 53 (9): 976-991.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00976
    Abstract2835)   HTML342)    PDF (1045KB)(6330)      

    Prosocial behaviour, that is, behaviour intended to benefit others, has been linked to a variety of desirable traits, including positive relationships, better academic performance and lower levels of antisocial behaviours. As such, the origins and the mechanisms underlying the remarkable individual differences in prosocial behaviour are the focus of an increasing number of studies, with numerous research consistently documenting the important role of positive parenting and empathy. Notably, differentiating between cognitive and emotional components of empathy may help further clarify the processes by which parenting eventuates in prosocial behaviour. Although all children may be impacted by parenting, some children benefit more than others from good-quality rearing. Recent research has suggested that the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene rs53576 polymorphism could determine the degree to which a child is influenced by environment. The biological function of rs53576 polymorphism has yet to be delineated, and the literature is mixed with regard to heterozygote (AG) grouping; thus, the implications for AG grouping are not well understood. Therefore, the dummy coding, additive coding, dominant coding and recessive coding models were all investigated in this study to test the nature of gene effect. This study aimed to extend previous studies on the association between parenting and prosocial behaviour by examining the mediating role of cognitive and emotional empathy and the moderating role of the OXTR gene.

    The participants were 1082 mother-offspring dyads (adolescents’ mean age: 12.32 ± 0.48 years, 50.3% females) recruited from the community. At Time 1, mothers reported their positive parenting via the Chinese version of the Child-Rearing Practices Report (CRPR) and peer-rated adolescents’ prosocial behaviours. At Time 2, adolescent-reported perspective-taking and empathic concern, peer-rated prosocial behaviours and saliva samples were collected. All measures showed good reliability. Genotyping at OXTR gene was performed with MassARRAY RT software version 3.0.0.4 and analysed using the MassARRAY Typer software version 3.4 (Sequenom).

    Results showed that adolescents who received higher levels of maternal positive parenting exhibited more prosocial behaviours. However, the direct effect of positive parenting on prosocial behaviour became nonsignificant after controlling for baseline prosocial behaviour. Cognitive empathy, but not emotional empathy, mediated the association between positive parenting and prosocial behaviour. Specifically, positive parenting was positively associated with cognitive empathy, which in turn was positively associated with adolescent prosocial behaviour. Further, this mediation was moderated by the OXTR gene rs53576 polymorphism. For adolescents with AA and GG genotypes, positive parenting was related to higher levels of cognitive empathy, which increased prosocial behaviour. However, this mediation effect was not observed among adolescents with AG genotype. In addition, the results revealed evidence for an overdominance model for OXTR rs53576. Moreover, the G × E term predicted cognitive empathy but not prosocial behaviour. This finding suggests that cognitive empathy may be an endophenotype closer along the causal chain to the genotype and that the strength of the G × E effects was greater for empathy than for distal behavioural outcomes.

    These findings add to our understanding of how empathy and genetic factors contribute to adolescents’ prosocial behaviour within the family context. In addition, these results suggest that cognitive and emotional aspects of empathy are likely to be involved—in somewhat different psychosocial mechanisms—in the development of prosocial behaviour. Notably, the overdominance effect of OXTR should be interpreted with caution until replicated. However, when a three-category polymorphic genotype is used, as is commonly applied when modelling a dominant or recessive effect, both false positive and false negative results can occur, and the nature of the interaction can be misrepresented.

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    The influence of culture on wise reasoning in the context of self-friend conflict and its mechanism
    WEI Xindong, WANG Fengyan
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2021, 53 (11): 1244-1259.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.01244
    Abstract793)      PDF (560KB)(1587)      
    Wisdom involves certain types of pragmatic reasoning to navigate challenges in social life. Scholars presented aspects of wise reasoning that include perspective taking, consideration of change and alternatives, intellectual humility, search for compromise, and adopting an outsider’s vantage point. Researchers have found that most WEIRD (western, educated, industrialized, rich, and democratic) people can reason more wisely about friends’ social problems than their own (i.e., Solomon’s paradox). However, it is not clear whether Solomon’s paradox will exhibit different characteristics and mechanisms among Chinese people who are mainly interdependent selves. We hypothesized that 1) Americans endorsed greater wise-reasoning strategies in the friend-conflict condition than in the self-conflict condition, while among Chinese, endorsement of wise-reasoning strategies did not differ between the two conditions; 2) People with independent self exhibited greater wise reasoning in the friend-conflict condition than in the self-conflict condition, whereas people with interdependent self didn’t have significant differences between the two conditions.
    In study 1, we recruited 594 American participants from MTurk and 610 Chinese participants from a Chinese survey platform to participate in “a survey of daily life”. Participants who responded less attentiveness to the study was excluded. The final sample consisted of 282 American participants (125 females, 155 males 2 with unreported gender; M = 36.87 y, SD = 11.04; 218 Whites, 21 African Americans, 27 Asian, 13 Latino, and 3 other) and 295 Chinese participants (151 females, 144 males; M = 23.22 y, SD = 4.34). Participants were randomly assigned to either self-conflict or friend-conflict conditions. They were asked to think about a close relationship that was currently not going very well, and then responded to the wise-reasoning scale and self-construal scale. The results using the alignment and ANOVA both showed that Americans reason more wisely about friend’s interpersonal conflict than about their own, while the Chinese didn’t have significant differences between the two conditions. Moreover, the interaction effect of independent self and conflict type on wise reasoning was significantly positive in Chinese culture. Among participants high in independent self, endorsement of wise-reasoning strategies was greater in the other-conflict condition than in the self-conflict condition (β = 0.21, t(287) = 2.48, p = 0.014), whereas among participants low in independent self, endorsement of wise-reasoning strategies did not differ between the two conditions (β = -0.07, t(287) = -0.81, p = 0.419). In study 2 (n = 710) and 3 (n = 537), we created a 2 (priming independent vs. interdependent self-construal) × 2 (self-conflict vs. friend-conflict) between-subjects design online and in study 4 (n = 200), we created same design in lab. The results all showed that independent participants reason more wisely about friend’s conflict than about their own, while the differences between the conditions were not significant among interdependent participants.
    The results from the two studies indicate that Solomon’s paradox is not universal and may only exist in individuals with high independent self. This study also suggests that we should not only focus on the WEIRD samples but also pay attention to the WEIRD researchers who use these samples to make inferences about humans in general.
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    Relationship between narcissism and aggression: A meta-analysis
    ZHANG Lihua, ZHU He
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2021, 53 (11): 1228-1243.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.01228
    Abstract610)      PDF (508KB)(1716)      
    Aggression and violence are prevalent public health problems, tremendously harming individuals, families and society. Supposedly, low self-esteem is an important cause of aggression. However, some researchers have suggested that aggression may be attributable to threatened egoism, that is, the inflated and narcissistic view of self that is threatened, rather than low self-esteem itself. Numerous studies have explored the relationship between narcissism and aggression. However, these results appear somewhat inconsistent in different studies. Therefore, this meta-analysis was conducted to explore the strength and moderators of the relationship between narcissism and aggression.
    We included Chinese and English literature from 1965 to 2021. A total of 177 independent effect sizes (121 studies, 73687 participants) were found within the criteria of the meta-analysis. On the basis of the characteristics of studies, we selected the random-effects model. After coding the data, independent effect sizes were analyzed using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis Version 3.3 program.
    The results of the funnel plot and Egger test showed no publication bias. Results showed a significant positive correlation (r = 0.27, 95% CI [0.25, 0.29]) between narcissism and aggression. Additionally, the moderation analyses revealed that the strength of the relationship was moderated by gender and report modality of narcissism, but not by report modality of aggression and culture. Meanwhile, different types of narcissism related differently to aggression, in that covert narcissism was more positively correlated with aggression compared with overt narcissism, and maladaptive narcissism was more positively correlated with aggression compared with adaptive narcissism.
    Based on the meta-analysis, narcissism and aggression were closely related. The mechanisms of aggression must be identified to develop effective prevention and intervention strategies to alleviate the public health problems caused by aggression. Future research could: (1) The present study found that report modality of narcissism plays a moderating role in the relationship between narcissism and aggression. Therefore, to gain insights into the reporters’ bias and obtain accurate and complete information regarding narcissism, the data of multiple reporters can be employed. (2) Overt narcissism and covert narcissism are distinct structures, and the existing studies on the relationship between narcissism and aggression have paid less attention to covert narcissism. The present study found that covert narcissism is more likely to be a risk factor for aggression than overt narcissism. Therefore, future research could strengthen the exploration of covert narcissism.
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    The influence of dispositional mindfulness on the academic affective forecasting biases of middle school students
    SUN Lin, DUAN Tao, LIU Wei, CHEN Ning
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2021, 53 (11): 1203-1214.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.01203
    Abstract500)      PDF (623KB)(1442)      
    Human beings have affective forecasting biases. Dispositional mindfulness may weaken the narrow focus of attention by promoting the expansion of the scope of attention and the association of emotional experience, to better simulate future emotions. For adolescents, schoolwork is an important developmental task as well as an arena for their emotion generation. In the present study, we propose the following hypotheses: Middle school students have academic affective forecasting biases (H1); dispositional mindfulness affects the forecasting bias (H2); and dispositional mindfulness reduces affective forecasting biases by weakening attentional focus (H3). To test these hypotheses, three experiments including field and laboratory situational experiments were conducted.
    In the first experiment, 267 middle school students completed the Five Factor Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ), and were invited to predict their feelings on achieving or not achieving their goals in the forthcoming midterm exam. After the midterm exam, they were asked to report their actual emotional experience at the moment they were informed of their final scores. In the second experiment, 70 middle school students were divided into two groups—high/low dispositional mindfulness groups—and invited to predict their emotions if they were to succeed or fail in the Word Combination Test (WCT). The test involved randomly giving participants positive or negative feedback. After the test, the participants were asked to report their real emotional experience of the success or failure. In the third experiment, 136 middle school students participated in a field experiment of achievement score feedback. Participants completed the FFMQ and attention focus questionnaires first, and then predicted their emotions regarding the result of the WCT. After completing the WCT, the participants were asked to answer the questionnaire about their emotional experiences.
    In sum, the results of the three experiments congruently prove the existence of academic affective forecasting biases in adolescents. In addition, the influence of dispositional mindfulness on affective forecasting biases was as follows: whether it was a positive or negative situation, adolescents with higher dispositional mindfulness had relatively smaller affective forecasting biases, while adolescents with lower dispositional mindfulness had relatively larger forecasting biases, but the tendency of overestimating and underestimating the emotional experience was not significant. To confirm this, we conducted a meta-analysis combining the three experimental data. The results showed that the mean effect size of dispositional mindfulness in positive situations (achievement of test goals, success feedback) was d = 0.56, Z = 4.31, p < 0.001; and the mean effect size of dispositional mindfulness in negative situations (unfulfilled test goal, failure feedback) was d = 0.42, Z = 3.47, p < 0.001. Further, dispositional mindfulness reduces the cross-context robustness of academic affective forecasting biases. In addition, in the third experiment, we found that attentional focus played a mediating role in the effect of dispositional mindfulness on affective forecasting biases.
    This study has two theoretical implications. First, it confirms the existence of affective forecasting biases in middle school students regarding their academics. Second, it reveals the effect of dispositional mindfulness on reducing biases of affective forecasting and its possible mechanism, which could be the amplification-bonding mechanism of mindfulness. In terms of practical implications, the real examination and simulated achievement feedback situations presented in this study are a reflection of real school educational activities and, therefore, have stronger ecological validity.
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    The Complex Trial Protocol based on self-referential encoding: Discriminating the guilty from the knowledgeable innocent
    DENG Xiaohong, LI Ting, XUE Chao, J. Peter ROSENFELD, LU Yang, WANG Ying, ZHAN Xiaofei, YAN Gejun, OUYANG Dan
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2021, 53 (10): 1105-1119.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.01105
    Abstract830)   HTML95)    PDF (1254KB)(1446)      

    The concealed information test (CIT) is a lie detection method, which can determine if a criminal suspect knows the crime-related information and then infer whether the suspect is guilty. The CIT has high internal validity but it is easy to misjudge an innocent person who knows the crime-related information as a guilty one. Therefore, it is necessary to improve CIT's detection accuracy for the guilty and the knowledgeable innocent persons. The complex trial protocol (CTP) is a modified CIT which can effectively resist countermeasures, but it hasn’t been successfully applied to discriminate the guilty from the knowledgeable innocent.
    The present study designed a novel CTP based on self-referential encoding, which measured the early posterior negativity (EPN) and P300. The probe or one of the irrelevant stimuli was randomly presented in the first phase of a trial, and the target (participant’s name) or one of the non-targets (others’ names) was randomly presented in the second phase of a trial. The participants needed to make self-related or self-unrelated responses in two phases when they saw the stimuli.
    The results revealed that: (1) the area under the curve (AUC) for P300 to discriminate the guilty from the unknowledgeable innocent was 0.922, which was significantly higher than 0.5 (the chance level). The AUC for P300 to discriminate the guilty from the knowledgeable innocent was 0.605, which was not significantly different from 0.5, and the false positive rate of the knowledgeable innocent was 75%. The AUC for P300 to discriminate the knowledgeable innocent from the unknowledgeable innocent was 0.859, which was significantly higher than 0.5. (2) The AUC for EPN to discriminate the guilty from the unknowledgeable innocent was 0.770, and the AUC for EPN to discriminate the guilty from the knowledgeable innocent was 0.721. The two AUCs were significantly larger than 0.5. The false positive rate of the knowledgeable innocent was 12.5%. The AUC for EPN to discriminate the knowledgeable innocent from the unknowledgeable innocent was 0.516, which was not significantly different from 0.5.
    In summary, the present study indicated that: (1) P300 can effectively discriminate the guilty from the unknowledgeable innocent, but can not effectively discriminate the guilty from the knowledgeable innocent. P300 is easy to misjudge the knowledgeable innocent as the guilty person. (2) The discrimination of EPN was weaker than that of P300 in discriminating the guilty from the unknowledgeable innocent. However, the discrimination of EPN was superior to that of P300 in discriminating the guilty from knowledgeable innocent. EPN is not easy to misjudge a knowledgeable innocent person as a guilty one. (3) When the CTP based on self-referential coding is applied to detect lies, P300 can be used to discriminate the guilty from the unknowledgeable innocent and EPN can be used to discriminate the guilty from the knowledgeable innocent.

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    The double-edged-sword effect of empathy: The secondary traumatic stress and vicarious posttraumatic growth of psychological hotline counselors during the outbreak of COVID-19
    LAI Lizu, REN Zhihong, YAN Yifei, NIU Gengfeng, ZHAO Chunxiao, LUO Mei, ZHANG Lin
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2021, 53 (9): 992-1002.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00992
    Abstract2284)   HTML261)    PDF (707KB)(4399)      

    The novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak increases public mental stress and pandemic-related trauma. Timely and comprehensive online mental health services have been deployed across China. Hotline counselors can be exposed to the stress and trauma experienced by callers indirectly. They may experience secondary traumatic stress (STS) as a result of their empathetic engagement with traumatized clients, and they may also experience vicarious posttraumatic growth (VPTG). The present study examined negative and positive change in hotline counselors concurrently and explored the mechanisms of both positive and negative outcomes.

    Participants were 776 counselors (81% female, average age = 42.57 ± 7.90, average years of experience = 12.44 ± 5.92) recruited from MOE-CCNU Mental Health Service Platform, the biggest official telephone-based and online psychological support platform in China during COVID-19 period. Empathy and VPTG were measured by revised Chinese versions of self-report questionnaires. STS was assessed by the corresponding subscale of the Professional Quality of Life Scale. The Chinese Meaning in Life Questionnaire was used to assess participants’ search for life meaning. Mindfulness was evaluated by Mindful Attention Awareness Scale. Latent variable structural equation modeling was applied.

    After controlling age, trauma cases and total cases, counselors’ empathy was positively associated with STS and VPTG. Results revealed that empathy was positively associated with STS and VPTG. Mindfulness mediated this association between empathy and STS. Search for meaning mediated the relationship between empathy and VPTG. Additionally, the association between empathy and VPTG was also mediated through other four significant mediating pathways: (a) secondary trauma stress, (b) secondary traumatic stress and search for meaning, (c) mindfulness and search for meaning, and (d) mindfulness and secondary trauma stress and search for meaning.

    Our findings support that empathy lead to both positive and negative outcomes among hotline counselors during COVID-19 period in China, highlighting dialectical insights into trauma workers’ experiences. When counselors engage in others’ traumatic experience, their vicarious negative emotional experience may be a pathway to growth, and search for life meaning is an important factor in that growth.

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    Effects of sentence structure and type of control verb on thematic role assignment: Evidence from eye movements
    LI Fang, LI Xin, ZHANG Manman, BAI Xuejun
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2021, 53 (10): 1071-1081.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.01071
    Abstract973)   HTML130)    PDF (354KB)(1322)      

    Thematic role assignment refers to the on-line processing of assigning semantic roles, such as assigning agents or patients, to arguments (i.e., nouns) related to the verb. Linguistic information provided by arguments (e.g., word order, or case marking), as well as lexical argument representation of the verb is used for assigning thematic roles. The Extended Argument Dependency Model (eADM) suggests that argument cues utilized to assign semantic roles vary across languages. For rigid word-ordering languages (e.g., English) with case marking, readers adopt a position-based assignment, according to which the initial argument is usually analyzed as an agent. By contrast, thematic role assignment in unrestricted word-ordering languages (e.g., German, Italian, Japanese, and Turkish) with case marking exhibits a morphology-based strategy. The eADM model also predicts a reversal of thematic role assignment when the verb’s argument representation contradicts with the argument cues, which is based on verb information and induces additional processing costs. Considerable evidence has demonstrated the language-specific weight on argument cues. However, it is unknown whether word order strongly affects thematic role assignment in Chinese (a rigid-ordering language with case marking) reading. In addition, the reanalysis of thematic roles proposed by the eADM model has only been tentatively explored in Spanish. Whether such reanalysis processing exists in other languages, especially in non-alphabetic languages like Chinese, is still lack of evidence.
    The present study examined the reliance on word order information in the existence of case marking information and the reanalysis of thematic roles when argument representation of the verb was in contradiction with cues of arguments in Chinese. The sentence structure (centered or preposed) and the type of control verb (subject-control or object-control) were manipulated. Sentences in the centered structure provided information of word order and case marking, while sentences in the preposed structure only provided case marking information. Argument representation of object-control verbs incompatible with the information of arguments would lead to a re-assignment of semantic roles. The argument representation of subject-control verbs compatible with the argument cues would cause no reanalysis. Fifty-four pairs of control verbs were selected, each of which was embedded into a centered-structure sentence and a preposed-structure sentence. Eye movements of 24 native Chinese speakers were recorded by the Eyelink Ⅱ eye tracker. Each participant read 54 experimental sentences, followed by a comprehension question.
    The results showed that the preposed structure sentences caused longer second-pass reading time and more total incoming regressions in the first noun, longer first-pass reading time in the second noun, and longer regression path duration in the verb region than the centered-structure sentences, which suggested the strategy of position-based assignment for Chinese readers. There were robust main effects of the types of control verb, in that longer first pass reading time, regression path duration, and total incoming regressions were observed in the verb region, and longer second-pass reading time and total incoming (outgoing) regressions were found in the post-verb region in the object control verb condition than in the subject control verb condition. These results indicated that the mismatch of verb argument representation and argument cues contributed to an extra processing load. In addition, interactions between sentence structure and types of control verb were also observed, with longer second-pass reading time and total incoming regression in the second noun and longer second-pass reading time in the verb region in the centered-structure sentences containing object control verbs than those containing subject control verbs. There were longer first-pass reading time and regression path duration in the post-verb region in the preposed-structure sentences in the object-control verb condition than in the subject-control verb condition.
    In conclusion, these findings indicate that Chinese readers depend on word order information heavily to assign thematic roles even when there is case marking; also, the mismatch between cues of arguments and the argument representation of control verbs in Chinese reading causes reanalysis of thematic roles. Such findings are in line with the claim of the eADM model.

