ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B


    25 May 2021, Volume 53 Issue 5 Previous Issue    Next Issue

    Reports of Empirical Studies
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    Reports of Empirical Studies
    The establishment of Chinese Emotion Regulation Word System (CERWS) and its pilot test
    YUAN Jiajin, ZHANG Yicheng, CHEN Shengdong, LUO Li, RU Yishan
    2021, 53 (5):  445-455.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00445
    Abstract ( 4576 )   HTML ( 502 )  
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    Implicit emotion regulation has become a hotspot of emotion regulation research recently. However, currently there is no standardized emotion regulation word system for researchers in the field of implicit emotion regulation. The purpose of this study is to establish a Chinese Emotion Regulation Word System (CERWS) by multi-dimensional ratings and analysis of emotional regulation words, and then to verify the effectiveness of the system by experiments.
    In Study 1, two hundred and twenty-six emotion regulation words (N = 226) were selected as preliminary materials by group discussion. Among them, 176 were judged as emotion regulation words that corresponded to five commonly used strategies (acceptance, distraction, venting, suppression and reappraisal) and 50 as neutral words. One hundred and twenty-eight participants (N = 128) rated the representativeness of words on five emotion regulation strategies. To ensure that the selected words are not mixed in strategic meanings, the words that exclusively represent one regulatory strategy or neutral meanings were selected into CERWS as emotion regulation words or neutral words, respectively. The words of CERWS were further rated by participants on the dimensions of valence, arousal, dominance, motivational tendency, familiarity and spelling complexity (N = 128). Thirty participants were randomly selected and retested one month later (N = 30).
    In Study 2, the emotion regulation effect of words in CERWS was further investigated. The regulatory effect of 5 strategies of CERWS on negative emotion was tested using a typical implicit emotion regulation paradigm (sentence unscrambling task). One hundred and ninety-six participants (N = 196) were involved in Study 2, who were divided into six groups (five implicit emotion regulation groups and one control group). Before viewing neutral and disgust pictures, the participants in implicit emotion regulation groups were required to complete the sentence unscrambling tasks to prime the emotion regulation strategy, while the participants in the control group were required to complete the sentence unscrambling task that was unrelated to emotion regulation.
    The CERWS was established in Study 1. One hundred and forty-nine emotion regulation words (N = 149) were selected into 6 groups (acceptance, distraction, venting, suppression, reappraisal and neutral) of CERWS. Comparing the attributes of emotion regulation words with those of neutral words, we found that five emotion regulation strategies had different affective connotation. For example, acceptance strategy was characterized by high pleasure, high dominance, high approach tendency and low arousal. In terms of gender differences, males were more pleasant with the words of distraction strategy, while females were more familiar with the words of acceptance strategy. The test-retest reliability was more than 0.7 after one month. The Cronbach’s α coefficients and Kendall’s coefficients of concordance of CERWS fit with relevant criteria. Moreover, results of Study 2 showed that implicit reappraisal and implicit suppression strategies decreased the emotional valence and arousal ratings significantly, and implicit distraction strategy decreased the emotional arousal ratings significantly.
    In conclusion, this study has established a standardized emotion regulation words system with good reliability. Moreover, this study has verified the regulatory effect of implicit reappraisal, suppression and distraction strategies on negative emotions, which provides a reference for the future use of the system.

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    The influence of anger on delay discounting: The mediating role of certainty and control
    SONG Xiyan, CHENG Yahua, XIE Zhouxiutian, GONG Nanyan, LIU Lei
    2021, 53 (5):  456-468.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00456
    Abstract ( 4791 )   HTML ( 648 )  
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    Delay discounting occurs when, compared to current or recent benefits (or losses), people give future benefits (or losses) less weight and choose current or recent benefits (or losses). Delay discounting is an important research direction in the field of decision-making. Based on the Appraisal-Tendency Framework, the present study aimed to examine how anger influences an individual’s delay discounting and then explore the underlying mechanism of the effect of anger on delay discounting.
    The key hypotheses--that anger would influence delay discounting and that certainty and control appraisal tendencies would drive this effect--were tested across three experiments. Experiment 1 investigated the effect of anger on delay gratification. In Experiments 2a and 2b, an experimental-causal-chain design was used to test (a) whether anger increases certainty-control relative to fear and neutral feelings, and (b) whether experiencing certainty-control increases one’s delay gratification. In Experiment 3, a measurement-of-mediation design was used to test whether feelings of certainty-control stemming from anger predicted delay gratification. Simultaneously, we explored whether positive emotions associated with certainty-control produced increases in delay gratification. The focus was on pleasure as a positive, certainty-control-associated emotion.
