ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R


    15 September 2004, Volume 12 Issue 05 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    Anterior Cingulate Cortex and Executive Function
    Cai Houde,Liu Chang
    2004, 12 (05):  643-650. 
    Abstract ( 2958 )   PDF (687KB) ( 3162 )  
    The relationship between anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and executive function was reviewed in this paper. It was indicated that ACC could act as a monitoring system in the executive function. ACC could monitor the ongoing goal-oriented behavior and signal the response conflict and error occurrence, so that the attention resource could be in time modulated and allocated. ACC might be one of the higher modulating components for planning and executive behavior. New findings in recent two years suggest that ACC’s monitoring function could be involved not only in the integrated control on “willed action” based on motivation and reward expectancy, but also in emotional evaluation on the consequences of actions.
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    The Interaction Between Brain Regions Dealingwith Conflict Control
    Yue Zhenzhu,Zhang Dexuan,Wang Yan
    2004, 12 (05):  651-660. 
    Abstract ( 1906 )   PDF (723KB) ( 1875 )  
    An important characteristic of human cognitive system is that it adapts itself to fit specific task demands and solve conflicts in terms of perceptual selection, response bias, and real-time use of context information. This paper reviewed the definitions and experimental paradigms in the study of conflict control, and findings concerning the neural mechanisms of conflict detection and conflict resolution. New trends and issues pertaining to the study of cognitive control are discussed.
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    Brain Models of Maintenance, Temporal Storage and Executive Control
    Wang Yiwen,Lin Chongde
    2004, 12 (05):  661-671. 
    Abstract ( 1514 )   PDF (753KB) ( 1667 )  
    Brain mechanism of working memory (WM) is the important study issue of cognitive neuroscience. Based on analyzing much neuroimaging studies’ data, researchers established various brain models to explain the neural basis of WM. Smith & Jonides developed the updated architecture model and the dissociated model of storage versus executive processes in frontal lobe. Postle & D’Esposito constructed the WM hybrid model of comparable representation. D’Esposito, Postle & Rypma demonstrated the WM dynamic model of processes’ stages. Fletcher & Henson proposed a WM integrated theory of frontal areas. The present paper summarized several problems existed in the neuroimaging study of WM, and prospected the developmental tendency in the research area via reviewing above models or theories.
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    Task Switching, A Paradigm in the Study of Executive Control
    Shi Yiquan,Zhou Xiaolin
    2004, 12 (05):  672-679. 
    Abstract ( 1476 )   PDF (708KB) ( 1710 )  
    Task switching is an important paradigm in the study of executive control. Switch cost refers to the performance difference in task-switch and task-repeat trails, which is an indicator of executive control. The mechanisms of switch cost are complex and there are many controversies in this filed. Three of the most popular theories were reviewed in this paper: task-set reconfiguration, task set priming and task set inertia, together with experimental evidence supporting or refuting these theories.
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    Attentional Capture and Top-down Processes
    Chu Hengqing,Zhou Xiaolin
    2004, 12 (05):  680-687. 
    Abstract ( 1764 )   PDF (685KB) ( 2066 )  
    Attentional capture is of great importance in revealing the relationship between two kinds of attentional control: bottom-up processes and top-down processes. Two main experimental paradigms are used in the current research on attention capture: pre-cuing paradigm and visual search paradigm. This paper reviewed several aspects concering: 1) the relationship between stimulus-driven attention capture and top-down control; 2) whether spatial shift of attention is involved in attentional capture; 3) the role of perceptual saliency in attentional capture; 4) how experimental paradigms influence attentional capture. Studies in general showed that no visual stimulus can capture attention independently of top-down control. That is, attentional capture is defaulted as an automatic process, which can be inhibited or facilitated by endogenous modulation.
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    Emotional Automatic Processing and Control Processing
    Jiang Chunping,Zhou Xiaolin
    2004, 12 (05):  688-692. 
    Abstract ( 1711 )   PDF (657KB) ( 2151 )  
    Because the processing capacity of the visual system is limited, selective attention to one stimulus comes at the cost of neglecting other stimuli. A large body of evidence has demonstrated that emotional information was an exception to attentional modulation and processing of emotional information is considered to be automatic. But recent neuroimaging studies found that emotional processing needs attention. We discussed two controversial aspects concerning automatic emotion processing: the slow-cortical and fast-subcotical pathways and evidence from blindsight patients.
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    A Review on Research Methods of Executive Function
    Li Hong,Gao Shan,Wang Naiyi
    2004, 12 (05):  693-705. 