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    Effects of family affective involvement on aging self-stereotypes: An analysis based on latent growth model
    XU Ran, ZHANG Baoshan, LIN Yao
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2021, 53 (11): 1215-1227.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.01215
    Abstract394)      PDF (659KB)(1077)      
    With the aging situation in China accelerating continuously, learning how to maintain physical and mental health in old age and promote successful aging has become the focus of researchers. As the study on this topic progresses, more and more researchers are realizing that aging is not only a biological decline but also the result of an altered psycho-social structure in the form of aging self-stereotypes. As a prerequisite central process by which aging stereotypes influence individual psychological behaviors and physiological constructions, aging self-stereotypes increase the likelihood that individuals will activate stereotypes of the group to which they belong or identify and engage in stereotype-related behaviors, thereby directly influencing their expectations, goals, and behaviors regarding self-development. Previous research has shown that the “possible future selves” facilitate processes related to the stereotypical self-conceptualization of old age. The “possible future selves” often derive from various areas of the older person’s experiences. As the family gradually becomes the most important place for older adults to socialize, the experiences of emotional support and interaction from family members are likely to influence the expectations of older adults on their “possible future selves” and the internalization of stereotypes as they grow older. However, few studies have focused systematically on the effects of older adults’ affective involvement from family members on aging self-stereotypes. There is also a lack of exploration regarding the dynamic trajectory of the relationship between family affective involvement and aging self-stereotypes in a longitudinal framework. Thus, the present study sought to examine the developmental trajectories of family affective involvement and aging self-stereotypes in older adults and the causal relationship between the two.
    In this study, a sample of 257 older adults aged over 55 was followed up for one year. The participants were asked to anonymously complete questionnaires. They were assured by the researchers that the study would be conducted purely for research purposes and that participation was voluntary. Latent growth modeling and cross-lagged analysis were used to examine older adults’ initial level of and growth in family affective involvement and aging self-stereotypes, respectively, as well as predict family affective involvement on aging self-stereotypes.
    Latent growth modeling showed that older adults’ perceptions of affective involvement from family members decreased linearly during the follow-up period while aging self-stereotypes increased linearly. In addition, the initial level of family affective involvement significantly predicted the initial level of and growth in aging self-stereotypes among older adults. Specifically, the lower the initial level of perceived affective involvement of family members, the higher the initial level of aging self-stereotypes in old age. Older adults’ lower initial levels of affective involvement from family members also predicted more rapid growth in aging self-stereotyping. Finally, the rate of decrease in family affective involvement predicted the increases of aging self-stereotypes over time, that is, a steeper decline in the family affective involvement of older adults predicted a steeper increase of aging self-stereotypes. Similarly, cross-lagged analysis showed that family affective involvement negatively predicted aging self-stereotypes after six months.
    Our findings suggest that developmental trajectories of aging self-stereotypes in older adults are influenced by changes in family affective involvement. This study expands the existing research on family affective involvement and aging self-stereotypes. A better understanding of the causal effects of older adults’ affective involvement from family members on aging self-stereotypes can also help ameliorate intervention programs designed to reduce the internalization of aging stereotypes and improve negative aging self-stereotypes.
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    Psychological structure of social mindfulness in Chinese culture
    TIAN Yi, WANG Li, XU Yan, JIAO Liying
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2021, 53 (9): 1003-1017.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.01003
    Abstract2527)   HTML269)    PDF (982KB)(4680)      

    Social mindfulness refers to the ability of an individual to sense others’ states during interpersonal interactions, his or her willingness to respect others’ choices, and his or her ability to transfer rights. Exploring the psychological structure of social mindfulness against the background of Chinese culture is important for cultivating a friendly and harmonious society.

