ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2020, Vol. 52 ›› Issue (4): 440-455.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2020.00440

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇


张积家(), 付雅, 王斌   

  1. 中国人民大学心理学系、国家民委民族语言文化心理重点研究基地、教育部民族教育发展中心民族心理与教育重点研究基地, 北京 100872
  • 收稿日期:2019-07-16 发布日期:2020-02-25 出版日期:2020-04-25
  • 通讯作者: 张积家
  • 基金资助:
    * 国家社会科学基金后期资助重点项目“亲属词认知研究”(项目批准号:19FYYA002);北京市社会科学基金项目“亲属词空间隐喻表征的效应与机制研究”(16YYB024);国家民委民族问题研究重点项目“少数民族学生双语学习认知规律研究”(2017-GMA- 004)

Gender culture influence on spatial and weight metaphors of kinship words: Evidence from Bai, Yi, and Mosuo nationalities

ZHANG Jijia(), FU Ya, WANG Bin   

  1. Key Research Center for National Psychology and Education, the National Education Development Center of the Ministry of Education, Beijing 100872, China
  • Received:2019-07-16 Online:2020-02-25 Published:2020-04-25
  • Contact: ZHANG Jijia


采用空间隐喻和重量隐喻的研究范式, 考察彝族人、白族人和摩梭人在亲属词性别概念加工中的空间隐喻和重量隐喻。实验1考察亲属词性别概念加工的上下隐喻。结果表明, 彝族人对“上男下女”词对的反应比对“上女下男”词对快; 白族人在判断长辈亲属词时, 对“上男下女”词对的反应比对“上女下男”词对快; 摩梭人对“上男下女”词对的反应比对“上女下男”词对慢。实验2采用性别概念启动重量概念, 发现亲属词性别概念加工存在着轻重隐喻一致性效应, 性别亲属词对促进对天平倾斜方向的判断。对彝族人而言, 男性亲属词激活了“重”概念, 女性亲属词激活了“轻”概念; 对摩梭人而言, 女性亲属词激活了“重”概念, 男性亲属词激活了“轻”概念; 白族人未表现出亲属词性别对轻重概念激活的差异。实验3采用重量概念启动性别概念。结果显示, 对彝族人而言, “重”概念启动了“男”概念, “轻”概念启动了“女”概念; 对摩梭人而言, “重”概念启动了“女”概念, “轻”概念启动了“男”概念; 对白族人而言, 未发现轻重概念对性别概念启动的显著差异。整个研究表明, 性别文化影响亲属词性别概念加工中的空间隐喻和重量隐喻, 证明了隐喻的文化性。

关键词: 彝族, 白族, 摩梭人, 空间隐喻, 重量隐喻


Metaphors are among cognitive styles, which refer to the construction of psychological ideas using other concepts. The core of our conceptual system is derived directly from our experience of perception, physical movement, and social characteristics. Embodied philosophy is the philosophical foundation of cognitive linguistics and closely related to the study of metaphors. In terms of spatial metaphors, “up” is generally believed to represent morality, enthusiasm, and high status, while “down” represents immorality, negativity, and low status. With regard to weight metaphors, “heavy” generally denotes high authority and more respect, while “light” depicts low authority and less importance. Kinship is one of the social relationships formed on the basis of blood relations and marriage. In every language, numerous words represent kingship, which are called kinship words. The purpose of this study is to explore whether kinship words can be represented by concepts of “up-down” and “heavy-light” and whether gender culture has an impact on the spatial and weight metaphors of kinship words.

Three experiments are conducted in this study, with over 100 volunteer participants for each experiment, involving 30 individuals from three nationality groups. All the participants are from Yunnan Province, with the same academic qualifications but different cultural backgrounds. The kinship words in the materials are paired with gender from the same generation, such as “father-mother”, “brother-sister”, and “son-daughter”. In Experiment 1, a pair of kinship words is presented on the screen vertically, while the participants are asked to judge whether both words are kinship words. In Experiment 2, a pair of kinship words is presented on the screen horizontally before a picture of a balance is shown, and the participants are asked to judge the tilt direction of the balance. In Experiment 3, a picture of a balance appears before a pair of kinship words is presented, and the participants are asked to judge the position of the male/female words.

Studies have shown that (1) the Bai, Yi, and Mosuo people are influenced by the concept of seniority when processing kinship words, which is closely related to the tradition of showing respect and love to elders. (2) Kinship words could be represented by “up-down” and “heavy-light” concepts, with “up/heavy” representing high power and more respect and “down/light” representing low power and less importance. (3) Cultural schema affects the metaphorical representation of kinship concepts. Moreover, gender culture has an influence on the spatial space and metaphor of kinship words. Metaphorical consistency between male and “up/heavy” among the Yi people and between female and “up/heavy” among the Mosuo people is observed, whereas male/female concepts are not significantly related to “up/down” and “heavy/light” concepts among the Bai people.

Most previous studies on kinship words have studied spatial metaphors and mainly focused on the structure of kinship words. The present study considers spatial and weight metaphors and is innovative in terms of gender culture perspectives. We find that the gender concepts of the three nationalities have different connections with spatial and weight concepts, which demonstrates the impact of gender culture on cognition.

Key words: Yi, Bai, the Mosuo, spatial metaphor, weight metaphor