    Abstract ( 2592 )   PDF (709KB) ( 3921 )  
    Researches about Executive Function (EF) have been based on neuropsychology for a long time. However, recently a lot of researches appeared in the field of developmental psychology, and new research methods appeared constantly. This essay analyzes common methods to research “hot” EF and “cool” EF from the view of developmental psychology, includes Search Tasks, Rule Use Tasks, Inhibit Dominant Response Tasks, Conflict tasks, Problem Solving Tasks, Picture Working Memory Tasks, Tasks of Theory of Mind, Delay of Gratification Task, Children’s Gambling Task and Object Reversal Task. From these analyses, we find that the concept of EF has gradually extended to contain the whole cognitive processes. The existing theories emphasized one or several aspects of EF, yet there has not been a theory which can sum up all the aspects of EF researched by the above methods. The nature of EF has not been clear to us.
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    On the Problem-Solving Framework about Executive Function
    Wang Naiyi,Li Hong,Gao Shan
    2004, 12 (05):  706-713. 
    Abstract ( 2350 )   PDF (674KB) ( 1602 )  
    There are various definitions and theories about executive function (EF). However, EF has such a broad connotation that there has not been a definite and consistent definition about it. Whereas the limitations of the existing theories, this article introduces a new approach to illustrate EF proposed by Zelazo et al.: to ground the construct of EF on the theoretical framework of problem solving and thereby to integrate temporally and functionally distinct aspects of EF within a coherent framework. According to this problem-solving framework, EF is a macroconstruct that spans 4 phases of problem solving (i.e., representation, planning, execution, and evaluation). This point of view acknowledges the inherent complexity and hierarchy of EF and permits us to proceed with the difficult task of mapping out the interactions among the subfunctions of EF. It will help us to integrate various outcomes in the field of EF. The article also presents the deficiencies of this approach.
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    Executive Function and Number Processing: A Review
    Luo Linlin,Zhou Xiaolin
    2004, 12 (05):  714-722. 
    Abstract ( 1033 )   PDF (682KB) ( 1506 )  
    This paper discussed the relationship between executive function and its subcomponents, including inhibition, shifting, updating and dual task, and the number processing. The state of art concerning the study of relations between these four subcomponents and the number processing was found to be different: inhibition is repeatedly found to modulate the automatic number processing; shifting is found to relay on attention to influence the number processing; studies connecting updating with the number processing, however, is few; and controversies also exists for the relations between dual task coordination and the number processing. We believe that in future research the correlational studies will be aided more and more by causal studies with dedicated designs, the brain mechanisms underlying the connections between executive functions and the number processing will figure more and more prominently, and the special populations with deficits in the number processing will attract more and more attention.
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    Relationship between Theory of Mind and Executive Functioning from the Perspective of Brain Research
    Xu Fen,Zhang Wenjing,Wang Weixing
    2004, 12 (05):  723-728. 
    Abstract ( 2187 )   PDF (676KB) ( 2009 )  
    This paper reviews recent research focusing on the relation between theory of mind and executive functioning in young child. Then research on brain regions involved in theory of mind is reviewed. Finally, the authors summarized the relationship between theory of mind and executive functioning from the perspective of brain research.
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    Cognitive Aging and Executive Decline Hypothesis
    Chen Tianyong,Han Buxin,Luo Yuejia,Li Deming
    2004, 12 (05):  729-736. 
    Abstract ( 862 )   PDF (689KB) ( 1863 )  
    Executive decline hypothesis of cognitive aging is an attractive theory proposed in recent years. However, there are some obstacles when put this theory into practice, which including the diversity of executive functions, the reliability and validity of executive function measures, and the relationship between executive function and processing speed. At present, the focuses of the research are whether executive function mediates age differences in cognition after processing speed have been taken into account on behavior level, and which role does it play as brain remodeling with age on neural level. To explore the essence of cognitive aging, we should connect cognitive aging with the brain, and emphasize general mechanism as well as selective changes of the cognitive system.
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    A View of Autism:Combination Theory of Mind with Executive Function
    Wang Yifang,Su Yanjie
    2004, 12 (05):  737-742. 
    Abstract ( 2189 )   PDF (684KB) ( 2193 )  
    Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder without certain pathogeny and diagnosed only on the basis of abnormal behavior. According to these behavioral characteristics, two theories were proposed to explain autism: theory of mind and executive function. However, some findings showed that autistic individuals did not fail on all kinds of tasks measuring theory of mind and executive function. So neither theory of mind nor executive function could separately interpret all the symptoms of autism. Generally speaking, autistic individuals exhibited theory of mind deficits and executive dysfunction simultaneously. In recent years, many researchers found that theory of mind correlated significantly with executive function. Nevertheless, these researches mainly focused on the relationship between false belief understanding and inhibitive abilities in preschoolers, ignoring the fact that there are many other components in theory of mind and executive function and the relationship between them may change with age. Therefore, researchers need to further explore the relations between different theory of mind tasks and different paradigms of executive function in different age. This may advance diagnosis and training of autism
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    Executive Function and Schizophrenia
    Zhu Chunyan,Wang Kai,Lee TMC
    2004, 12 (05):  743-751. 