    In Experiment 1, the results showed that compared with fear and neutral participants, angry participants were more likely to choose large and delayed rewards. In Experiment 2a, the results showed that compared with fear and neural participants, angry participants were more likely to experience certainty-control feelings. Then, in Experiment 2b, the results showed that compared with low certainty-control participants, high certainty-control participants were more likely to choose large and delayed rewards. In Experiment 3, the results showed that compared with fear and neutral participants, angry and pleasant participants experienced more certainty-control feelings and were more likely to choose large and delayed rewards. Furthermore, the mediation analysis showed that certainty-control feelings played a complete mediating role in the effect of anger and pleasure on delay discounting.
    Converging evidence from the three experiments indicated that incidental anger can influence delay discounting. Compared with fear and neutral feelings, those experiencing anger were more likely to choose larger and delayed rewards (Experiment 1). Importantly, these two experiments provide direct process evidence by showing that the certainty and control appraisal tendencies triggered by anger may underlie its delay gratification-enhancing effects (Experiments 2 and Experiment 3). Furthermore, experiencing certainty- control-associated emotions (i.e., anger and pleasure), regardless of valence, increased to the likelihood that individuals would choose larger and delayed rewards (Experiment 3). The current research supports the hypotheses that anger increases delay gratification and that certainty and control appraisal tendencies drive this effect. These findings have important implications for understanding the mechanism underlying the effect of specific negative emotions on intertemporal choice.

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    Attentional boost effect in conceptual implicit memory
    MENG Yingfang, DONG Yueqing, CHEN Quan
    2021, 53 (5):  469-480.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00469
    Abstract ( 2328 )   HTML ( 316 )  
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    The attentional boost effect (ABE) was first discovered by Swallow in 2010, which means that when subjects perform coding and target detection tasks simultaneously, the memory performance of background information presented in target items is better than those presented in distracted items. Previous studies believe that this promotion effect is mainly due to the fact that target detection enhances the perceptual processing of background information; however, many experimental results contrary to this perceptual processing enhancement hypothesis indicate that “target detection does not necessarily promote the perceptual processing of background information.”
    Can target detection promote semantic processing? If so, why is ABE not found in the implicit test task of concepts that rely on semantic information? We speculate that this may be related to the encoding tasks used in these experiments. In reading words aloud, subjects may only perform perceptual coding but not conceptual coding. If the time-selective attention mechanism promotes cognitive processing simultaneously with target detection, ABE should appear in implicit conceptual tests when conceptual processing of words is performed simultaneously with target detection.
    This study adopts the classic ABE paradigm of Swallow and Jiang ( 2010) and further controls the different processing types of memory materials in the encoding stage to explore whether target detection promotes semantic processing of simultaneously presented background materials. In Experiment 1, lexical materials were used, and subjects were asked to read words aloud while performing target detection tasks in the encoding stage. Perceptual (true and false word judgment) and conceptual priming tests (semantic judgment) were then completed. The experimental design was a 2 × 2 in-subject design. Results showed that the ABE effect only appeared under the perceptual priming test condition, and the priming amount under the target condition was significantly greater than those under the distraction condition, while under the conceptual condition, the priming amounts under the target and distraction conditions were not significantly different. Based on Experiment 1, Experiments 2 and 3 used vocabulary and picture materials, respectively, to further control the processing types of memory materials in the coding stage, including perceptual (vocabulary structure judgment, presence of white in pictures) and semantic coding (vocabulary, picture pleasure judgment). A conceptual implicit test (semantic judgment) was then conducted to investigate whether the two coding methods have different effects on ABE in subsequent conceptual implicit tests to verify whether target detection promotes semantic processing of background materials presented simultaneously. The experimental design was a 2 × 2 in-subject design. Experiments 2 and 3 revealed that the ABE effect only appeared under the condition of semantic encoding but not under the condition of perceptual encoding.
    Results showed that in the dual-task processing, target detection can promote not only the perceptual processing of background information but also the semantic processing of background information. The promotion effect of target detection on background information is related to the processing of the background information. If the encoding process of background information under target detection is consistent with the extraction process that relies on in subsequent implicit tests, ABE will be generated.

