ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R


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    Stereotypes as Categories of Knowledge: Complexity, Validity, Usefulness, and Essence in Perceptions of Group Differences*
    Yueh-Ting Lee;Lee Jussim;Clark R. McCauley
    2013, 21 (1):  1-21.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00001
    Abstract ( 743 )   PDF (266KB) ( 1408 )  
    Stereotypes are categorical beliefs, which are more or less accurate representations of group differences. Stereotypes are more complex than is generally assumed. First, we address the multidimensionality of stereotypes under the framework of the cubic EPA model, which suggests that stereotypes are characterized by three dimensions: evaluation, potency, and accuracy. Specific attention is given to the relationship between stereotypes and totemic beliefs as collectively shared representations. Second, we review controversial research on the accuracy of stereotypes as a subset of human beliefs. Cultural stereotypes, personal stereotypes, judgment of individuals and groups, judgment criteria and meta-analytical results are examined, revealing the robust relationship between stereotypes and reality. Finally, we point to the importance of explanations of group differences, especially the perception of essence that is encouraged by group entitativity (perceptual ‘oneness’). We suggest that stereotyping is particularly powerful for groups with high entitativity and a perceived essence, and that a group’s totem is the manifestation of the group’s essence. Though we cannot resolve all the controversies relating to stereotyping, our perspective emphasizes stereotypes as categories useful for human interaction and survival.
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    Conceptual Framework
    Science Creativity and Art Creativity: Priming Effect and Domain Influences YI Xinfa; HU Weiping
    YI Xinfa;HU Weiping
    2013, 21 (1):  22-30.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00022
    Abstract ( 781 )   PDF (239KB) ( 1878 )  
    Effectively enhancing creativity is an essential issue in the domain of creativity study and practice. The mechanism of creativity expression procession and influence factors should be clarified before the application of any intervention method. Current studies aim to explore the individual psychological mechanism of science and art creativity expression and its external affecting factors by priming experiments of science and art creativity with the students from different domains. The main objective is to construct priming models of creativity promoting through examining motivation, sample and self- priming styles. Furthermore, domain influences will be analyzed from comparing the rating of artistic and scientific works made by students majored in art and science. Empirical findings accelerated by the series of studies would outline a blue print for creativity enhancing practically and theoretically.
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    Research Reports
    Does Knowledge of Economics Encourage Interpersonal Distrust? Impact of Economic Learning on Interpersonal Trust in Undergraduates
    XIN Ziqiang;DOU Donghui;CHEN Chao
    2013, 21 (1):  31-36.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00031
    Abstract ( 1195 )   PDF (157KB) ( 2153 )  
    The main purpose of this study was to examine whether the study of economics knowledge may reduce the level of interpersonal trust of undergraduates. The researchers measured the levels of interpersonal trust of 290 freshmen and junior-year college students in economics or non-economics majors in a key university of finance and economics. The results showed that there was a significant interaction between major and grade: for freshmen, no significant difference in the level of interpersonal trust was found between economics and noneconomics majors; however, for junior-year students, the interpersonal trust level of students majoring in economics was much lower than that of noneconomics-majors. This finding implies that increasing learning of economics knowledge results in decreases in students’ interpersonal trust. A reasonable explanation is that students’ view of the essence of humanity is shaped by Rational Man Hypothesis embodied in the economics major, which emphasizes the selfish and utilitarian purpose of human behaviors.
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    Regular Articles
    Cross-cultural Research on Attention and Its Implications
    LIU Shuqing;WANG Hailing;PENG Kaiping;ZHENG Xianjun;LIU Zaijia;XU Shengmei
    2013, 21 (1):  37-47.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00037
    Abstract ( 1197 )   PDF (177KB) ( 2016 )  
    Nisbett proposed that cultural difference on attention may be instrumental in shaping cultural differences on other aspects of human cognition. However, not until recently did this theory receive ample empirical supports, especially from neural mechanism perspective. The present article reviews the state-of-the-art research of the cultural influence on human attention and its implications for other cognitive processes. It first introduces the behavioral studies on culture and attention, discussing the results of cultural differences in holistic vs. analytic processing, field dependent vs. field independent processing, change blindness and other attention-related cognitive tasks. Furthermore, it elaborates the research in studying the underlying mechanisms of culture and attention, highlighting related research findings from developmental research, ERP and fMRI studies. It ends with discussion for future research directions and the implications for real world applications.
