ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2021, Vol. 53 ›› Issue (5): 527-554.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00527

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    

资质过剩感对个体绩效的作用效果及机制:基于情绪-认知加工系统与文化情境的元分析

杨伟文1,2, 李超平1()   

  1. 1中国人民大学公共管理学院组织与人力资源研究所, 北京 100872
    2福建省轻纺(控股)有限责任公司, 福州 350001
  • 收稿日期:2020-03-04 出版日期:2021-05-25 发布日期:2021-03-29
  • 通讯作者: 李超平 E-mail:lichaoping@ruc.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    *国家自然科学基金项目(71772171);中国人民大学校级智能计算云平台提供计算资源。响应《心理学报》开放科学的倡议,本文的数据与R语言代码已上传至:http://www.obhrm.net/index.php/2021MetaPOQ

The relationship between perceived overqualification and individual performance and mediating mechanisms: A meta-analytic review and examination of emotional and cognitive processing systems and cultural contexts

YANG Weiwen1,2, LI Chaoping1()   

  1. 1Institute of Organization and Human Resources, School of Public Administration and Policy, Renmin University of China, Beijing 100872, China
    2Fujian Light and Textile Industrial (Holdings) CO., LTD, Fuzhou 350001, China
  • Received:2020-03-04 Online:2021-05-25 Published:2021-03-29
  • Contact: LI Chaoping E-mail:lichaoping@ruc.edu.cn

摘要:

近年来, 资质过剩作为一种特殊的个人-环境不匹配现象, 引发了较多学者的关注, 但相关研究结论尚有争议。对包含383项独立研究、945个效应值及575061个研究样本的321篇文献开展元分析:(1)直接效应检验表明, 资质过剩感与消极情绪(愤怒、无聊)显著正相关, 与积极自我概念(自尊、自我效能感)的相关性不显著; 在个体绩效方面, 资质过剩感与消极角色外行为(反生产行为、离职)显著正相关, 与积极角色外行为(创新、组织公民行为等)和任务绩效的相关性不显著。(2) 结构方程模型元分析表明, 资质过剩感能够通过增强消极情绪, 进而增加消极角色外行为、减少积极角色外行为和任务绩效; 能够通过增强积极自我概念, 进而增加积极角色外行为和任务绩效、减少消极角色外行为; (3)集体主义文化倾向在资质过剩感通过情绪-认知加工系统影响个体绩效的过程中发挥调节作用, 在高集体主义文化情境中, 资质过剩感对消极情绪的负向影响较弱, 且能对积极自我概念产生正向影响; 在低集体主义文化情境中, 资质过剩感对消极情绪的负向影响较强, 且能对积极自我概念产生负向影响。(4)资质过剩感与个人-工作匹配相关性较强, 与个人-组织匹配相关性较弱; 与二者相比, 资质过剩感对压力感、离职的预测效果最强。研究结果有助于理解资质过剩感对个体绩效的复杂作用机制和边界条件, 并为组织如何管理资质过剩员工提供参考。

关键词: 资质过剩感, 消极情绪, 积极自我概念, 个人-组织匹配, 个人-工作匹配, 角色外行为

Abstract:

With increasingly fierce competition in the labor market, a growing number of employees have to work on jobs for which they may perceive themselves overqualified. