ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2023, Vol. 55 ›› Issue (12): 2035-2058.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2023.02035

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    


李路云1, 贾良定1(), 张熠婕1, 魏良玉2   

  1. 1南京大学商学院, 南京 210008
    2墨尔本大学经济与工商管理学院, 澳大利亚 墨尔本 3052
  • 收稿日期:2022-12-31 发布日期:2023-10-16 出版日期:2023-12-25
  • 通讯作者: 贾良定, E-mail:
  • 基金资助:

Identity embarrassment and identity defense: The development of organizational identity of dispatched employees

LI Luyun1, JIA Liangding1(), ZHANG Yijie1, WEI Liangyu2   

  1. 1Business School, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210008, China
    2Faculty of Business & Economics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne 3052, Australia
  • Received:2022-12-31 Online:2023-10-16 Published:2023-12-25


劳务派遣员工的双重组织身份具有互补性和动态性特征。现有文献主要探讨单一组织情境下多重身份管理问题, 对员工如何管理具有互补性和动态性的双重组织身份知之甚少。通过对34位来自不同行业的派遣员工访谈及其他数据的质性分析, 文章构建了“劳务派遣员工双重组织身份动态发展模型”: (1)双重组织身份的期望与体验的比较有三种可能结果, “匹配−匹配”推动双重组织身份实现, “不匹配−不匹配”造成双重组织身份破裂, 而“匹配−不匹配”是引发双重组织身份动态管理的主要动因; (2)“匹配−不匹配”使派遣员工陷入身份尴尬, 他们会依据派遣单位和用工单位在身份中的相对重要性, 采用不同身份辩护策略, 身份隔离、身份比较和身份创造三种策略会缓解身份尴尬, 促使双重组织身份实现; 身份反刍策略会造成身份尴尬的进一步恶化, 导致双重组织身份破裂。文章丰富了身份理论和组织社会化理论, 对派遣员工的管理具有指导意义。

关键词: 劳务派遣员工, 双重组织身份, 身份尴尬, 身份辩护, 身份协同


“Where do I belong?” This problem related to the identity of dispatched employees not only complicates their work and life but is key to a series of social problems, such as social injustice and mass unemployment. Although current research provides different perspectives for exploring the identity confusion of dispatched employees, there has been little analysis of the essential cause of this phenomenon: the complementary and dynamic characteristics of the dual organizational identity of dispatched employees. Therefore, little is known about how dispatched employees manage their complementary and dynamic dual organizational identity. What’s more, in the literature of multiple identity management or identity work, many scholars have explored how individuals manage two identities with independent, cross-cutting and nested relationships to achieve self-consistency or integrity. However, management strategies for two identities with a complementary relationship have not been discussed theoretically.

This paper mainly adopts grounded theory to collect and analyze data. Through two-stage interviews (consisting of a survey and an in-depth interview), we collected data from 34 dispatched employees in different industries. The first author also collected the observational data during her internship at a labor dispatch company. The first, the third and the fourth author carried out the open, axial and selective step-by-step coding to construct a dynamic development model of the dual organizational identity of labor dispatched employees

The results indicate three things: (1) In the comparison of expectations and experiences of dual organizational identity, there are three possible outcomes. “Match-match” promotes the realization of a dual organizational identity, “mismatch-mismatch” causes the rupture of a dual organizational identity, and “match- mismatch” is the main motivation for dynamic management of a dual organizational identity. (2) “Match- mismatch” poses a psychological dilemma called identity embarrassment for dispatched employees; they do not know where they belong. They adopt different identity defense strategies (depending on their attention and valence of interpretation) according to the relative importance of the dispatching unit and the employing unit in their identity. Three of these strategies—identity isolation, identity comparison and identity creation — alleviate identity embarrassment and promote the realization of the dual organizational identity. However, the identity rumination strategy further worsens identity embarrassment, leading to the rupture of the dual organizational identity. (3) “Match-match” promotes positive synergy based on social exchange, and “mismatch- mismatch” leads to negative synergy based on economic exchange.

This paper enriches identity theory and organizational socialization in three areas. First, it expands the structural relationship between the two identities by introducing the complementary relationship contained in the dual organizational identity of dispatched employees, which is different from the independent, cross-cutting and nested relationships examined in previous studies. Second, the paper summarizes and refines the concepts of identity embarrassment and identity defense to explain the new identity problem and the identity management strategies adopted by the complementary and dynamic dual organizational identity. Third, the paper introduces the interaction between dual organizational identity and a complementary relationship of those identities, interpreting the positive synergy based on social exchange and negative synergy based on economic exchange. The conclusion of the study has important practical significance. It guides dispatch units and employing units to avoid the identity embarrassment of dispatched employees, and it promotes the realization of dual organizational identity to achieve win-win scenarios among the three parties of labor dispatching.

Key words: dispatched employees, dual organizational identity, identity defense, identity embarrassment, identity synergy