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    The Role of Proactive Interference to Working Memory: How the Brain Resolve Proactive Interference?
    LIU Rong;GUO Chunyan;LIU Chunhui
    2013, 21 (1):  48-58.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00048
    Abstract ( 703 )   PDF (430KB) ( 1649 )  
    Proactive interference (PI) is one of crucial factors which affects the limited capacity of working memory. The theory of attention process proposes that the information located at the “focus of attention” of working memory will not be affected by PI. The theory of bias-competence proposes that the PI will be reduced in working memory by assigning a high weight to probe. Most of studies support the bias-competence theory by exploring the PI effect during the encoding and retrieving process, the content-related and context-related PI effect, and the brain mechanism of PI resolution, respectively. Future studies are needed to assess the relationship between PI and the sub-composition of working memory, the sub-function of working memory using fMRI and ERPs technology.
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    The Modulation of Emotion on the Attentional Function Networks
    LI He;CAI Houde
    2013, 21 (1):  59-67.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00059
    Abstract ( 677 )   PDF (246KB) ( 1699 )  
    Emotional attention can be defined as a kind of attention that selects and processes sensory stimuli with emotional significance. Because the brain’s sensory and attentional system can be modulated by the emotional valence, attention to emotional stimuli is endowed with a more complicated mechanism than neutral stimuli. Previous studies claimed that the key mechanism is the amygdala’s modulation on the sensory system. Recent evidences showed that the amygdala’s modulation on the attentional networks is also very important. We reviewed recent researches on the relevant area, and emphasized the influence of emotion on the alerting, orienting and executive networks, finding that the neural mechanisms of emotional attention is involved in a multiple function network with the core of amygdala.
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    Behavioural and Neural Mechanisms of Sign-tracking and Goal-tracking in Animals
    CHANG Fengjin;CUI Ruisi;LI Xinwang
    2013, 21 (1):  68-76.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00068
    Abstract ( 516 )   PDF (240KB) ( 862 )  
    Sign-tracking and goal-tracking are essentially conditioned approach responses which are induced by pairings of conditioned stimulus (CS) and unconditioned stimulus (US). The predictive and incentive motivational properties of CS are important mechanisms of sign-tracking and goal-tracking. The nucleus accumbens, the central nucleus of the amygdala and the anterior cingulate cortex are required for sign-tracking and goal-tracking. But lesions of the cerebral cortex and hippocampus have little effect on sign and goal tracking. Reduced brain dopaminergic function impairs acquisition and expression of sign-tracking. Increased dopamine content in brain can promote goal-tracking. It will be important for future research to standardize categories and settings of CSs and USs, separately or simultaneously measuring sign-tracking and goal-tracking in terms of different research purposes.
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    The Effects of Blood Lead on Child Development and Its Characteristics
    LIN Zhumei;ZHU Liqi;CHEN Zhe
    2013, 21 (1):  77-85.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00077
    Abstract ( 526 )   PDF (285KB) ( 905 )  
    Lead has strong neurodevelopmental toxicity; even low-level lead exposure has negative effects on individual development. Research has shown that lead exposure could result in physical defects, cognitive decline and social emotion disorders, especially during the critical period of development. The effect of blood lead on children is persistent and is resistant to interventions. Studies reveal that the best way to prevent lead poisoning is to take precautions against lead exposure. This article also points to future directions for examining the mechanisms of how lead poisoning affects children’s cognitive, socio-emotional and brain development.
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    The Developmental Assets Framework of Positive Human Development: An Important Approach and Field in Positive Youth Development Study
    CHANG Shumin;ZHANG Wenxin
    2013, 21 (1):  86-95.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00086
    Abstract ( 707 )   PDF (142KB) ( 1715 )  
    Since its emergence in 1990s, the Positive youth development (PYD) perspective has promoted the innovation and application of developmental psychology to a large extent. The developmental assets approach has become acknowledged as one of the most widespread and influential frameworks for understanding and strengthening positive youth development. Developmental assets are defined as a set of interrelated experiences, relationships, skills, and values that are known to enhance a broad range of youth outcomes, and are assumed to operate similarly for all youth. Under the framework of the developmental assets (DAF), this article introduces: 1) the concept of developmental assets and the construction of the DAF; 2) the foundation of construction and development of this model; 3) major hypothesis of this framework and corresponding research evidence; 4) future research directions and potential application of this model.