    Abstract ( 1534 )   PDF (693KB) ( 2647 )  
    Executive function impairments are among the earliest described and clinically most prominent cognitive deficits that are presented in schizophrenia. The review aimed at the mechanism or system responsible for the executive processes and the neuropsychological studies in schizophrenic executive control. It has been suggested that some psychiatric symptom and cognitional impairments in schizophrenic spectrum disorders may result from deficits in executive function. Special impairments in the executive tasks could be considered as endophenotypic markers of schizohrenia. Our knowledge about executive impairments also helps to design treatment schemes and rehabilitation programs more appropriately for the patients'needs.
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    Inhibition Control in Primate
    Zhang Zhen,Su Yanjie
    2004, 12 (05):  752-761. 
    Abstract ( 534 )   PDF (752KB) ( 1245 )  
    Inhibitory control is a high-order cognitive ability which is to inhibit the interferential prepotent response in order to achieve a specific goal. Researches on inhibitory control in non-human primate are reviewed in three aspects: behavioral performance, neural mechanisms, as well as ontogenetic and phylogenic process of it. This paper should provide better understanding of inhibitory control in humans in an evolutionary perspective.
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    The Abruption of Explicit and Implicit Processing and Its Neural Basis in the Neuropsychological Disorders of Visual Perception
    Han Yuchang,Chen Han
    2004, 12 (05):  765-773. 
    Abstract ( 1814 )   PDF (690KB) ( 1555 )  
    A key element of the distinction between explicit and implicit cognitive functioning is the presence or absence of conscious awareness. The neuropsychological disorders of brain-injured patients offer the probability to discuss the “pure” abruption of explicit/implicit processing. Through the study about the blindsight, hemi-neglect and agnosia, it is indicated that the implicit processing is intact but the explicit processing is impaired, and it is showed that the implicit and the explicit processing have different neural basis. But what is the possible neural basis of this distinction and the nature of the abruption is waiting for the further studies. The reverse impairment of implicit/explicit processing in neuropsychological disorders of visual perception is a domain that not put up
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    Classification and Inference in Category Learning
    Liu Zhiya,Mo Lei
    2004, 12 (05):  774-783. 
    Abstract ( 690 )   PDF (708KB) ( 1538 )  
    The paper introduces two means of category learning, classification and inference learning, in terms of the learning condition, information process and final memory. Classification is a kind of inductive inference and its learners are highly sensitivity to diagnostic features between categories and possibility to learn exemplar, whereas inference learning is a deductive process and its learners are focus on within-category information and possibility to learn prototype. Different types of category learning lead to different category representations. Research on two kinds of category learning is consistent with the interpretation-base view of categorization and these results are reviewed.
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    Infant's Number Representations: Object-file and Analog Model
    Shui Rende, Xu Fei,Shen Mowei
    2004, 12 (05):  784-790. 
    Abstract ( 2187 )   PDF (674KB) ( 1441 )  
    Number representation and its development in human mind is one of the important topics in psychology. A series of theoretical and methodological advances have been made since 1970s. In this paper, studies investigating numerical competence in human infants are introduced briefly and two classes of models which have generally dominated current theories of numerical representation in human infants are discussed. Substantial experimental evidence suggests that infants possess an inherent mental mechanism for number. And this mechanism serves as a foundation for developing mathematical thought.
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    Shared Mental Models: A Brief Introduction
    Bai Xinwen,Wang Erping
    2004, 12 (05):  791-799. 
    Abstract ( 1684 )   PDF (687KB) ( 2161 )  
    Shared mental models (SMMs) are defined as the structural knowledge held by members of a team. Based on SMMs, team members are able to form accurate explanations and expectations for the task, and, in turn, to coordinate their actions and adapt their behaviors to demand of the task and other team members. Research on SMMs provides a new prospective to understand and improve team performance. In this article, authors first introduce the definition of SMMs and some related concepts, as well as some types of SMMs. Next they summarize the measurements of SMMs. Then authors discuss the antecedents and consequences of SMMs. Finally, authors indicate some deficiencies of the current researches, and the promising fields within which the research would be conducted.
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