ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2020, Vol. 52 ›› Issue (6): 758-776.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2020.00758

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

回避与趋近性负性人格特质对应激心血管反应模式的不同影响

吕薇()   

  1. 陕西师范大学心理学院; 陕西省行为与认知神经科学重点实验室, 陕西省儿童青少年心理与行为健康重点研究中心, 西安 710062
  • 收稿日期:2019-09-25 出版日期:2020-06-25 发布日期:2020-04-22
  • 通讯作者: 吕薇 E-mail:lvwei@snnu.edu.cn;xuan006@126.com
  • 基金资助:
    * 陕西省自然科学基础研究计划项目(面上项目)(2019JM-463);中央高校基本科研业务费重点项目(GK201802020)

Differential effects of avoidance and approach negative personality traits on patterns of stress cardiovascular responses

LÜ Wei()   

  1. School of Psychology, Shaanxi Normal University; Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Behavior and Cognitive Neuroscience, Shaanxi Key Research Center for Children Mental and Behavioral Health, Xi'an 710062, China
  • Received:2019-09-25 Online:2020-06-25 Published:2020-04-22
  • Contact: Lü Wei E-mail:lvwei@snnu.edu.cn;xuan006@126.com

摘要:

本研究考察了回避与趋近性负性特质对不同强度心理社会应激刺激重复暴露的心血管反应、应激后心血管反应恢复、重复应激心血管反应的影响, 并探讨了应激认知评价在其中的作用。167名大学生被试被随机分配到中/高强度应激条件中, 连续采集其在基线期、首次应激期、恢复期、重复应激期四个阶段的心血管反应数据。结果发现: (1)无论应激强度如何, 回避性负性特质预测首次和重复应激中较低(钝化)的心血管反应和应激后较差的恢复, 而趋近性负性特质预测较大的心血管反应和应激后较差的恢复。(2)重复应激个人资源感知在回避性负性特质与重复应激心率反应之间起中介作用。因此, 回避性负性特质与持续较低(钝化)的应激心血管反应和应激后较差的恢复相联系, 而趋近性负性特质与较大的应激心血管反应和应激后较差的恢复相联系, 即两类负性特质均表现出不适应的固化的应激心血管反应模式, 这可能构成了两类不同负性特质增加罹患心血管疾病风险的生理机制。

关键词: 回避性负性特质, 趋近性负性特质, 应激心血管反应模式, 认知评价

Abstract:

A cluster of negative personality traits such as trait anxiety, trait depression, trait anger, trait hostility, has long been viewed as high risk factors that lead to cardiovascular diseases. Patterns of stress cardiovascular responses are the important physiological pathways through which personality traits influence cardiovascular diseases. In the past decades, studies exploring the associations between negative personality traits and patterns of stress cardiovascular responses have mainly focused on a specific negative trait and its cardiovascular responses to a single low/moderate stress exposure, however, no study to date has differentiated two types of negative traits and their relations with patterns of cardiovascular responses to repeated stress exposure under distinct intensity conditions. The present study sought to investigate the associations between avoidance vs. approach negative traits and the patterns of cardiovascular responses to two successive stress exposures under moderate and high intensity psychosocial stress conditions. Moreover, the potential mechanisms underlying these associations were preliminarily explored by considering the mediating role of stress cognitive appraisals.

Eligible 167 healthy undergraduate students recruited from universities in Xi'an (58 males, 109 females), aged 17~25 years (19.23 ± 1.13), took part in the present study. Upon arrival, participants completed a package of questionnaires including trait depression, trait anxiety, trait anger, and trait hostility. Then, participants were randomly assigned to either moderate- or high-intensity psychosocial stress condition, and underwent four laboratory phases: baseline, stress exposure 1, post-stress 1, stress exposure 2. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were utilized to examine the main effects of stress intensity, avoidance and approach negative traits, as well as interaction effects of negative traits and stress intensity in predicting cardiovascular reactivity to, cardiovascular recovery from stress, and cardiovascular reactivity to repeated stress. Furthermore, mediation effect analyses were conducted to explore whether the associations between negative traits and stress cardiovascular reactivity were mediated by cognitive appraisals.

Results showed that the mock interview tasks used for both two stress exposures were effective in eliciting subjective and physiological stress responses. Intensity of psychosocial stress was successfully manipulated, with high-intensity stress elicited greater psychophysiological responses than low-intensity stress. Regression analyses showed that regardless of the stress intensity, avoidance negative trait predicted blunted stress cardiovascular reactivity to the first and second stress exposures, and predicted poor cardiovascular recovery after the stress exposure. Whereas, approach negative trait predicted greater stress cardiovascular reactivity to the first and second stress exposures, and predicted poor cardiovascular recovery after the stress exposure. In addition, mediation analyses showed that the association between avoidance negative trait and HR reactivity to repeated stress was mediated by perceived personal resources to repeated stress.

Overall, the present study findings suggest that both two types of negative trait are associated with a rigid stress cardiovascular response pattern in coping with a changing environment. In specific, avoidance negative trait is associated with blunted stress cardiovascular reactivity and poor cardiovascular recovery, whereas approach negative trait is associated with greater stress cardiovascular reactivity and poor cardiovascular recovery, implying differential physiological mechanisms underlying cardiovascular diseases.

Key words: avoidance negative trait, approach negative trait, stress cardiovascular response patterns, cognitive appraisals

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