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ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

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    , Volume 53 Issue 10 Previous Issue   

    Reports of Empirical Studies
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    Reports of Empirical Studies
    The influence of the matching of modality presentation mode and perceptual learning style on the bidialectal switching cost of Cantonese-Mandarin
    XING Qiang, WU Xiao, WANG Jiawei, ZHANG Zhonglu
    2021, 53 (10):  1059-1070.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.01059
    Abstract ( 228 )   PDF (626KB) ( 415 )   Peer Review Comments
    Bidialectal means that two language varieties have different spoken forms but a mutual written language, and bidialectal switching cost refers to the processing of a mixed-language series in language switching compared to the processing of a single-language series. It often appears as a phenomenon in which a speaker’s reaction becomes longer and the error rate increases. With the enrichment of experimental materials and the improvement of experimental methods, researchers have found that stimulus modality and perceptual learning style have an important impact on the cost of bidialectal switching, but the existing works have not yet discussed whether the relationship between these two factors has an influence as well. Therefore, this study explores the influence of the matching between the perceptual learning style of skilled Cantonese-Mandarin speakers and the stimulus modality on the cost of bidialectal switching. Three experiments were used to identify the best stimulus presentation that matches an individual’s perceived learning style.
    Experiment 1 adopted a three-factor (modality presentation mode, language, and task) within-subject design to study the influence of different stimulus modalities on bidialectal switching cost. Then, Experiment 2 used a four-factor (perception learning style, modality presentation mode, language, task) mixed experiment design to study the impact of bidialectal switching cost from the perspective of the matching between the perceived learning style and the stimulus modality. Experiment 3 used a single factor design to study the effect of learning under the optimal presentation paradigm on the cost of bidialectal switching by setting up a control group. Both Experiment 2 and Experiment 3 screened visual learners and auditory learners through The Learning Channel Preference Checklist.
    The results showed the following: (1) Skilled Cantonese-Mandarin bidialectal speakers experienced a switching cost under the different stimulus modality conditions, with the participants who were given visual cues demonstrating a lower switching cost than those given auditory cues. It should be noted that these results were quite different from previous studies, which showed a higher switching cost with visual cues compared to auditory cues. (2) There was an interaction between the perceptual learning style and the stimulus modality. Under the matching condition, the bidialectal switching cost was lower than in the non-matching condition, and under the visual-visual condition, the switching cost was the lowest. (3) The switching cost was smaller under matching conditions compared to random presentation conditions; that is, the presentation mode that matched the perception learning style with the channel presentation mode was the best stimulus presentation mode.
    Based on the above results, it can be concluded that the channel can affects the cost of bidialectal switching—namely, when the modality presentation mode matches the perceptual learning style of a bidialectal speaker—the bidialectal switching cost is smaller. With the popularization of Mandarin, an increasing number of people in China’s dialect areas have become bidialectal speakers. The results of this study will be helpful in providing theoretical support to improve teaching activities in dialect areas.
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    Effects of sentence structure and type of control verb on thematic role assignment: Evidence from eye movements
    LI Fang, LI Xin, ZHANG Manman, BAI Xuejun
    2021, 53 (10):  1071-1081.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.01071
    Abstract ( 133 )   PDF (354KB) ( 226 )   Peer Review Comments
    Thematic role assignment refers to the on-line processing of assigning semantic roles, such as assigning agents or patients, to arguments (i.e., nouns) related to the verb. Linguistic information provided by arguments (e.g., word order, or case marking), as well as lexical argument representation of the verb is used for assigning thematic roles. The Extended Argument Dependency Model (eADM) suggests that argument cues utilized to assign semantic roles vary across languages. For rigid word-ordering languages (e.g., English) with case marking, readers adopt a position-based assignment, according to which the initial argument is usually analyzed as an agent. By contrast, thematic role assignment in unrestricted word-ordering languages (e.g., German, Italian, Japanese, and Turkish) with case marking exhibits a morphology-based strategy. The eADM model also predicts a reversal of thematic role assignment when the verb’s argument representation contradicts with the argument cues, which is based on verb information and induces additional processing costs. Considerable evidence has demonstrated the language-specific weight on argument cues. However, it is unknown whether word order strongly affects thematic role assignment in Chinese (a rigid-ordering language with case marking) reading. In addition, the reanalysis of thematic roles proposed by the eADM model has only been tentatively explored in Spanish. Whether such reanalysis processing exists in other languages, especially in non-alphabetic languages like Chinese, is still lack of evidence.