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    The influence of members’ relationship on collaborative remembering
    ZHANG Huan, WANG Xin, LIU Yibei, CAO Xiancai, WU Jie
    2021, 53 (5):  481-493.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00481
    Abstract ( 2804 )   HTML ( 353 )  
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    People usually retrieve and reconstruct their memories with others collaboratively in a social context. Extensive interests have been drawn towards the effect of people’s collaboration on informational retrieval. Previous studies reported a robust phenomenon called collaborative inhibition in the group of young strangers who tried to avoid the irrelevant influence of social relationships, motivations or intentions. These studies also frequently used semantic wordlists as learning materials. Our daily life, however, is filled with collaborative recall activities that take place among intimate individuals. For example, married couples generally communicate about episodic and autobiographical events that serve a significant social function for human beings. Therefore, it was critical to examine the effect of collaborative recall on information retrieval for both younger and older couples.
    The present study used unpersonal-related semantic wordlists (Experiment 1) and unpersonal-related episodic stories (Experiment 2) as learning materials, respectively, to assess the effect of intimate relationships on collaborative recall for both younger and older adults. In each experiment, three-factor (two between-subjects factors: participant age-younger and older adults; the type of participant relationships-couple and stranger; and one within-subjects factor: retrieval types-collaborative and individual) mixed design was conducted. Specifically, participants in collaborative groups studied the materials alone, then retrieved along with a stranger or their spouse. In Experiment 1, the dependent variable was the accurate retrieval proportion of the group (collaborative or nominal), while in Experiment 2 that used episodic stories as learning material, the dependent variables included the accurate retrieval proportion, the retrieval details and the frequencies of different types of interaction strategies.
    Results of Experiment 1 showed that the accurate retrieval proportion of collaborative groups in young strangers was lower than that of nominal groups, consistent with previous studies, and thus provided support for the classical collaborative inhibition model. The other three experimental conditions, however, showed no statistical difference between collaborative and nominal groups. In Experiment 2, collaborative facilitation was found for both younger and older couples, e.g., retrieval accuracy and details were both greater in collaborative groups than in nominal groups with episodic materials. Such facilitation effect was greater in older couples than in younger couples. In addition, older couples employed positive interaction strategies that played an important role in this collaborative facilitation.
    Overall, Experiment 1 replicated the classical collaborative inhibition phenomenon in younger strangers, whereas no significant recall difference between collaborative and nominal groups was found for intimate couples. It is possible that Chinese couples rely more on the transactive memory system formed in daily life to overcome the negative effect of collaborative recall in wordlist materials. Such results were further examined in Experiment 2 with episodic stories, in which both younger and older couples had information retrieval with higher accuracy and greater details than nominal groups. The results can be explained by the transactive memory system. That is, based on intimate relationships and shared experiences among them, an effective system of encoding, storing and retrieving information may develop, diminish, or even reverse the negative effect of collaborative recall.

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    The role of ventrolateral prefrontal cortex on emotional regulation of social pain in depressed patients: A TMS study
    MO Licheng, GUO Tianyou, ZHANG Yueyao, XU Feng, ZHANG Dandan
    2021, 53 (5):  494-504.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00494
    Abstract ( 1140 )   HTML ( 103 )  
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    Increasing evidence shows that the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (rVLPFC) plays an important role in emotion regulation, especially for social-relevant negative emotions. Negative interpersonal experiences and social events contribute largely to the occurrence of depression. Meanwhile, patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder are characterized by impaired social functions. Previous studies have revealed that depressed patients frequently show impaired emotional regulation for social pain. Recently, the work of our lab found that using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to activate the rVLPFC significantly reduced the subjects’ negative emotional feelings and improved their emotional regulation ability for down-regulating social pain. In order to improve the emotional regulation ability in depressed patients when they are in front of negative social events, this study examined the changed emotional regulation ability in depression following the activation of the rVLPFC using the TMS.
    A total of 127 patients who were diagnosed with major depressive disorder were recruited in this study. Participants were randomly assigned to experimental (n= 64) or control group (n = 63) while their age, gender, depressive level, social anxious level, rejection sensitivity and empathy ability were counterbalanced between the two groups. During the experiment, the participants were required to view pictures containing social exclusion events or reinterpret the situation using reappraisal strategy, followed by rating their negative emotional feeling on a 9-point scale. The experiment had two conditions, i.e., a passive viewing block and a cognitive reappraisal block.
