ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 51 ›› Issue (4): 507-516.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2019.00507

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

虚拟和真实金钱奖赏幅度对海洛因戒断者风险决策的影响

杨玲1, 王斌强1(), 耿银凤2, 姚东伟1, 曹华1, 张建勋1(), 许琼英1   

  1. 1 西北师范大学心理学院, 物质成瘾与康复研究所, 兰州 730070
    2 菏泽信息工程学校学前教育科, 山东 菏泽 274000
  • 收稿日期:2018-01-29 出版日期:2019-04-25 发布日期:2019-02-22
  • 通讯作者: 王斌强,张建勋 E-mail:wbq0824@sina.com;zjxwyky@126.com
  • 基金资助:
    * 国家自然基金项目资助

The influence of hypothetical and real money rewards on the risky decision-making of the abstinent heroin user

YANG Ling1, WANG Binqiang1(), GEN Yinfeng2, YAO Dongwei1, CAO Hua1, ZHANG Jianxun1(), XU Qiongying1   

  1. 1 Institute of Substance Addiction and Rehabilitation, School of Psychology, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070, China
    2 Department of Preschool Education, Heze Information Engineering School of Shandong Province, Heze 247000, China
  • Received:2018-01-29 Online:2019-04-25 Published:2019-02-22
  • Contact: WANG Binqiang,ZHANG Jianxun E-mail:wbq0824@sina.com;zjxwyky@126.com
  • Supported by:
    31660276

摘要:

已有研究表明海洛因成瘾者风险决策能力受损, 但少有研究关注不同幅度金钱奖赏对戒断期海洛因成瘾者风险决策的影响以及这种影响是否会受到金钱奖赏类型的调节。因此, 本研究使用气球模拟风险任务(BART), 通过两个实验探究不同幅度虚拟和真实金钱奖赏对海洛因戒断者风险决策的影响。结果显示, 在虚拟奖赏情景下, 海洛因戒断者未爆破气球按键次数和爆破气球个数均显著大于正常组被试, 以及两组被试在25分奖赏条件下的未爆破气球按键次数和爆破气球个数均显著大于1分奖赏; 而在真实奖赏情景下, 海洛因戒断者未爆破气球按键次数和爆破气球个数均显著小于正常组被试, 以及两组被试在25分奖赏条件下的未爆破气球按键次数和爆破气球个数均显著小于1分奖赏。研究结果表明, 金钱奖赏类型和金钱奖赏幅度会影响被试的风险决策行为。在虚拟奖赏情景下, 两组被试的风险偏好水平随着奖赏幅度的增加显著升高, 但是戒断期海洛因成瘾者的风险偏好水平高于正常组被试; 而在真实奖赏情景下, 两组被试的风险偏好水平随着奖赏幅度的增加显著降低, 同时戒断期海洛因成瘾者的风险偏好水平低于正常组被试。

关键词: 海洛因戒断者, 风险决策, 金钱奖赏幅度, 气球模拟风险任务

Abstract:

Today, drug abuse is closely being watched by most of society. It has been found that risky decision-making deficit is one of the main characteristics of drug abuse. Drug abusers are facing increasingly negative consequences in their personal, emotional, professional, and social lives. However, they still prefer to choose immediate reward, and it is difficult for them to make adaptive decisions. Several studies have shown that risky decision-making abilities of heroin addicts are impaired, but few studies have focused on the impact of different levels of monetary reward on risky decision-making for heroin addicts during abstinence and whether such effects are regulated by type of monetary reward. Therefore, this study used the balloon analogue risk task to examine the effects of different levels of hypothetical and real money rewards on risky decision-making in the abstinent heroin user.

Two experiments were included in the study. In Experiment 1, a hypothetical reward was used. however, the participants were asked to imagine the money prizes obtained in the experiment as real money rewards and to obtain as much profit as possible. The results showed that the main effect of the reward magnitude was significant. Post-hoc testing showed the average adjusted pumps (the mean number of pumps for balloons that did not pop) and the total number of popped balloons were significantly less under the 1-cent reward condition compared with the 25-cent reward condition. The main effects of the group were significant, and post-hoc testing showed that the average adjusted pumps and the total number of popped balloons were significantly higher for the abstinent heroin users compared with the non-heroin users. The interaction between the reward magnitude and the group was not significant. Experiment 2 used real rewards. The final rewards of the participants were converted according to their performance in the experimental task. The results showed that the main effect of reward magnitude was marginal significant for the average adjusted pumps and the main effect of the reward magnitude was significant for the total number of popped balloons. Post-hoc testing showed the average adjusted pumps and the total number of popped balloons were significantly higher under the 1-cent reward condition compared with the 25-cent reward condition. The main effects of the group were significant, and post-hoc testing showed that the average adjusted pumps and the total number of popped balloons for the abstinent heroin users were significantly smaller compared with the non-heroin users. The interaction between the reward magnitude and the group was not significant.

The data suggest that risk-taking behavior is modulated by reward type and magnitude of monetary rewards. Overall, participants make more risky decisions on the BART with increased magnitude of hypothetical monetary rewards. However, this trend is completely reversed under the real monetary reward condition. In addition, compared with the non-heroin user, abstinent heroin users make less “optimal” decisions on the BART under the hypothetical monetary reward condition, while they exhibit greater risk aversion on the BART under real monetary rewards condition.

Key words: the abstinent heroin users, risky decision-making, monetary reward magnitude, balloon analogue risk task

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