    The present study examined the reliance on word order information in the existence of case marking information and the reanalysis of thematic roles when argument representation of the verb was in contradiction with cues of arguments in Chinese. The sentence structure (centered or preposed) and the type of control verb (subject-control or object-control) were manipulated. Sentences in the centered structure provided information of word order and case marking, while sentences in the preposed structure only provided case marking information. Argument representation of object-control verbs incompatible with the information of arguments would lead to a re-assignment of semantic roles. The argument representation of subject-control verbs compatible with the argument cues would cause no reanalysis. Fifty-four pairs of control verbs were selected, each of which was embedded into a centered-structure sentence and a preposed-structure sentence. Eye movements of 24 native Chinese speakers were recorded by the Eyelink Ⅱ eye tracker. Each participant read 54 experimental sentences, followed by a comprehension question.
    The results showed that the preposed structure sentences caused longer second-pass reading time and more total incoming regressions in the first noun, longer first-pass reading time in the second noun, and longer regression path duration in the verb region than the centered-structure sentences, which suggested the strategy of position-based assignment for Chinese readers. There were robust main effects of the types of control verb, in that longer first pass reading time, regression path duration, and total incoming regressions were observed in the verb region, and longer second-pass reading time and total incoming (outgoing) regressions were found in the post-verb region in the object control verb condition than in the subject control verb condition. These results indicated that the mismatch of verb argument representation and argument cues contributed to an extra processing load. In addition, interactions between sentence structure and types of control verb were also observed, with longer second-pass reading time and total incoming regression in the second noun and longer second-pass reading time in the verb region in the centered-structure sentences containing object control verbs than those containing subject control verbs. There were longer first-pass reading time and regression path duration in the post-verb region in the preposed-structure sentences in the object-control verb condition than in the subject-control verb condition.
    In conclusion, these findings indicate that Chinese readers depend on word order information heavily to assign thematic roles even when there is case marking; also, the mismatch between cues of arguments and the argument representation of control verbs in Chinese reading causes reanalysis of thematic roles. Such findings are in line with the claim of the eADM model.
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    Gender difference in retrieval-extinction of conditioned fear memory
    CHEN Wei, LIN Xiaoyi, LI Junjiao, ZHANG Wenxi, SUN Nan, ZHENG Xifu
    2021, 53 (10):  1082-1093.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.01082
    Abstract ( 269 )   PDF (777KB) ( 380 )   Peer Review Comments
    For nearly half a century, the memory reconsolidation theory, which believes that even memories that have been consolidated would be reactivated during the retrieval process and temporarily return to an unstable state, has been continuously developed. Based on this understanding, the researchers proposed the retrieval-extinction paradigm. That is, after successfully learning the pairing rule between a conditioned stimulus (CS) and unconditioned stimulus (US), the original memory was un-stabilized by presenting a single CS, and then traditional extinction training was performed. This paradigm has been proven in some studies to weaken the expression of non-adaptive fear memory effectively.
    However, other studies have reached different results, indicating that this paradigm failed to suppress the fear recovery. Current research mainly focused on the boundary conditions of memory conditions and retrieval conditions to explain the difference between studies, such as prediction error, acquisition time, the intensity of acquisition, and individual differences. Gender difference, as an essential variable of individual differences, is an influential factor in the study of boundary conditions. In the standard extinction paradigm, research has concluded that women easily acquire fear memory but that such fear memory is more difficult to extinct than that in men. However, it is relatively rare to explore gender differences in the research of the retrieval-extinction paradigm. Therefore, this study considered gender as a variable, using geometric figures as CS, wrist electric shock as the US, and skin conductance response as an indicator of fear response, to explore whether there is a gender difference in the fear extinction effect.
