ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2001, Vol. 33 ›› Issue (2): 155-159.

• • 上一篇    下一篇

大学生考期应激的特征及原因分析

张智君;霍燕   

  1. 浙江大学西溪校区心理与行为科学学院,浙江大学西溪校区心理与行为科学学院 杭州310028 ,杭州310028
  • 出版日期:2001-04-25 发布日期:2001-04-25
  • 通讯作者: 张智君

CHARACTERISTICS AND FACTOR ANALYSIS OF TEST-DURATION STRESS FOR COLLEGE STUDENTS

Zhang Zhijun Huo Yan (School of Psychology and Behavior Science, Xixi Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028)   

  • Online:2001-04-25 Published:2001-04-25

摘要: 旨在研究考期应激的表现特征,并探讨其产生的原因和影响因素。以问卷方法测量了261名在校大学生。结果发现47.89%的被试有不同程度的考期应激症状,其中以睡眠症状为最典型的特征。考期应激症状很少受性别、专业、年级、是否担任班干部和个性倾向等因素的影响,且具有较明显的时间特征。诱发考期应激的主要因素有:考生“对考拭目的的认知”、“对考试内容的认知”及“生活和学习环境”等。结论为,考期应激是一种大学生中较普遍且具有多重原因的应激现象。

关键词: 考试, 应激, 主成分分析, 症状

Abstract: Test-Duration Stress (TDS) is a popular phenomenon for college students during term exams and often make some detrimental impacts on performances and health of college students. Therefore, it is very important to examine the characteristics of Test-Duration Stress and explore the possible factors it resulted from. Two questionnaires, the Scale for Characteristics of Test-Duration Stress (SCTDS) and Scale for Factors of Test-Duration Stress (SFTDS), were specially designed and employed in the present study. Two hundred and sixty-one college students, 152 males and 109 females, were selected as subjects, who were 18 to 26 years of age including all four grade students. From the results of SCTDS evaluation, it was surprisedly found that totally one hundred and twenty-five subjects (high as 47.89 percent) showed some significant symptoms of Test-Duration Stress. The sleeping symptom was especially seen among them, and there were very significant differences in sleepless scores between the TDS group (4.932 ± 2.374) and the normal group (3.563 ± 2.431). There were also some great differences in other symptoms such as digestion, cognitive capacity, headache and immunity, which were all significant statistically. But all the symptoms were rarely affected by such variables as sex, specialty, grade, roles and personality except sex difference in headache symptom. Moreover, it was found that the Test-Duration Stress had some markedly time features. Fifty-two percent of TDS subjects had indicated obvious TDS symptoms early in the beginning of the test duration. This value had reached up to 78.4 percent in the middle of the test duration. Subjects emerged TDS symptoms at the end of the test duration occupied only 16.8 percent. Meanwhile, TDS symptoms had disappeared for 95.2 percent of TDS subjects soon after all exams ended, and only 4.8 percent of TDS subjects maintained their TDS symptoms more than one day after all the tests. Based on the factor analysis of SFTDS evaluation results, it was believed that the major factors resulted in the Test-Duration Stress were very complex, and could be attributed to three aspects. Vu-st was the college student' s cognition of the purpose of the test, which referred to fame, scholarship, job chance, expectations from family and teachers, and so on. Second was the college student' s cognition of content of the test, which involved with the use and difficulty of test contents. Third was life and learning environment. It was concluded that the Test-Duration Stress was common to college students, that it displayed significant sleepless symptoms and regular time features, and that it could be evoked by multiple causes.

Key words: test, stress, principal component analysis, symptom