ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2021, Vol. 53 ›› Issue (6): 651-666.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00651

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇


岳童1(), 黄希庭1(), 岳彩镇2, 薛黎明1, 傅安国3   

  1. 1西南大学心理学与社会发展研究中心; 西南大学心理学部, 重庆 400715
    2贵州民族大学民族文化与认知科学学院, 贵阳 550025
    3海南大学管理学院; 海南省公司治理研究院, 海口 570228
  • 收稿日期:2020-08-14 发布日期:2021-04-25
  • 通讯作者: 岳童,黄希庭;
  • 基金资助:

Influence of an individual's own gains and losses on the evaluation of friends' gambling results: Evidence from ERPs

YUE Tong1(), HUANG Xiting1(), YUE Caizhen2, XUE Liming1, FU Anguo3   

  1. 1Research Center for Psychology and Social Development, Southwest University; School of Psychology, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China
    2College of National Culture and Cognitive Science, Guizhou Minzu University, Guiyang 550025, China
    3School of Management, Hainan University; Hainan Institute of Corporate Governance, Haikou 570228, China
  • Received:2020-08-14 Online:2021-04-25
  • Contact: YUE Tong,HUANG Xiting;


本研究通过经典的金钱博弈任务, 以FRN和P300为反应指标, 探讨了自身获益或损失对朋友结果评价分别会产生何种影响, 以及这种影响模式是如何受到个体自我建构方式调节的。结果发现, 在自身获益条件下, 观看朋友损益之间的FRN和P300差异不再存在; 在自身损失条件下, 虽然观看朋友输赢之间的P300差异消失了, 但FRN差异依然显著。不仅如此, 无论自身得失, 独立型自我建构启动组在观看朋友损益上的FRN差异均不再显著, 但在自身获益后看到朋友损失能激发更强的P300波幅。本研究结果表明:(1) 对朋友的结果评价模式并非固定不变, 而是会随个体自身所处得失境遇的不同而有所区别; (2) 相对于互依型自我建构启动组, 独立型自我建构启动组在面对朋友的得失时表现得更为冷漠并更具竞争性。

关键词: 自我-他人表征, 金钱博弈任务, 自我建构, FRN, P300


Previous studies have indicated that the alternative evaluation responses to watching the gambling results of one's friends can be affected by self-interest concerns. However, until now, no systematic discussion is available addressing whether one's own different gains and losses will have different effects on the evaluation mode on a friends' gambling results; moreover, it remains unclear how this effect mode is modulated by the mode of an individual's self-construction. Research in this domain is conducive to identifying the dynamic changes of self-other sharing representations in the context of complex interpersonal interactions. Furthermore, this research provides empirical evidence toward understanding people's mentality of social interaction in the context of different cultures. This study presents a step by step discussion of the above problems via classic monetary gambling tasks in three separate experiments using the FRN and P300 as electrophysiological response indexes.

In summary, this study shows that: (1) the evaluation model for one's friends' gains and losses differs depending on the own experienced gains and losses. Under favorable conditions, an individual is more inclined to show indifference to his friends' gains and losses, which may be because the individual employs stronger egocentric tendency in such a case. (2) The independent self-construction initiation group shows more indifference and competition when observing the gains and losses of a friend than in case of the interdependent self-construction initiation group.

This pilot study mainly investigated the evaluation model for a friends' gambling results without involving one's own gains and losses. This aimed to verify previous research results and provided a baseline level for investigating the responses to the evaluation of a friends' gambling results. A total of 17 subjects and their same-sex friends participated in this pilot study. When an individual only observed but did not participate in gambling in person, such observing of a friends' gambling results can generate an electrophysiological response mode similar to own gains and losses. Many researchers suggested that such “mirror image” processing represented evidence for sharing presentations between an individual and his friends, i.e., the part that involves friends in people's self-concept.

Experiment 1 explored the neural electrophysiological responses that occur in the two parties when one observes the gains and losses of a friend after he himself has had the experience of losing and winning money in gambling. A total of 38 subjects and their same-sex friends were recruited to participate in a number of monetary gambling tasks. The results showed that the model for one's evaluation of the gains and losses of a friend could indeed be influenced by his own gains and losses. When one benefitted from gambling, the FRN and P300 discrepancies resulting from seeing the gains and losses of a friends were no longer significant. However, when one suffered monetary losses from gambling, although the discrepancy in FRN regarding seeing friends' gains and losses remained significant, friends' gains no longer elicited a higher amplitude of P300 than their losses.

Experiment 2 further addressed the previous situational self-reconstruction initiation pattern and investigated whether the neural response modes for the influence of one's own gains and losses on the evaluation of friends' gains and losses would differ under different modes of self-construction. The results indicated that in the interdependent self-construction initiation group, the electrophysiological response mode that results from watching friends' gambling was consistent with the result obtained in Experiment 1. However, after initiation of the independent self-construction of the subjects, the evaluation mode of the gambling results of a friend differed from that of the interdependent self-construction initiation group. In terms of the FRN index, regardless of one's own gains and losses, the differences in FRN for friends' gains and losses were no longer significant. In terms of the P300 index, the P300 discrepancy resulting from watching the gains and losses of a friend after suffering own losses was not significant. However, after having gained benefits, a higher P300 amplitude was induced by watching friends losing money in gambling than when watching them gain money.

Key words: self-other representation, monetary gambling task, self-construal, FRN, P300