    The results showed no gender difference in the spontaneous fear recovery of the retrieval-extinction paradigm because all subjects successfully suppressed the spontaneous fear recovery. Nevertheless, there was a significant gender difference in the reinstatement test, in which men showed increased skin conductance responses (SCR), whereas women did not show any increased SCR. Besides, there were gender differences in the spontaneous fear recovery and reinstatement test of the standard extinction paradigm. After training by this paradigm, women showed increased SCR in spontaneously fear recovery and a tendency to fear generalization. In contrast, men showed suppressed spontaneous fear recovery but showed increased SCR in the reinstatement test.
    Our study proved a gender difference in the extinction effect of the retrieval-extinction paradigm (women showed the best extinction effect) and verified that the extinction effect of the retrieval-extinction paradigm was better than that of the standard extinction paradigm. From the results, we could demonstrate that the retrieval-extinction paradigm is an effective intervention method, especially for women. It will be beneficial to further verify evidence about the effectiveness of the retrieval-extinction paradigm and clarify its object and scope in clinical applications. Our study suggests that the retrieval-extinction paradigm in clinical transformation needs to provide more personalized treatment plans for male and female patients, thus improving clinical applicability and treatment effectiveness.
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    The role of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex on voluntary forgetting of negative social feedback in depressed patients: A TMS study
    CHEN Yuming, LI Sijin, GUO Tianyou, XIE Hui, XU Feng, ZHANG Dandan
    2021, 53 (10):  1094-1104.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.01094
    Abstract ( 205 )   PDF (2048KB) ( 267 )   Peer Review Comments
    Depression is a common mental disorder characterized by persistent low mood and anhedonia. While healthy people can voluntarily forget unpleasant events, depressed patients cannot or have difficulty in forgetting negative stimuli. Studies focused on healthy population have found that memory suppression is not only associated with decreased neural activation in the hippocampus, but also significantly activates a wide network in the prefrontal cortex, especially the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Meanwhile, studies have demonstrated that depressed participants could not effectively recruit their frontal brain network responsible for inhibition control of negative materials. Thus, the key question of this study is to examine whether an enhancement of the neural activation in DLPFC using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) could improve the ability of voluntary forgetting of negative information in depressed patients.
    We recruited a total of 123 participants. Among them, 31 healthy participants were stimulated by TMS at the right DLPFC (right DLPFC-activated controls), 32 patients and 30 patients were stimulated by TMS at the left and right DLPFC respectively (left and right DLPFC-activated patients). The other 30 patients were assigned into a sham TMS group. This study contained three independent variables. The two within-subject variables were TMS (baseline or TMS condition) and directed forgetting instruction (remember or forget), and the between-subject variable was group (left or right DLPFC-activated patient, or right DLPFC-activated control). We focused on the memory suppression of social feedbacks in this study, since social feedback processing plays a vital role in everyday interpersonal activities. Previous studies have found that depressed patients cannot perceive and evaluate social feedbacks accurately and adaptively, which makes negative social experiences being an important inducing factor of depression. Meanwhile, evidence indicates that depressed patients have more deficits in processing social relative to nonsocial information.
    Results of the explicit memory test showed that the recall accuracy of social rejection was higher in patients than healthy controls in baseline condition, suggesting that patients had difficulty in voluntarily forgetting negative social feedback. After we used the TMS to activate the left or right DLPFC of participants, we found no significant difference in the recall accuracy of social rejection between the three groups. This result suggested that the ability of memory suppression for negative social feedback was improved by TMS in patients. Moreover, it was also found that patients rated the feedback senders as being more attractive after they had forgotten negative social feedback provided by these feedback senders.
    The main contribution of this study is that we first attempt to improve the ability of memory suppression of negative information in depressed patients using the TMS technique. Still now, there have been only two neuroscience studies focusing on the deficits of directed forgetting in depression (Xie, Jiang, & Zhang, 2018; Yang et al., 2016). Beyond these two studies, we demonstrated a causal relationship between the DLPFC and memory suppression impairment in depressed patients by employing TMS to facilitate the function of DLPFC. Thus, we provide a potential neural target for the clinical treatment of depressed patients with voluntary forgetting deficits. In addition to depression, difficulties in voluntary forgetting is a common problem found in patients diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety disorder (including obsessive compulsive disorder), schizophrenia and many other mental disorders. Meanwhile, difficulties in forgetting the euphoria or enjoyment coming from drugs or high-calorie foods might be an important reason for the persistence and aggravation of drug addiction and bulimia. Our finding suggests that the right DLPFC may be a potential brain target for the treatment of memory suppression deficits in these disorders. Facilitating the cognitive control of this brain region using the TMS is expected to restore the inhibitory control function of patients and thus significantly improve their voluntary forgetting ability, helping them to relieve symptoms and recover from disorders.