    The results showed that the main effect of the task was significant: the negative emotional intensity reported by participants was lower during cognitive reappraisal when compared to that during passive viewing, indicating a successful manipulation of explicit emotional regulation. Meanwhile, the main effect of the group was significant: the negative emotional intensity reported by the experimental group was significantly reduced compared to that reported by the control group, suggesting the critical role of rVLPFC in emotional regulation. More importantly, the interaction between task and group was significant: while the two groups reported comparable distressful feelings during the passive view block, the experimental group reported decreased negative feelings compared to the control group during the cognitive reappraisal block. This result indicated that enhanced activation of the rVLPFC could effectively improve the ability of explicit down-regulating social pain using the cognitive reappraisal strategy in depressed patients.
    The current findings provide strong evidence for the causal relationship between the VLPFC and explicit emotional regulation using the cognitive reappraisal strategy. Also this study provides a potential neural target for clinical treatments of emotional regulation impairment in patients with social dysfunctions including individuals diagnosed with major depressive disorder, social anxiety disorder, and autism spectrum disorder. Future studies are suggested to use other paradigms (e.g., Cyberball, Chat Rooms, Online Ostracism, and Island Getaway) to induce a “first-hand” social pain and exclude the potential influence of empathy. Furthermore, optimized multi-session TMS protocols are required to enhance and prolong the TMS effects observed in this study. Also, the TMS-based treatment effects in depression should be compared between the left and the right part of the ventrolateral prefrontal cortices, and across different emotional regulation strategies including cognitive reappraisal, distraction, distancing, etc.

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    Exergame can improve children’s executive function: The role of physical intensity and cognitive engagement
    GAI XiaoSong, XU Jie, YAN Yan, WANG Yuan, XIE XiaoChun
    2021, 53 (5):  505-514.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00505
    Abstract ( 2251 )   HTML ( 289 )  
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    Executive function refers to advanced cognitive processes that control and regulate other cognitive processes, including working memory, inhibition control, and cognitive flexibility. This function is a high-level cognitive ability when completing complex cognitive tasks. Executive function is an important predictor of a child’s physical and mental health, quality of life, school success, marital happiness, and public safety. Studies have shown that physical activities, such as mindfulness yoga, coordinated exercises, martial arts, and exergame, can improve children’s executive function. Exergame is also a type of physical activity, as a synthetic word, which is a combination of exercise and game and can be seen as a physical activity for stimulating an active whole-body gaming experience. This study aims to investigate the effects of physical intensity and cognitive engagement in exergame on promoting children’s executive function immediately and long-term training.
    This study conducted a 2 (high/low physical intensity) × 2(high/low cognitive engagement) × 3(measurement time: before/immediately/after training) mixed experimental design, wherein 122 children age 4~6 years old were trained for six weeks. Among the within-subject variables were exercise physical and cognitive engagement, and the between-subject variable was the measurement time. The dependent variables were working memory, inhibitory control, and cognitive flexibility.
    Results showed that physical intensity, rather than cognitive engagement in exergame, significantly improved children’s executive function, especially the working memory after training immediately. In the long-term intervention, physical intensity and cognitive engagement in exergame significantly promoted children’s executive function, and the promoting effect of cognitive engagement was greater than that of physical intensity.
    This study demonstrates the benefits of long-term exergame training on children’s executive function and the types of exergame that can improve such function in children in the short or long term.

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    How interpersonal factors impact the co-development of depression and non-suicidal self-injury in Chinese early adolescents
    HUANG Yuancheng, ZHAO Qingling, LI Caina
    2021, 53 (5):  515-526.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00515
    Abstract ( 3901 )   HTML ( 452 )  
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    Adolescent depression and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) are major public health concerns worldwide. Identifying the developmental trajectories that lead to these problems can help to design effective prevention programs. Previous research has reported 3 to 6 developmental trajectories of depressed mood and 3 to 4 developmental trajectories of NSSI. However, depressed mood and NSSI often co-occur, and little research has explored their joint developmental trajectories. Importantly, various interpersonal factors may affect the development of both depression and NSSI. For example, research has suggested that adolescents’ relationships with their parents and peers plays a crucial role in developing depression and NSSI. Yet, to date, no research has examined the effect of teacher-student relationships. Therefore, the present study aimed to characterize the joint developmental trajectories of adolescents’ depressed mood and NSSI, and examine the importance of peer, parent and teacher relationships in these trajectories.
