ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 51 ›› Issue (4): 471-483.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2019.00471

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

发展性阅读障碍儿童的新词习得及其改善

白学军1,2(), 马杰1, 李馨1, 连坤予1, 谭珂1, 杨宇1, 梁菲菲2()   

  1. 1 天津师范大学心理与行为研究院, 天津 300074
    2 天津师范大学教育科学学院, 天津 300387
  • 收稿日期:2018-05-09 出版日期:2019-04-25 发布日期:2019-02-22
  • 通讯作者: 白学军,梁菲菲 E-mail:baixuejun@tjnu.edu.cn;feifeiliang_329@126.com
  • 基金资助:
    * 国家自然科学基金(31600902);国家自然科学基金(81471629);国家自然科学基金(31571122);国家自然科学基金(31800920);天津市哲学社会科学规划课题(TJJX16-013)

The efficiency and improvement of novel word’s learning in Chinese children with developmental dyslexia during natural reading

BAI Xuejun1,2(), MA Jie1, LI Xin1, LIAN Kunyu1, TAN Ke1, YANG Yu1, LIANG Feifei2()   

  1. 1 Academy of Psychology and Behavior, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300074, China
    2 School of Education and Science, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387, China
  • Received:2018-05-09 Online:2019-04-25 Published:2019-02-22
  • Contact: BAI Xuejun,LIANG Feifei E-mail:baixuejun@tjnu.edu.cn;feifeiliang_329@126.com

摘要:

本研究通过比较重复学习新词时个体眼动模式的变化, 探讨发展性阅读障碍儿童的新词习得及改善途径。实验1以发展性阅读障碍、生理年龄和阅读能力匹配儿童为被试, 采用重复学习新词的范式, 探讨发展性阅读障碍儿童的新词习得。结果发现, 与匹配组相比, 发展性阅读障碍儿童在新词的首次注视时间和凝视时间上需要更多的语境才出现显著下降, 且在总注视时间上表现出更缓慢的下降。表明发展性阅读障碍儿童的新词习得慢于正常儿童。实验2以词间空格和正常无空格两种文本呈现方式, 仍采用重复学习新词范式, 探讨词间空格是否能促进发展性阅读障碍儿童的新词习得。结果发现, 在词间空格条件下, 发展性阅读障碍儿童的新词习得可达到正常儿童的水平。表明作为视觉词切分线索的词间空格, 可促进发展性阅读障碍儿童的新词习得。本研究结果为发展性阅读障碍儿童新词习得提供了一条新的途径。

关键词: 发展性阅读障碍, 新词习得, 词切分, 中文阅读

Abstract:

Previous studies have shown that the amount of vocabularies of children with developmental dyslexia is remarkably lower than that of normal children, thus, it becomes one of the primary indicators for discriminating dyslexia in clinical children develop vocabularies at an extremely high rate in primary school, and a conservative estimate shows that approximately one-third of vocabulary growth is acquired by accidental learning in natural reading. The critical process of this way to learn words, is to infer the word meaning by gathering useful sources base on lexical and contextual cues. Chinese developmental dyslexia typically have deficits in the aspects of morphological- and phonological-related processing, we infer they would be less skilled to derive the word meaning by using lexical information. The first experiment is designed to examine the dyslexic children’s performance of novel word learning in reading.

In Experiment 1, the novel words were embedded into eight sentences, each of which provided a context for readers to form a new lexical representation. Three groups of children were selected as participants, including children with developmental dyslexia (DD), the chronological age-matched children (CA), and reading level-matched children (RL). They were instructed to read sentences containing novel words as their eye movements were recorded. The results showed that, reading times on target words gradually reduced with the increasing of learning stages. Children with developmental dyslexia needed more contexts to begin to decrease for the measures of first fixation duration and gaze duration, and showed a slower decline on total fixation time as compared to age-matched and reading level-matched children. It suggests that more contexts are necessary for dyslexic children to learn novel words in reading.

The insertion of spaces between words, has been proven to be an effective way of improving children’s word learning efficiency. In Experiment 2, we examined whether children with dyslexia were more benefit from word spacing in word learning because of their low-level of reading skills. Three groups of children as the same in Experiment 1 were instructed to read sentences in unspaced, and word-spaced formats. The results showed that all children were benefit from word spacing in word learning, and it was more pronounced for children with- than without- dyslexia. We argue that word spacing may allow readers to form a more fully specified representation of the novel word, or to strengthen connections between representations of the constituent characters and the multi-character word.

Our findings provide robust evidence that Chinese children with developmental dyslexia have lower efficiency of word learning in reading, probably this accounts for their less vocabularies in mental lexicon. The findings also have strong implications for educational practice with respect to reading development with dyslexia.

Key words: developmental dyslexia, word acquisition, word segmentation, Chinese reading

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