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    The Complex Trial Protocol based on self-referential encoding: Discriminating the guilty from the knowledgeable innocent
    DENG Xiaohong, LI Ting, XUE Chao, J. Peter ROSENFELD, LU Yang, WANG Ying, ZHAN Xiaofei, YAN Gejun, OUYANG Dan
    2021, 53 (10):  1105-1119.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.01105
    Abstract ( 149 )   PDF (1254KB) ( 240 )   Peer Review Comments
    The concealed information test (CIT) is a lie detection method, which can determine if a criminal suspect knows the crime-related information and then infer whether the suspect is guilty. The CIT has high internal validity but it is easy to misjudge an innocent person who knows the crime-related information as a guilty one. Therefore, it is necessary to improve CIT's detection accuracy for the guilty and the knowledgeable innocent persons. The complex trial protocol (CTP) is a modified CIT which can effectively resist countermeasures, but it hasn’t been successfully applied to discriminate the guilty from the knowledgeable innocent.
    The present study designed a novel CTP based on self-referential encoding, which measured the early posterior negativity (EPN) and P300. The probe or one of the irrelevant stimuli was randomly presented in the first phase of a trial, and the target (participant’s name) or one of the non-targets (others’ names) was randomly presented in the second phase of a trial. The participants needed to make self-related or self-unrelated responses in two phases when they saw the stimuli.
    The results revealed that: (1) the area under the curve (AUC) for P300 to discriminate the guilty from the unknowledgeable innocent was 0.922, which was significantly higher than 0.5 (the chance level). The AUC for P300 to discriminate the guilty from the knowledgeable innocent was 0.605, which was not significantly different from 0.5, and the false positive rate of the knowledgeable innocent was 75%. The AUC for P300 to discriminate the knowledgeable innocent from the unknowledgeable innocent was 0.859, which was significantly higher than 0.5. (2) The AUC for EPN to discriminate the guilty from the unknowledgeable innocent was 0.770, and the AUC for EPN to discriminate the guilty from the knowledgeable innocent was 0.721. The two AUCs were significantly larger than 0.5. The false positive rate of the knowledgeable innocent was 12.5%. The AUC for EPN to discriminate the knowledgeable innocent from the unknowledgeable innocent was 0.516, which was not significantly different from 0.5.
    In summary, the present study indicated that: (1) P300 can effectively discriminate the guilty from the unknowledgeable innocent, but can not effectively discriminate the guilty from the knowledgeable innocent. P300 is easy to misjudge the knowledgeable innocent as the guilty person. (2) The discrimination of EPN was weaker than that of P300 in discriminating the guilty from the unknowledgeable innocent. However, the discrimination of EPN was superior to that of P300 in discriminating the guilty from knowledgeable innocent. EPN is not easy to misjudge a knowledgeable innocent person as a guilty one. (3) When the CTP based on self-referential coding is applied to detect lies, P300 can be used to discriminate the guilty from the unknowledgeable innocent and EPN can be used to discriminate the guilty from the knowledgeable innocent.
