ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 51 ›› Issue (1): 48-57.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2019.00048

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

奖赏通过增强信号监测提升认知控制

王宴庆1,陈安涛1,*,胡学平2,尹首航1   

  1. 1 西南大学心理学部, 认知与人格教育部重点实验室, 重庆 400715
    2 江苏师范大学语言科学与艺术学院, 江苏省语言与认知神经科学重点实验室, 语言能力协同创新中心, 徐州 221009
  • 收稿日期:2018-03-05 出版日期:2019-01-25 发布日期:2018-11-26
  • 通讯作者: 陈安涛
  • 基金资助:
    * 国家自然科学基金项目(61431013);* 国家自然科学基金项目(31771254);中央高校基本科研业务费(SWU1609106);中央高校基本科研业务费项目资助(SWU1709107)

Reward improves cognitive control by enhancing signal monitoring

WANG Yanqing1,CHEN Antao1,*,HU Xueping2,YIN Shouhang1   

  1. 1 Key Laboratory of Cognition and Personality of Ministry of Education, Faculty of Psychology, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China
    2 School of Linguistics and Arts, and Collaborative Innovation Center for Language Competence, Jiangsu Normal University, Xuzhou 221009, China
  • Received:2018-03-05 Online:2019-01-25 Published:2018-11-26
  • Contact: Antao CHEN

摘要:

认知控制是动态的、过程性的认知调控, 涉及监测和控制两个过程。先前研究表明奖赏可以提升认知控制, 但是奖赏是通过增强信号监测来提升认知控制的, 还是作用于控制过程来提升认知控制的, 是一个有待研究的重要问题。在本研究中, 我们设计了三个实验来调查这一问题。实验1采用Stop-Signal任务验证奖赏是否能提升认知控制; 实验2通过改变反应规则将Stop-Signal任务信号监测加工分离出来, 探讨实验1中奖赏的提升作用是否来源于奖赏对信号监测的增强; 实验3通过操纵注意资源损耗分析, 考察注意资源分配对信号监测的促进作用。实验1结果显示, 个体能更快地根据奖赏信息做出抑制反应。实验2结果表明, 在信号监测任务中, 个体能更加快速地监测到与当前抑制状态相冲突且和奖赏相关的反应信号, 据此可认为奖赏通过增强对相关信号的监测, 有助于个体更早地启动奖赏刺激信号所对应的反应, 更高效地控制冲突。实验3结果说明, 当任务难度增大, 注意资源损耗, 奖赏相关信号的反应时和正确率仍优于无奖赏信号, 说明注意资源的分配可以调节相关信号的监测速度。总体来看, 本研究通过一系列实验表明, 以目标为导向的行为发生过程中, 奖赏能有效提升认知控制效率, 其关键机制在于通过注意资源分配增强相关信号的监测。

关键词: 奖赏, 认知控制, 信号监测, Stop-Signal任务

Abstract:

Cognitive control refers to two critical processes: signal monitoring and inhibitory control. Before executing inhibitory control, the individual first monitors the signal of conflict or warning. However, whether the reward influences signal monitoring or inhibitory control remains poorly understood. In addition, some literature employed pretask reward cueing to study the effect of reward, but the role of pretask reward cueing on cognitive control was influenced by response strategies rather than stimulus processing.
To address the above issues, the present study designed three novel variants of the classical stop signal task that combined the reward with certain stimuli or stimulus features and held stimulus-processing demands constant while varying attention demands. For experiment 1, participants tried to cancel responses on trials that were interrupted by the infrequent triangle but not to slow the initiation of the response. The results indicated that the SSRTs could be further accelerated if successful response inhibition were rewarded. Experiment 2 involved separation of signal monitoring from the stop signal task. Participants responded by pressing the left or right button when the trials were interrupted by the infrequent triangle. The results showed that participants could monitor a signal faster when the signal was associated with reward and conflicted with current behavior tendencies. Accordingly, we considered that the individual could more quickly activate behavior in correspondence with the signal and control the conflict because the signal monitoring was enhanced by reward, which indicated that the process needs more attention. Experiment 3 is the same as the second experiment, except that when trials were interrupted by an inverse triangle, participants made a dual button press. We found that the reaction time of the reward-related signal was shorter than that of the reward-unrelated signal in Go trials, even though the processing of the stop signal depletes the attention resource. These findings indicate that the reward-related signal captures more attention and enhances signal monitoring.
In summary, these findings show that the reward-related signal captures more attention than bias for the enhancement of signal monitoring, thereby leading to more efficient stimulus processing and improving cognitive control.

Key words: reward, cognitive control, signal monitoring, stop signal task

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