ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2001, Vol. 33 ›› Issue (01): 30-36.

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  1. 中国科学院心理研究所! 北京 100101,中国科学院心理研究所! 北京 100101,中国科学院心理研究所! 北京 100101
  • 出版日期:2001-02-25 发布日期:2001-02-25
  • 通讯作者: 方格


Fang Ge; Tian Xuehong; Bi Hongyan (Institute of Psyvcholgy, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101)   

  • Online:2001-02-25 Published:2001-02-25

摘要: 该研究探查幼儿对基数、数序、运算和解应用题的认知发展过程及其认知策略。着重探查:(1)不同认知任务对幼儿数认知发展的影响;(2)幼儿对基数和数序两者认知发展的顺序;(3)从幼儿主动解决问题的策略探究其认知发展水平。该研究采用定性和定量相结合的研究方法。被试为4、5、6岁城市幼儿园儿童,共92人,男女约各半。全部实验以个别方式进行。主要研究结果表明:(1)幼儿对基数、数序、运算和解应用题的认知成绩均有随年龄发展的趋势,但快速发展的年龄阶段因任务的难度而异;(2)幼儿对基数和数序的认知在4—5岁显示出不同步的发展,对基数的认知成绩优于对数序的认知,而到6岁两者具有同步发展的趋势;(3)幼儿解决问题的策略水平随年龄发展,显示了由外化水平的智力活动向完全内化的智力操作的发展过程,并具有明显的层次性。该研究结果为幼儿数能力的培养和促进提供参考依据。

关键词: 幼儿, 数认知, 策略

Abstract: The purpose of the study was to investigate how preschoolers developmentally understood the cardinal number, ordinal number, solving word problems and develo ping counting abilities by using various strategies, specially focused on the fo llowing questions: (1) How the variable of the tasks has effect on the cognition of number concept and counting ability; (2) The relationship and developmental sequence of the cardinal number and ordinal number; (3) The cognitive strategies used actively by the children in the performances. The subjects consisted of 92 children randomly selected from kindergartens i n the Beijing area with four groups aged 4, 5 and 6, half boys and half girls in each group. The tests were carried out individually. The methodology of the stu dy was characterized by qualitative and quantitative analyses. The results showed that: (1) The levels of understanding number concepts, cou nting abilities including solving word problems developed increasingly with age, however the accelerate rates of the development varied with the tasks tested; ( 2) The development of cognition on cardinal number and ordinal number was not sy nchronous at the age of 4 and 5, that is, the performances of the cardinal numbe r had an advantage over the ones of ordinal number, but the performances of both went to convergence at age 6; (3) The levels of strategies manifested in workin g out a solution for the tasks developed increasingly with age. This trend also showed a parallel developmental process in which the intellectual activities wit h extrinsic count by fingers or verbal numeration were gradually internalized in to the intrinsic intellectual operations in the mind. The results will be of benefit to the training program for promoting number ability in preschoolers.

Key words: preschooler, congnition of number, cognitive strategy