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    The reciprocal relationships between head teachers’ negotiation management behavior and teacher-student relationship and primary school students’ externalizing problem behaviors from grades four to six: A cross-lagged study
    XIE Qili, ZHENG Huizhen, JIANG Guangrong, REN Zhihong, FAN Yanfei, LIU Jiahuai, ZHANG Wen
    2021, 53 (10):  1120-1132.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.01120
    Abstract ( 210 )   PDF (733KB) ( 373 )   Peer Review Comments
    Students’ externalizing problem behaviors negatively impact on the current and future development of themselves, classmates and teachers. Managing students’ externalizing problems is a great challenge for teachers. Previous studies in a Western educational environment and experience of excellent domestic head teachers indicate that head teachers can effectively reduce students’ externalizing problem behaviors by adopting negotiation management strategies and building positive teacher-student relationships. Most of the existing studies emphasize the influence of teachers’ negotiation management behavior and the teacher-student relationship on students’ externalizing problem behaviors. However, conversely, the transactional model suggests that students’ externalizing problem behaviors may also affect teachers’ negotiation management behavior and the teacher-student relationship. The present study aims to explore the reciprocal relationships between head teachers’ negotiation management behavior and teacher-student relationship and primary school students’ externalizing problem behaviors from grades four to six in China.
    The questionnaire on head teachers’ negotiation management behavior, and the strengths and difficulties questionnaire, and the student perception of affective relationship scale was used for measurement were administered to 1407 students from grades four to six at three different periods in one school year. All the measures were reliable and valid. SPSS 20.0 and Mplus 7.4 were used to analyze the data. A cross-lagged model was used to investigate the reciprocal relationship among the head teachers’ negotiation management behavior, the teacher-student relationship, and primary school students’ externalizing problem behaviors.
    The results reflected that, after controlling for covariates, simultaneous correlation, and auto-regression of variables, head teachers’ negotiation management behavior drove the positive interaction cycle. The head teachers’ negotiation management behavior at Time 1 reduced the students’ externalizing problem behavior, improved the closeness of the teacher-student relationship, and decreased the conflicts of the teacher-student relationship at Time 2, which further affected the head teachers’ negotiation management behavior, the teacher-student relationship, and the students’ externalizing problem behaviors at Time 3. The students’ externalizing problem behaviors drove the negative interaction cycle. The students’ externalizing problem behaviors at Time 1 reduced the head teachers’ negotiation management behavior, decreased the closeness of the teacher-student relationship, and increased the conflicts of the teacher-student relationship at Time 2, which further affected the students’ externalizing problem behaviors, the teacher-student relationship, and the head teacher’s negotiation management behavior at Time 3.
    These observations deepen the understanding of the complex reciprocal relationships between head teachers’ negotiation management behavior and teacher-student relationship and primary school students’ externalizing problem behaviors from grade four to six in China. Additionally, the findings have important implications for preventing and intervening in students’ externalizing problem behaviors. The results reflect that the head teachers need to be aware of the negative “driver” role of students’ externalizing problem behaviors, and consciously use the positive “driver” role of negotiation management behavior to break the negative cycle driven by students’ externalizing problem behaviors.
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    The effect of the angry emoji position on consumers’ perception of the sender’s anger
    WU Ruijuan, CHEN Jiuqi, LI Yan
    2021, 53 (10):  1133-1145.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.01133
    Abstract ( 505 )   PDF (728KB) ( 804 )   Peer Review Comments
    Emoji are widely adopted in smartphones, for input methods, and on social networks. As ubiquitous characters, emoji transcend linguistic borders and are gaining worldwide popularity. The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of the position of the angry emoji in negative online consumer reviews on the consumers’ perceptions of the sender’s anger. The present study first proposed the main location effect of the position of the angry emoji on the consumers’ perception of the sender’s anger. That is, compared with the angry emoji at the end of a sentence, the angry emoji in the middle of a sentence led to a stronger perception of anger. Based on visual information processing of the location effect, the current research proposed that the position salience perception and the sentiment-strengthening perception of the angry emoji serially mediated the above main effect. Further, we hypothesized that word review extremity moderated the effect of the position of the angry emoji on the consumers’ perceptions of the sender’s anger.
    For this paper, we conducted one eye-tracking experiment and three laboratory experiments. In Study 1, we conducted a pretest, which was the eye-tracking experiment. The product used in the pretest was a thermos mug. Study 1 was a 3 (one emoji at the end of a sentence vs. one in the middle of a sentence vs. no emoji) × 2 (feature description: feature one precedes feature two vs. feature two precedes feature one) between-subjects design. The product used in Study 1 was a laptop. Study 2 was a 2 (the position of the angry emoji at the end vs. in the middle of a sentence) × 2 (feature description: feature one precedes feature two vs. feature two precedes feature one) between-subjects design. Study 2 used a gel-ink pen refill as the target product. In Study 2, we measured the consumers’ perceptions of the sender’s anger, the angry emoji sentiment-strengthening perception, and the position salience perception created by the angry emoji. Study 3 was a 2 (the position of the angry emoji at the end vs. in the middle of a sentence) × 2 (word review extremity: moderate vs. extreme) between-subjects design. Study 3 used a coat as the target product.