    This study explored the psychological structure of social mindfulness with a lexical method. In Study 1, 59 high- and 24 low-social mindfulness words were selected by word frequency analysis and multiple rounds of discussions. After being evaluated by 43 professionals and 232 nonprofessionals, 40 social mindfulness words were selected. In Study 2, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) with Sample 1 (n = 351) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) with Sample 2 (n = 307) were conducted to obtain a three-factor structure for social mindfulness; these structures include kindness and respect, tolerance and understanding, and optimism and open-mindedness. Additionally, a social mindfulness lexical rating scale (SMLRS) with 18 words was formed. In Study 3, we used the same method as in Study 2 to explore the structure of social mindfulness (EFA: Sample 1, n = 377; CFA: Sample 2, n = 220) through scenario descriptions. Then, a new 17-item social mindfulness self-report scale (SMSRS) and a model with two second-order factors and four first-order factors for the internalization of social mindfulness were generated. Both the SMLRS and SMSRS have good reliability and validity and can be used as measurement tools in follow-up research.

    Through lexical analysis and psychometric analysis, we explored the psychological structure of social mindfulness, which contains two second-order factors and four first-order factors, in Chinese culture. In this model, the two second-order factors were agreeableness and extraversion, and the four first-order factors were kindness and respect, humility, optimism and open-mindedness, and tolerance and understanding.

    From a theoretical point of view, we established a vocabulary of social mindfulness, verified social mindfulness’s second-order four-factor psychological structure, provided a new empirical basis for the higher- order factor theory of personality, and enriched our knowledge of personality and social behavior against the background of Chinese culture. From a practical point of view, the definition of social mindfulness plays a positive role in moral education in the field of education, in the training of employees in the field of organization and in the construction of mentality in the sociology field.

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    Effects of endogenous spatial attention and exogenous spatial attention on multisensory integration
    TANG Xiaoyu, TONG Jiageng, YU Hong, WANG Aijun
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2021, 53 (11): 1173-1188.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.01173
    Abstract369)      PDF (853KB)(1040)      
    Attention effect has been greatly explored in multisensory integration. Previous studies found that endogenous spatial attention enhanced multisensory integration, while exogenous spatial attention decreased multisensory integration. However, there is no research integrates two kinds of spatial attention into the multisensory integration. In present study, we used endogenous-exogenous spatial cue target paradigm to investigate the effect of endogenous spatial attention and exogenous spatial attention on multisensory integration.
    The present study consisted of 2 experiments. In these experiments, we mainly manipulated the endogenous cue validities (including cued, uncued), exogenous cue validities (including cued, uncued) and target modalities (including visual, auditory, and audiovisual modalities). Thirty-six students in Liaoning Normal University were recruited in Exp. 1. The visual (V) target was a white pentagonal asterisk block (2°×2°). The auditory (A) target was a 1 600 Hz sinusoidal tone presented by speakers. The audiovisual (AV) target was composed by the simultaneous presentation of both the visual and the auditory stimuli. At the beginning of each trial, the fixation stimulus was presented for 600~800 ms in the center of the monitor. Following the fixation stimulus, the endogenous cue was presented for 200 ms, which could predict (80%) the location of the target. Then a visual white square served as a exogenous cue was presented for 200 ms at the left or right location randomly. Before the target that appeared for 100 ms, the inter stimulus interval (ISI) lasted for 150 ms. The target (A, V, or AV) randomly appeared for 100 ms in the left or right locations. At last, the fixation stimuli appeared for 1000 ms to wait for the correspondence responses to targets. During the experiment, the participants were asked to locate targets by pressing buttons (F/J) as quickly and accurately as possible. Thirty-six college students were recruited in Exp. 2. In Exp. 2, visual stimuli included checkerboard squares (3.2°×3.2°) with gray (RGB: 147, 149, 152) in the middle and black (RGB: 0, 0, 0) in the middle; auditory stimuli included high-frequency sinusoidaltone (1400)and low-frequency sinusoidal tone (714). The visual target was one of the above two visual stimuli, and the auditory target was one of the above two auditory stimuli. The pairings of two single channel stimuli constituted audiovisual target. The Exp. 2 consisted of four audiovisual targets. Each set of audiovisual targets were balanced among the subjects.
    The results showed that the responses to AV targets were faster than V or A targets, indicating the appearance of the bimodal advancement effect in both experiments. In addition, we found exogenous spatial attention’s race model (probability difference) showed significant smaller at cued compared to uncued condition in both experiments, while the endogenous spatial attention reduced the extent to which the exogenous spatial attention weakened the effect of multisensory integration in Exp. 2, but not in Exp. 1. From the results of the relative amount of multisensory response enhancement (rMRE), In Exp. 1, the effects of endogenous spatial attention and exogenous spatial attention on multisensory integration were marginal significant. In Exp. 2, the two kinds of spatial attention had significant interaction with multisensory integration.
    In summary, exogenous spatial attention decreased multisensory integration in both experiments. Endogenous spatial attention is involved in multisensory integration and has an impact on exogenous spatial attention in Exp. 2. The effects of endogenous spatial attention and exogenous spatial attention on multisensory integration in an interactive manner.
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    The effect of anger on malevolent creativity and strategies for its emotion regulation
    CHENG Rui, LU Kelong, HAO Ning
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2021, 53 (8): 847-860.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00847
    Abstract4003)   HTML491)    PDF (765KB)(6195)      