    A sample of 859 adolescents (56.43% males;Mage = 14.73, SD = 0.43) was followed up for three years from the first year to the third year of junior middle school, in a central western Chinese city, Xi’an. Participants reported their depressed mood and NSSI at three time points, one year apart. They also completed self-measures of friendship quality, parent relationships and teacher relationships at Time 1, and nominated their classmates’ peer status at Time 1. All measures were conducted anonymously and approved by school administrators. Latent class growth analysis was used to identify the independent and joint developmental trajectories of depressed mood and NSSI, while logistic regression was used to examine the effects of relations with parents, peers and teachers.
    We found 4 developmental trajectories of depressed mood and 3 developmental trajectories of NSSI. Moreover, we identified three joint developmental trajectories of adolescents’ depressed mood and NSSI. The first trajectory class (91%), labeled “low depression- low NSSI- stable”, included adolescents with low depression and NSSI across all timepoints. The second trajectory class (5%), labeled “moderate depression- moderate NSSI- decrease”, consisted of adolescents whose depression and NSSI were moderate at baseline and then decrease over time. The third trajectory class (4%) labeled “low depression- low NSSI- increase”, consisted of adolescents whose depression and NSSI were low at baseline and then increase over time. Furthermore, the level of parental psychological control differentiated adolescents in the first joint trajectory class from those in the second and third joint trajectory class. In addition, peer acceptance distinguished adolescents in the third joint trajectory class from those in the first and second joint trajectory class.
    This study examined the independent and joint developmental trajectories of depressed mood and NSSI during adolescence and revealed important roles of parents and peers in these developmental processes. These findings extend our knowledge of the dynamic relationships between depression and NSSI, and the interpersonal factors that influence this. By improving adolescents’ relationships with their parents and peers, school practitioners can reduce rates of depression and NSSI in this group.

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    The relationship between perceived overqualification and individual performance and mediating mechanisms: A meta-analytic review and examination of emotional and cognitive processing systems and cultural contexts
    YANG Weiwen, LI Chaoping
    2021, 53 (5):  527-554.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00527
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    With increasingly fierce competition in the labor market, a growing number of employees have to work on jobs for which they may perceive themselves overqualified. Such employees usually possess capabilities that enable them to perform their job tasks without much difficulties, while the perceptions of overqualification, or perceived overqualification (POQ), may play a complex role in shaping their attitudes and behaviors. Thus, the issue of overqualification has drawn a great deal of attention in the field of human resources management and organizational behavior. However, there are many unsolved theoretical issues.
    We aim to understand the influence of POQ on individual performance, and the affective and cognitive mediating mechanisms. In doing so, we investigated a set of potential mediators based on competing theories including self-regulation theory, equity theory, relative deprivation theory, person-environment fit theory and role theory. We meta-analyzed both English and Chinese primary studies on this topic. Studies were identified with key words including “Overqualification”, “Overqualified”, “Underemployment”, etc., in English datasets including APA PsycINFO, ProQuest (Dissertation), Emerald, JSTOR, Web of Science, and Chinese databases of CNKI and CSSCI from the first available date until September, 2020. Selection criteria included: (1) studies must contain POQ as a variable, (2) correlations and sample sizes were reported in the study, (3) only one study with the most complete number of variables will be analyzed if the same sample was used in different studies, and (4) the published data shall be superior to the unpublished dissertation. We finally analyzed 945 effect sizes from 383 independent samples (N = 575, 061) in 321 articles.
    Our research contained three steps. In the first step, we estimated the main effects of POQ on variables including negative emotions (i.e. job boredom and anger), self-concepts (i.e. self-esteem and self-efficacy), negative behaviors (i.e. turnover, counterproductive work behavior (CWB), positive extra-role behaviors (i.e. organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), knowledge sharing, creativity, voice, and job crafting) and task performance with the Hunter-Schmidt meta-analytic method. Thereafter, based on the different perspectives and the self-regulatory theory, we scrutinized potential mediators (i.e. negative emotions and positive self-concepts between POQ and negative extra-role behaviors (i.e. CWB and turnover), POQ and positive extra-role behaviors (i.e. OCB, knowledge sharing, creativity, voice, and job crafting), as well as POQ and task performance via meta-structural equation modelling (meta-SEM). We also tested whether collectivism played a moderating role in those relationships.
