ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2014, Vol. 46 ›› Issue (2): 216-226.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2014.00216

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇



  1. (中国人民大学心理系, 北京 100872) (华南师范大学心理应用研究中心, 广州 510631)
  • 收稿日期:2013-05-13 出版日期:2014-02-25 发布日期:2014-02-25
  • 通讯作者: 张积家

Temporal-Spatial Metaphor in Conceptual Representation: Can Spatial Information be Activated When Processing the Temporal Reference Which Implied in the Changing Shape of Objects?

SONG Yiqi;ZHANG Jijia   

  1. (Department of Psychology, Renmin University of China, Beijing 100872, China) (Center for Psychological Application, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, China)
  • Received:2013-05-13 Online:2014-02-25 Published:2014-02-25
  • Contact: ZHANG Jijia


通过2个实验, 考察了空间隐喻和形状变化对物体内隐时间概念加工的影响。实验1通过对隐含时间关系的词对的语义相关判断发现, 形状变化物体隐含的“先前/后来”的时间概念与“左/右”的空间概念存在着对应关系, 断裂式变化(形状变化大)的物体比渐进式变化(形状变化小)的物体激发了更加明显的时间变化感, 但物体形状变化类型并未明显地影响对词对语义相关判断的速度和准确性。实验2通过对隐含时间关系的物体图片对的语义相关判断发现, 物体形状变化隐含的“先前/后来”的时间概念与“左/右”的空间概念亦存在着对应关系, 而且物体形状变化类型影响对物体图片对语义相关判断的速度和准确性, 被试对渐进式变化物体的语义相关判断显著快于对断裂式变化物体的语义相关判断, 错误率亦低。整个研究表明, 在物体形状变化内隐时间概念的表征中, 既存在着抽象的符号表征, 又存在着具体的形状知觉表征。研究结果支持概念双加工理论的预言。

关键词: 形状变化, 时间空间隐喻, 概念双加工理论


Although time is abstract, unbodied and intangible, human also can feel it in some way. The changing shapes of objects show the existence of time. As time goes on, the shape of objects will change or be changed. The objects in a forward position of time series refer to “earlier”, while the objects in a afterward position of time series refer to “later”. It has been demonstrated that English participants were faster responding to “earlier” objects presented on the left of the screen and to “later” objects presented on the right of the screen. Both the perceptual symbol theory and the propositional symbol theory assure that this finding can be explained by the opinion of the reading/writing directionality affecting the representation of temporal sequences. Therefore, the former studies haven’t solved the disputes of the above two theories. The substantial difference between two theories is whether the information, activated during the concept processing, is perceptual. In present research, two experiments were conducted to investigate whether the perceptual traits (the degree of shape change) affected congruency effects between temporal reference and spatial relation. In each experiment, pairs of words or pictures of objects, which were displayed on the left and right of the screen respectively, were used as targets. It is called metaphor-consistent condition, if the “earlier” objects in this condition were on the left of screen and the “later” ones were on the right; by contrast, it is called metaphor-inconsistent condition. Pairs of objects were divided into two groups. In the one group, the shapes of objects in pairs have changed gradually as time goes on. There are still a lot of same traits between two objects; in the other group, the shapes of objects in pairs have changed abruptly. There is little resemblance between two objects. In Experiment 1, Participants were instructed to carry out semantic relatedness judgment to pairs of object names with go/no-go task. The results showed semantic processing was inhibited in metaphor-inconsistent condition rather than metaphor-consistent condition. Participants were faster responding when the “earlier” objects in the left of the screen and the “later” objects in the right of the screen. It indicated that the temporal reference which implied in the changing shape of objects was activated. Furthermore, there were more significant temporal-spatial congruency effects in the shapes-changing-abruptly group. This result showed that perceptual traits were activated when processing the concept. Experiment 2, which was same as Experiment 1 except changing words into pictures, got the same temporal-spatial congruency effects as Experiment 1. Furthermore, Experiment 2 got a very important and different result. Perceptual traits affected the semantic relatedness judgment to pairs of object pictures which did not observe in Experiment 1. Participants were faster responding to the objects of gradually changing shapes than the ones of changing abruptly shapes. In short, it is claimed that spatial information can be activated when processing temporal reference which implied in the changing shape of objects. Combining the results of two experiments, it suggested that there were both semantic processing and perceptual simulation in the conceptual processing, which further proved the perspectives of dual-processing theory.

Key words: time metaphor, the changing of shape, dual-processing theory