Wisdom: Structure, Category, Measurement and Relationships to Related Variables
2013, 21 (1):
Wisdom is a comprehensive psychological quality which integrates intelligence with morality; it is acquired by the individuals through experience and practice on the basis of their intelligence and knowledge, intelligence and morality are its core components. Wisdom can be divided into conventional wisdom and emergent wisdom, group wisdom and organizational wisdom, personal wisdom and general wisdom, moral wisdom and natural wisdom, etc. It can be measured by Three-Dimensional Wisdom Scale, Self-Assessed Wisdom Scale, Wisdom Development Scale, and is interrelated with age, gender, culture, education, personality, thinking style and intelligence. The future research should focus on the following aspects: to make a thorough inquiry on the concept and structure of wisdom, to expand the research methods, measurement tools and educational strategies, and to develop the indigenization research.
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