    Malevolent creativity involves the application of novel ideas to purposely harm others. Instances of it appear everywhere in daily life, such as fraud and money laundering. It is necessary to unveil the factors that can impact malevolent creativity and develop corresponding strategies to reduce its potential harm to society. Previous studies have found that malevolent creativity can be affected by factors such as unfair situations, emotional intelligence, and motivational orientation. Given that malevolent creativity requires individuals to harm others and aggressive behaviours often result from anger, it can be inferred that anger might be an important factor behind malevolent creativity. Moreover, considering that anger can stimulate general creativity through emotional arousal and be strongly relevant to implicit aggression, both emotional arousal and implicit aggression might play key roles in the association between anger and malevolent creativity. If anger can enhance malevolent creativity, the investigation of the impact of emotion regulation strategies on the malevolent creativity of angry individuals is a significant and novel research topic. The current study aimed to explore the effect of anger on malevolent creativity and its underlying mechanisms, and to determine whether such an effect could be modulated by strategies of emotional regulation.
    Study 1, in which a total of 102 college students participated, had a single between-participant factorial design (emotion: anger vs. sadness vs. neutral emotion). There were 34 participants in each group. Participants in the anger and sadness groups were asked to complete the 5-min autobiographical memory task to induce corresponding emotions, and the participants in the neutral emotion group were instructed to complete a 5-min control task (record the schedule for the day in detail). Next, the participants were asked to solve one 10-min malevolent creativity problem (adapted realistic presented problem) and one 5-min general creativity problem (alternative uses task) in each group. Participants’ implicit aggression was assessed using the preference-phrase method. Study 2, in which a total of 120 college students participated, had a single between-participant factorial design (emotion regulation strategies: cognitive reappraisal vs. expressive suppression vs. control group). There were 40 participants in each group. All participants were first asked to induce anger using the autobiographical memory task, and then solve one 5-min malevolent creativity problem. Next, participants in the emotion regulation groups were asked to regulate anger using the relative emotion regulation strategies (3 min), while participants in the control group were asked to complete a 3-min copying task. After the session of emotion regulation, all participants were asked to solve another 5-min malevolent creativity problem. Participants’ implicit aggression was assessed as in Study 1.
    In Study 1, the results showed that the anger group had higher levels of general creative performance, malevolent creative performance, and implicit aggression, than the sadness and neutral emotion groups. Additionally, emotional arousal mediated the effect of anger on both general creative performance and malevolent creative performance (idea fluency and originality), whereas implicit aggression merely mediated the effect of anger on malevolent creative performance (idea fluency, originality, and malevolence). In Study 2, the results showed that anger in the cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression groups significantly decreased after emotion regulation. No similar result was observed for the control group. The control group had significantly higher levels of malevolent creative performance and implicit aggression than the other groups. While implicit aggression mediated the effect of emotion regulation strategies on idea fluency, originality, and malevolence of malevolent creative performance, emotional arousal merely mediated the effect of emotion regulation strategies on idea fluency and originality. These results were independent of control factors such as individual creative potential, malevolent creative potential, and aggression in daily life.
    In conclusion, these findings indicate that anger can stimulate individual malevolent creativity through both implicit aggression and emotional arousal pathways. Emotion regulation strategies such as cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression can effectively impair the malevolent creativity of angry individuals. Theoretically, this study enriches the research field of malevolent creativity and provides evidence and interpretation of the effect of anger on malevolent creativity and its potential mechanism. In practice, this study confirms that cognitive reappraisal and expression inhibition strategies can effectively weaken the malevolent creativity of angry individuals. This emphasises the necessity of regulating anger to avoid or reduce the social harm resulting from malevolent creativity.

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    The impact of gender orientation of names on individuals’ evaluation of impressions and interpersonal interaction
    ZUO Bin, LIU Chen, WEN Fangfang, TAN Xiao, XIE Zhijie
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2021, 53 (4): 387-399.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00387
    Abstract6916)   HTML825)    PDF (703KB)(11846)      