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    The Effect of Personality Traits on Cognitive Aging and the Mechanisms
    QI Shenghui;YU Lin;MA Jianling
    2013, 21 (1):  96-107.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00096
    Abstract ( 573 )   PDF (236KB) ( 1518 )  
    Cognitive aging is the age-related cognitive impairment. There are many factors that affect cognitive aging and personality can be treated as the originate. Current researches on personality and cognitive aging are mainly falling into two aspects: the effect of different personality traits on cognitive aging and the mechanisms between their relationships. Although the relationships between different personality traits and cognitive aging have become more and more clear, there are still a lot of controversies in current researches. Future researches can further strengthen and expand in the following areas: comparative studies of different research paradigms; the inherent problems about the mechanisms of the effect of personality traits on cognitive aging; the stability of personality traits and the influence and the indigenization study about the effect of personality traits on cognitive aging.
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    Wisdom: Structure, Category, Measurement and Relationships to Related Variables
    CHEN Haobin;WANG Fengyan
    2013, 21 (1):  108-117.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00108
    Abstract ( 645 )   PDF (254KB) ( 1904 )  
    Wisdom is a comprehensive psychological quality which integrates intelligence with morality; it is acquired by the individuals through experience and practice on the basis of their intelligence and knowledge, intelligence and morality are its core components. Wisdom can be divided into conventional wisdom and emergent wisdom, group wisdom and organizational wisdom, personal wisdom and general wisdom, moral wisdom and natural wisdom, etc. It can be measured by Three-Dimensional Wisdom Scale, Self-Assessed Wisdom Scale, Wisdom Development Scale, and is interrelated with age, gender, culture, education, personality, thinking style and intelligence. The future research should focus on the following aspects: to make a thorough inquiry on the concept and structure of wisdom, to expand the research methods, measurement tools and educational strategies, and to develop the indigenization research.
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    Operationalizing the Cognitive Vulnerability of Hopelessness Depression and Its Related Research
    ZHOU Lihua;CHEN Jian;SU Linyan
    2013, 21 (1):  118-124.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00118
    Abstract ( 478 )   PDF (145KB) ( 1043 )  
    Operationalizing the cognitive vulnerability includes composite score, the highest score, and intra-individual standard deviation, which are used widely in depression researches. In the present, we reviewed these approaches and appreciated their significance during the course and therapy of hopelessness depression. We found that the composition score and the highest score reflected the different aspects of the cognitive vulnerability factors in hopelessness depression respectively. Therefore, comparing the two methods would be of great importance in future research. In addition, explanatory flexibility, which was represented by intra-individual standard deviation, may be a new vulnerability component beyond the hopelessness theory, and thus should shed light on the therapy of depression.
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    The Cognitive Mechanism and Influential Factors of Perception of Inflation
    GAO Fei;ZHANG Weiwei;PAN Xiaofu
    2013, 21 (1):  125-134.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00125
    Abstract ( 643 )   PDF (187KB) ( 1198 )  
    The perception of inflation is a subjective experience of inflation. The cognitive mechanism of perception of inflation is generally reflected in the price experience phase and the integration phase: the price experience phase mainly involves individual’s susceptibility and memory; the integration phase mainly involves availability heuristic, anchoring and adjustment heuristic. Additionally, it is suggested that many factors make impact on the perception of inflation, including the expectation of inflation, framing effects, price fairness, social amplification, currency changeover and so on. Future studies could focus on exploring information processing mode, cognitive-neural mechanism, cross-culture influential factors and new index with highecological validity.
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    Social Undermining in Organization: Conceptualization, Consequences and Formation Mechanism
    ZHU Di;DUAN Jinyun;TIAN Xiaoming
    2013, 21 (1):  135-143.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00135
    Abstract ( 619 )   PDF (215KB) ( 1295 )  
    Social undermining refers to behavior intended to hinder the ability to establish and maintain positive interpersonal relationships, work-related success and favorable reputation over time. After introducing the concepts and measuring instruments of social undermining, the article summarized the negative influences of social undermining at the individual level which includes mental health and self-efficacy, and at the organizational climate level. Then the paper elucidated individual engagements and reactions about social undermining which were shaped by cognition, personality and other internal factors on the one hand, and were determined by social context, social support and other external factors on the other hand. Future studies about the conceptualization/measurement, methods and antecedents of social undermining were discussed as well.