    The results of the pretest demonstrated the effectiveness of visual information processing on the location effect. The position of the angry emoji influenced the participants’ attention. The angry emoji in the middle of a sentence led to higher fixation counts and longer fixation durations. The results of Study 1 demonstrated the main effect in this paper, which was that an angry emoji in the middle of a sentence led to a stronger perception of the sender’s anger than did an angry emoji at the end of a sentence. The results of Study 2 replicated the results of Study 1 and tested the serial-mediating roles of the position salience perception and the sentiment- strengthening perception of the angry emoji. The results of Study 3 replicated the results of Study 2 and tested the moderating role of word review extremity in the relationship between the position of the angry emoji and the consumers’ perception of the sender’s anger. When we considered the extreme word review, the influence of the position of the angry emoji on the sender’s perception of anger was not significant; however, when we considered the moderate word review, the angry emoji in the middle of a sentence significantly enhanced the consumers’ perception of the sender’s anger.
    The current research extended the extant literature in several dimensions. First, it supplemented the literature in the field of marketing on the effects of the emoji on consumers’ responses. Second, it supplemented the literature of application contexts and the influence of the location effect. Third, the present research provided empirical evidence for emoji functions. Fourth, the present study supplemented the literature of online consumer reviews.
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    Spillover effects of workplace ostracism on employee family life: The Role of need for affiliation and work-home segmentation preference
    DENG XinCai, HE Shan, LYU Ping, ZHOU Xing, YE YiJiao, MENG HongLin, KONG Yurou
    2021, 53 (10):  1146-1160.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.01146
    Abstract ( 186 )   PDF (634KB) ( 273 )   Peer Review Comments
    Against the backdrop of fierce competition in the workplace, conflicts of interest and interpersonal frictions in enterprises occur frequently. With cold violence increasingly prevalent, workplace ostracism raises extensive concern for its frequent occurrence, invisibility, and long-term hurtfulness. Compared to Western society, the traditional tolerance and restraint of Chinese culture intensifies the hurtfulness to those who are ostracized. Additionally, the fuzzy work-family boundary of Chinese culture displaces this hurtfulness onto their family through their emotions, attitudes, and behavior, which impairs their lives and future work.
    Previous studies have found that workplace ostracism has negative effects on the inner workings of an organization from the perspectives of psychology, attitude, behavior, and performance. However, the spillover effect of workplace ostracism on organizations is rarely discussed. Compared with Western society, Chinese employees maintain relatively vague boundaries between work and family, and the bad experiences of employees in the workplace are more likely to spillover to the family field through employees’ psychological and emotional states, thus affecting their family life and follow-up work. Based on the conservation of resources theory, this paper discusses the spillover effect of workplace ostracism on family undermining and family satisfaction from the perspectives of decreasing positive spillover and increasing negative spillover. Individuals feel threatened and stressed when they lose resources. In light of this, this study constructs and verifies the mediating effect of work stress between workplace ostracism and family undermining and family satisfaction. Furthermore, this study also verifies the boundary effect of individual need for affiliation and work-home segmentation preference in spillover.
    Two samples were collected to test the hypotheses. For the first sample, we collected the data at three timepoints with one-month intervals from 16 tourism-service enterprises in Guizhou and Shandong provinces. A total of 264 effective questionnaires were returned. For the second sample, with a one-week interval, the survey was administered to five tourism-service enterprises in Guizhou province, and the final sample consisted of 239 effective questionnaires. We employed hierarchical multiple regression and bootstrapping analyses to test the hypotheses. The results indicated the following: (1) workplace ostracism had a positive effect on family undermining and a negative effect on family satisfaction; (2) workplace stress mediated the relationship between workplace ostracism and family undermining and family satisfaction; (3) need for affiliation positively moderated the effect of workplace ostracism on work stress, while moderating the indirect influence of workplace ostracism on family undermining and family satisfaction via work stress; (4) work-home segmentation preference moderated the effect of work stress on family undermining and family satisfaction, while moderating the indirect influence of workplace ostracism on family undermining and family satisfaction via work stress.