    People can infer personal traits from names and, thus, the impressions of an individual can be influenced by how others perceive his or her name. Previous research has found that people have a distinctive perception of masculine and feminine names. This raises an interesting question: How do people evaluate individuals with opposite gender-oriented names, and how will this evaluation affect interpersonal interaction based on the main two dimensions of social cognition (i.e., warmth and competence). To answer these questions, the first aim of this study was to evaluate the perception of warmth and competence of names within the Chinese context and examine the effects of an individual’s gender and name-gender orientation on impression formation. The second aim was to explore the behavioral aftereffects of evaluation of impressions based on individual’s names.
    Four studies were conducted to explore the research questions. In Study 1, a total of 100 masculine and feminine names were presented to 176 undergraduate students who were asked to rate these names according to four traits: two traits for each dimension of warmth and competence. In Study 2, 121 undergraduate participants were presented with information about target genders and names. Participants were asked to rate these targets based on warmth and competence. In Study 3a, 136 undergraduate participants were presented with two targets that had masculine or feminine names within the context of imagining going on a trip with them. Furthermore, in Study 3b, 131 undergraduate participants were asked to imagine that they would meet two individuals with different names within the context of finishing a difficult task. Participants in Study 3a and Study 3b were then asked to evaluate these individuals based on their warmth and competence traits and choose one of them as their partner to complete the corresponding activities.
    The results were as follows: (1) Feminine names were rated higher on warmth than masculine names, and masculine names were rated higher on competence than feminine names; (2) Individuals with gender-consistent names were considered to have the typical characteristics of their gender: women with feminine names were perceived as warmer than women with masculine names, and men with masculine names were perceived more competent than men with feminine names; (3) Individuals with gender-inconsistent names were considered to have the characteristics of the opposite sex: men with feminine names were perceived less competent than women with masculine names, whereas women with masculine names were perceived less warm than men with feminine names; (4) Participants intended to make friends with women whose names were consistent with their gender, and the perception of warmth completely mediated the effect of name-gender orientation on willingness to interact; and 5) Participants preferred to finish difficult tasks with men whose names were consistent with their gender, and the perception of competence completely mediated the effect of name gender orientation on willingness to cooperate.
    This is the first study to explore how gender and name gender orientation affect individuals’ impressions by applying stereotype content in China. We examined the influence of name gender orientation on individuals’ perceptions about others, as well as their behavior intention and mechanism, from the perspective of the perceiver’s motivation. This study provides new theoretical explanations and empirical support for impression evaluation and interpersonal interaction based on names, and has important implications for future research on the social cognition of names. Further studies should explore the content of gender-ambiguous names and their effects on individuals’ impressions and behavioral aftereffects. The effects of emotional and cognitive processes on names and interpersonal interaction should also be assessed.

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    Same-category advantage on the capacity of visual working memory
    SUN Yanliang, SONG Jiaru, XIN Xiaowen, DING Xiaowei, LI Shouxin
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2021, 53 (11): 1189-1202.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.01189
    Abstract352)      PDF (707KB)(850)      
    Visual working memory (VWM) is a limited-capacity cognitive system that is responsible for temporarily storing up to three or four items, maintaining their availability for current cognitive processing. Although VWM capacity is limited, the limit is not fixed. Factors such as the complexity, statistical regularity, real-world spatial regularity, and perceptual grouping principles of memory objects can modulate this capacity. However, the potential influence of higher-order conceptual regularities, such as categorical relationships among memory objects, remains an open and controversial issue. The effect of object category on VWM capacity, if any, has two possibilities: a mixed-category advantage and a same-category advantage. The first is consistent with the neural resource theory, by which the ability to simultaneously process multiple items is limited by the extent to which those items are represented by nonoverlapping neural representations. The same-category advantage is consistent with a prediction yielded by an ideal-observer analysis of VWM, based on the rate-distortion theory. Although the mixed-category advantage is predicted by the neural resource theory, almost all current supporting evidence solely involves faces. On the other hand, although the same-category advantage is consistent with the ideal-observer prediction, there is still lack of direct evidence to support the generalization of this prediction from low-level to high-level features. Hence, in the present study, we used behavioral and electrophysiological methods to explore this issue.
    Here, we report two behavioral experiments and one event-related-potentials (ERPs) experiment that assess whether category knowledge affects VWM capacity. The experiments were carried out on 60 undergraduate students.
    A 2 (memory load: two or four) × 2 (category: same or different) × 2 (posture: high similar or low similar) within-subject design was used in Experiment 1. The results showed that category knowledge modulates the capacity of the VWM and leads to a same-category advantage.
    In Experiment 2, we changed the presentation of MIs from simultaneous to successive and replicated the findings from Experiment 1, demonstrating that category knowledge leads to larger memory capacity in the same-category rather than in the different-category condition, even if the MIs are sequentially presented.
    In Experiment 3, in addition to Cowan’s K, the contralateral delay activity (CDA, an electrophysiological index of VWM capacity) was measured to further explore the processing mechanism underlying the same-category advantage. The CDA results show for the first time that same-category objects can induce a smaller contralateral delay activity (an index of VWM capacity) than different-category objects. The CDA results combined with behavioral results indicated that category knowledge can help compact the representations of same-category objects and therefore enlarge the total information capacity of VWM.
    In conclusion, our data clearly demonstrate an advantageous same-category effect on the capacity of VWM, which indicates that categorical relationships among objects play an important role in expanding the capacity of VWM by enabling the grouping of same-category objects. This suggests that VWM capacity is not fixed but can be flexible depending on the type of information to be remembered. Moreover, our data also suggest that the ideal-observer prediction can be extended from low-level to high-level features.
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