ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R


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    Stereotypes as Categories of Knowledge: Complexity, Validity, Usefulness, and Essence in Perceptions of Group Differences*
    Yueh-Ting Lee;Lee Jussim;Clark R. McCauley
    2013, 21 (1):  1-21.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00001
    Abstract ( 753 )   PDF (266KB) ( 1421 )  
    Stereotypes are categorical beliefs, which are more or less accurate representations of group differences. Stereotypes are more complex than is generally assumed. First, we address the multidimensionality of stereotypes under the framework of the cubic EPA model, which suggests that stereotypes are characterized by three dimensions: evaluation, potency, and accuracy. Specific attention is given to the relationship between stereotypes and totemic beliefs as collectively shared representations. Second, we review controversial research on the accuracy of stereotypes as a subset of human beliefs. Cultural stereotypes, personal stereotypes, judgment of individuals and groups, judgment criteria and meta-analytical results are examined, revealing the robust relationship between stereotypes and reality. Finally, we point to the importance of explanations of group differences, especially the perception of essence that is encouraged by group entitativity (perceptual ‘oneness’). We suggest that stereotyping is particularly powerful for groups with high entitativity and a perceived essence, and that a group’s totem is the manifestation of the group’s essence. Though we cannot resolve all the controversies relating to stereotyping, our perspective emphasizes stereotypes as categories useful for human interaction and survival.
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    Conceptual Framework
    Science Creativity and Art Creativity: Priming Effect and Domain Influences YI Xinfa; HU Weiping
    YI Xinfa;HU Weiping
    2013, 21 (1):  22-30.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00022
    Abstract ( 796 )   PDF (239KB) ( 1903 )  
    Effectively enhancing creativity is an essential issue in the domain of creativity study and practice. The mechanism of creativity expression procession and influence factors should be clarified before the application of any intervention method. Current studies aim to explore the individual psychological mechanism of science and art creativity expression and its external affecting factors by priming experiments of science and art creativity with the students from different domains. The main objective is to construct priming models of creativity promoting through examining motivation, sample and self- priming styles. Furthermore, domain influences will be analyzed from comparing the rating of artistic and scientific works made by students majored in art and science. Empirical findings accelerated by the series of studies would outline a blue print for creativity enhancing practically and theoretically.
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