    This study has several theoretical and practical implications. Based on the conservation of resources theory, this study demonstrates an increase in negative spillover and a decrease in positive spillover; moreover, this study maps the antecedent variables of family undermining and family satisfaction in the workplace. Furthermore, this study shows that work stress is a key transmission mechanism by which workplace ostracism penetrates the work-family interface and causes a spillover effect, which is a response to the a calling for disclosing “the black box” of the spillover effect of workplace ostracism. Finally, by constructing a moderated mediation model and investigating the influence of workplace ostracism on individuals with a unique need for affiliation and work-home segmentation preference, this study specifies the boundary conditions of the spillover effect for workplace ostracism and contributes valid evidence for the conservation of resources theory. In practice, our study can help service enterprises and their managers to understand the spillover effect of workplace ostracism on the family domain more accurately, and to reduce the negative impact of workplace ostracism by taking effective measures, such as building a harmonious, tolerant, and friendly organizational cultural atmosphere.
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    How can successful people share their goodness with the world: The psychological mechanism underlying the upper social classes’ redistributive preferences and the role of humility
    BAI Jie, YANG Shenlong, XU Buxiao, GUO Yongyu
    2021, 53 (10):  1161-1172.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.01161
    Abstract ( 292 )   PDF (451KB) ( 419 )   Peer Review Comments
    A large number of studies conducted in Europe and the Americas have explored the negative relationships between social class and redistributive preferences in recent years. However, few studies have addressed the cross-cultural consistency or explored the internal mechanism and intervention strategies of the effects of social class on redistributive preferences. The present study aimed to systematically and deeply explore the relationships between social class and redistributive preferences through three studies in the context of Chinese society.
    Study 1 explored the direct relationship between social class and redistributive preferences. Based on national data from the Chinese General Social Survey of 2015, 8376 participants from all provinces and autonomous regions of China and indexes of measuring social class and redistributive preferences were obtained. Based on the inequality maintenance model of social class, Study 2 further explored the mediating role of attribution for the rich-poor gap between social class and redistributive preferences. 621 urban and rural residents were investigated by using objective and subjective socioeconomic status (SES) scales, a rich-poor attribution questionnaire, and a redistributive preferences scale. Study 3 was devoted to exploring the intervention effect of humility on the redistributive preferences of the upper social classes. A sample of 103 undergraduates from the upper social class were randomly assigned to humility priming group or control group.
    The results showed that all social class indexes can strongly and negatively predict redistributive preferences, meaning that, as in Western society, upper social-class Chinese individuals also tend to have lower redistributive preferences than those from lower social classes. In addition, the influences of social class on redistributive preferences could be partly mediated through the attribution for the rich-poor gap. Compared with individuals from a subjectively lower class, upper-class individuals tended to attribute the gap between rich and poor to internal causes. That is to say, they tended to attribute the rich-poor gap to personal factors, such as abilities, efforts, and ambition. This attitude lowered upper-class individuals’ redistributive preferences even further. Finally, a short video was used to prime participants’ feelings of humility. Compared with a control group that watched a neutral video, those upper-class undergraduates who watched life stories of people with humble qualities experienced higher states of emotional humility. Priming a humble state lowered their tendency to attribute the gap between rich and poor to internal causes, and further improved their redistributive preferences to a significant extent.
    In conclusion, these three studies deeply explore the relationships between social class and redistributive preferences in the context of Chinese society. Combined with other studies performed in Western societies, these results showed that, to some extent, the negative relationship between social class and redistributive preferences is cross-cultural. The exploration of this mechanism provides supporting data and enrichment for the inequality maintenance model of social class. The finding that humility is an important intervention strategy will further insight into social redistribution. These results suggest that, in order to render the benefits of economic development accessible to more people, social governance could cultivate individual humility through moral education, cultural development, and fostering a community spirit.
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