ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2020, Vol. 52 ›› Issue (7): 895-908.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2020.00895

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

社会价值取向对自我-他人风险决策的影响及其机制

张银玲1, 虞祯2, 买晓琴1()   

  1. 1 中国人民大学心理学系
    2 中国人民大学统计学院, 北京 100872
  • 收稿日期:2019-06-01 出版日期:2020-07-25 发布日期:2020-05-25
  • 通讯作者: 买晓琴 E-mail:maixq@ruc.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    * 国家自然科学基金面上项目(31771206);国家自然科学基金面上项目(31970986)

The influence of social value orientation on self-other risk decision-making and its mechanisms

ZHANG Yinling1, YU Zhen2, MAI Xiaoqin1()   

  1. 1 Department of Psychology, Renmin University of China, Beijing 100872, China
    2 School of Statistics, Renmin University of China, Beijing 100872, China
  • Received:2019-06-01 Online:2020-07-25 Published:2020-05-25
  • Contact: MAI Xiaoqin E-mail:maixq@ruc.edu.cn

摘要:

以往关于为自己和代他人决策的冒险行为研究结果不一致, 这可能是因为以往的研究没有考虑决策情境和决策者人际特质等因素对于决策行为的影响。社会价值取向(social value orientation, SVO)是一种典型的人际特质, 是个体在对自我和他人资源分配时所表现出的社会偏好, 通常分为亲社会者和亲自我者。为探究SVO对自我-他人风险决策的影响及其机制, 采用为自己和陌生人分别完成多轮混合赌博游戏的任务。结果发现亲自我比亲社会者代他人决策更冒险。用模型量化的损失厌恶和对潜在损失的敏感度部分中介了自我-他人风险决策差异, 但只有对他人潜在损失的敏感度部分中介自我-他人决策的SVO效应。说明SVO会影响自我-他人风险决策, 且该效应可以通过对他人利益的关心程度起作用, 所以在自我-他人风险决策的研究中应将SVO这一决策者的人际特质因素考虑在内。

关键词: 风险决策, 社会价值取向, 自我-他人决策, 损失厌恶

Abstract:

Previous studies on risk-taking behaviors in decision-making for oneself and others are inconsistent, possibly because previous studies have not considered the influence of decision-making situations and the interpersonal characteristics of decision-makers on their decision-making behaviors. Social value orientation (SVO) is a typical interpersonal trait. SVO refers to the social preferences of individuals when they allocate resources to themselves and others. Individuals can usually be divided into prosocials and proselfs according SVO. The purpose of the present study was to explore the impact of SVO on self-other risk decision-making and its mechanisms. The integrative model of SVO implies that prosocials care more about the effects of decision-making on others than proselfs. Therefore, we hypothesized that proselfs might be more comfortable with risk than prosocials in making decisions on behalf of others, and that the level of concern for the interests of others might mediate the SVO effects of decision-makers on self-other risk decisions.
In the present study, the participants first filled out the SVO slider measure, then completed a mixed gambling game on the computer, and finally filled out the interpersonal reactivity index (IRI) that measures empathy. The mixed gambling game included 480 rounds of gambling, each with two options: the uncertainty option, and the certainty option with a result of 0. Choosing uncertainty meant gambling, while choosing certainty meant not gambling. Participants were asked to choose whether to gamble for themselves and strangers in different situations. Uncertainty options were 50% probability to win a certain value (potential gain value, G) and 50% probability of losing a certain value (potential loss value, L). The values of G {20, 22, ..., 50} and the values of L {20, 22, ..., 48} were paired to obtain 240 combinations, which were randomly divided into four groups. The independent variables were beneficiary (self/other) and SVO (proself/prosocial). There were three dependent variables: level of risk-taking, loss aversion, and the degree of concern for potential gains and losses.
The results showed that prosocials exhibited similar risk-taking and sensitivity to potential gains and losses when making decisions for strangers, while proselfs showed more tolerance for risk-taking and less sensitivity to others’ gains and losses. Both prosocials and proselfs showed less loss aversion when making decisions for strangers than for themselves. The mediation-effect analysis indicated that the difference in self-other risk decision-making could be partially mediated by loss aversion and sensitivity to others’ potential losses, and the SVO effect on the differences in self-other risk decision-making could be partially mediated by the sensitivity to others’ potential losses.
These findings suggest that SVO can affect self-other risk decision-making and that this effect may play a role through the degree of concern for the interests of others, which indicates that SVO in decision-makers affects behaviors in making decisions for strangers. Therefore, in future studies of self-other risk decisions, SVO should be taken into account in the interpersonal characteristics of decision makers.

Key words: risk decision-making, social value orientation, self-other decision-making, loss aversion

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