ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2014, Vol. 46 ›› Issue (10): 1463-1475.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2014.01463

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  1. (1中共佛山市委党校, 广东佛山 528300) (2中山大学心理学系, 广州 510275) (3华南师范大学心理咨询研究中心, 广州 510631)
  • 收稿日期:2013-07-18 出版日期:2014-10-25 发布日期:2014-10-25
  • 通讯作者: 周晖, E-mail:
  • 基金资助:


Cognitive Appraisal Basis of Gratitude

DING Ruyi1,2; ZHOU Hui2; LIN Ma3   

  1. (1 The party school of municipal Party committee of Foshan, Foshan, 528300, China) (2 Department of Psychology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China) (3 The Research Center of Psychological Counsing,South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, China)
  • Received:2013-07-18 Published:2014-10-25 Online:2014-10-25
  • Contact: ZHOU Hui, E-mail:


本文从情绪认知理论的角度出发, 通过3个研究探究与感激情绪有关的认知评价维度, 进而建立感激情绪的认知评价体系。研究1使用回忆不同类型的情绪性事件法初步探究了感激情绪的认知评估体系; 研究2使用操作认知评估维度法探究了认知评价的变化对感激体验的影响; 研究3使用故事情境法分别从个体特质和情境因素的角度, 探究个体特质与感激情绪之间的关系如何受到个体认知评价的影响, 进而为感激情绪的评价体系提供更多的证据支持。研究1发现感激情绪体验与受关怀感、符合道德规范和他人负责性3个维度之间存在正相关关系。研究2发现3个认知评估维度体验的有无均会导致个体在感激情绪体验上出现显著差异。研究3表明感激特质可以预测个体的认知评价和感激情绪体验; 同时, 受关怀感、道德规范、他人负责3个认知评价维度在感激特质与感激情绪关系间起到中介作用。结论:3个研究结果表明, 受关怀感、道德规范、他人负责性3个认知评价维度与感激密切相关, 并在区分开感激与自豪、亏欠感等情绪中起重要作用。因此, 这3个认识评估维度共同组成了感激情绪认知评价体系。

关键词: 感激, 认知评价, 情绪评估理论


Gratitude is the appreciation that one feels when people receive something beneficial. Appraisal theories argue that each emotion is associated with a specific pattern of appraisals about the perceived antecedents of emotional experiences. The goal of the current research is to reveal the appraisal patterns of gratitude by identifying specific components of gratitude. In Study 1, participants recalled five past emotional experiences (angry, happy, gratitude, pride, indebted) before rating on different cognitive appraisal components and emotions. Results showed that other accountability, perceived responsiveness, and moral norm were closely related to the intensity of gratitude, while goal congruence, unexpectedness, and self-importance were not significantly associated with gratitude. In addition, some emotions were associated with different patterns of cognitive appraisals. In Study 2, participants described pleasant situations they experienced recently, in each of which one of the cognitive appraisal components was present or absent. They were asked to indicate what emotions they had experienced. Results showed that other accountability, perceived responsiveness, and unexpectedness were not only correlated with gratitude, but also affected the intensity of gratitude. Study 3 aimed to explore how trait gratitude impacted state gratitude and cognitive appraisals, and whether the relation between trait and state gratitude was mediated by cognitive appraisals. Results showed that trait gratitude was closely related to state gratitude; further, other accountability, perceived responsiveness, and unexpectedness mediated this relation. In summary, the three studies provided empirical evidence to appraisal theories. More importantly, these studies revealed that other accountability, perceived responsiveness, and unexpectedness were all cognitive appraisal components of gratitude.

Key words: appreciate, cognitive appraisal, appraisal theory