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    Belief in A Just World: A Double-edged Sword for Justice Restoration
    ZHOU Chunyan;GUO Yongyu
    2013, 21 (1):  144-154.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00144
    Abstract ( 732 )   PDF (240KB) ( 1864 )  
    According to the just-world theory, individuals have a need to believe that they live in a world where people generally get what they deserve and deserve what they get. Early researches on this idea focused on reactions to various types of victims and the alternative strategies for coping with threats of injustice, including action strategies such as helping and compensation to victims and cognitive strategies such as victim derogation and blame. As the development of the individual-difference measures of the belief in a just world, researchers view BJW as a positive coping mechanism with many psychological benefits. To various kinds of victims and witnesses, BJW functions as a personal resource or psychological buffer helping them to cope with the threats of their daily life, maintaining mental health, endowing trust in the fairness of the world, and investing to the long-term goals. The bidimensional structures of just-world belief are important to interpret its dual functions. Theoretical challenges are discussed.
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    Research Methods
    Cognitive Mapping Technique and Application in Management Psychology
    NIE Jing;LING Wenquan;LI Ming
    2013, 21 (1):  155-165.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00155
    Abstract ( 670 )   PDF (361KB) ( 1118 )  
    The cognitive mapping technique, including eliciting and analyzing techniques, represents a collective term for a set of techniques which allow the researcher to obtain graphical representations of individual understanding of a particular domain. This paper elaborated its concept and principle and presented general steps of this technique through an example of shared mental models. And then we introduced its application in management psychology. It is essential that future studies pay more attention to the study of its theory, application, and software in depth given the existing problems of the technique.
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    Application of Generalizability Theory in Personnel Evaluation
    LI Guangming;ZHANG Minqiang;ZHANG Wenyi
    2013, 21 (1):  166-174.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00166
    Abstract ( 492 )   PDF (289KB) ( 1226 )  
    Generalizability theory is one of modern psychological and educational measurement theory and can be applied in personnel evaluation such as performance assessment, multisource rating, psychological test, structured interview, level test, job analysis and assessment center. Applied in personnel evaluation, generalizability theory is better than classical test theory. Generalizability theory can examine many factors at one time and gives weights to some dimensions, but classical test theory can’t. The objects of application of generalizability theory included mainly company and organization. Applied in personnel evaluation, generalizability theory was faced with some problem such as application area, sample, validity, microcosmic evaluation.
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    Cognitive Processes and Task Features of Algebra Story Problems for Item Generation
    YANG Xiangdong
    2013, 21 (1):  175-189.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00175
    Abstract ( 373 )   PDF (316KB) ( 526 )  
    Cognitive item generation, rooted from the theory-based measurement paradigm, requires formulating an elaborated theory of the measured construct, upon which task features that are linked to cognitive variables underlying such theory can be systematically analyzed and manipulated. Cast from the perspective of problem solving as an agent – situation interactive process, both cognitive processes of algebra story problem solving and task affordance of such problems are systematically analyzed in this article. Specifically, an algebra story problem is considered as a particular quantitative structure embedded in a verbally-stated realistic situation. Three different types of representations, i.e., a textbase, a situational model and a quantitative model, need to be formed during the four phases of algebra story problem solving including translation, integration, planning and execution, which are further mediated by the schematic knowledge possessed by the problem-solver. Correspondingly, Task features that are associated with syntactic/semantic relations, quantitative elements as well as their structures, and problem situations are analyzed and synthesized based on a broad range of relevant literature. It is evident from the current analysis that subsequent research should focus on empirical studies to link the set of cognitive variables and task features for such problems, as well as to evaluate the generalizability of such linkages across the targeted domain in order for item generation of algebra story problem to lay on a solidly scientific foundation.
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    Reviewers in 2012
    2013, 21 (1):  190-190. 
    Abstract ( 724 )   PDF (111KB) ( 1308 )  
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