    The first step of our analysis showed that POQ exerted significant positive effects on negative emotions (i.e. job boredom, anger), specific self-efficacy (e.g. role-breadth self-efficacy, knowledge self-efficacy, voice self- efficacy, etc.), turnover intentions and CWB, while having significant negative effects on organization-based esteem (OBSE). Meanwhile, the relationships between POQ and the other outcomes including general positive self-concepts (i.e. general self-esteem and general self-efficacy), positive extra-role behaviors (OCB, knowledge sharing, voice, creativity, job crafting and general proactive behaviors) and task performance were not significant.
    Furthermore, we explored affective and cognitive mechanisms of POQ and negative and positive extra-role behaviors in meta-SEM. Our analyses showed that POQ had positive direct effects on both negative extra-role behaviors (i.e. CWB, turnover), positive extra-role behaviors (i.e. OCB, knowledge sharing, creativity, voice, and job crafting) and task performance, and negative emotions and positive self-concepts were positively affected by POQ. Besides, the direct effects of negative emotions on negative extra-role behaviors were significantly positive, and those of positive extra-role behaviors and of task performance were significantly negative; the direct effects of positive self-concepts on positive extra-role behaviors and of task performance were significantly positive, and those of negative extra-role behaviors were significantly negative. These findings suggested that employees with high levels of POQ felt negative emotions and positive self-concepts, and undertook both negative and positive behaviors to cope with POQ.
    Then, we divided all the independent samples into two parts according to the degree of cultural collectivism of countries and regions in which those studies were conducted. Then, we compared three sets of meta-SEM analyses in model 1 (with all the samples), model 2 (with samples from areas of high collectivism) and model 3 (samples from areas of low collectivism). The results of meta-SEM demonstrated that POQ had indirect effects on negative extra-role behaviors (i.e. CWB, turnover) through negative emotions (i.e. job boredom, anger) in all the three models, indicating that affective mechanisms represent a robust explanatory power of POQ’s influences. By contrast, positive self-concepts (i.e. self-esteem and self-efficacy) served as a positive mediator between POQ and positive extra-role behaviors (i.e. OCB, knowledge sharing, creativity, voice, and job crafting) as well as between POQ and task performance only in the samples collected from collectivistic areas; in the cultural context of low-collectivism or high individualism, POQ were found to exert a significant, negative impact on positive self-concepts, and the latter can impact positive extra-role behaviors and task performance significantly. These findings demonstrated that collectivistic culture may restrict the applicability of cognitive resources on explaining the mechanism from POQ to positive extra-role behaviors and task performance. Therefore, we concluded that the social comparing perspective accounts for the processes that POQ come into effect, whereas self-regulation theory may not be a reliable explanation of the influence of POQ on employees without moderating variables taken into consideration.
    Last but not the least, we conducted an explorative analysis to identify the correlations between POQ, person-job fit (PJ fit) and person-organization fit (PO fit), as well as their effect sizes on some important psychological and behavioral outcomes including job satisfaction, organizational commitment, strain, CWB, turnover, creativity, OCB, and task performance. With relative weight analysis, we found that POQ was relatively highly correlated to PJ fit, while weakly correlated to PO fit. POQ can best predict strain and turnover among the three, and thus it is unreasonable to take it as a redundant construct.
    This study contributes to the POQ literature in several ways. First, we integrated previous empirical studies and reported more precise relationships between POQ and important psychological and behavioral outcomes involving emotions, cognitions and performance, which advances research on the outcomes of POQ. We then tested the direct and indirect effects of POQ on negative and positive extra-role behaviors and task performance, and clarified two foundational perspectives (i.e. social comparison and self-regulation) that address the underlying mechanisms of how POQ affects the outcome variables. Moreover, we evaluated the impact of cultural contexts, collectivism/individualism. Also, we suggest that future studies should pay more attention to the distinctions between POQ and other PE fit variables. Collectively, our contribution consists of our integration of the literature on POQ and its outcomes, our clarification of the mechanisms that underlie POQ, and the conclusion that collectivism/individualism exerts influence on the indirect relationships between POQ and performance.

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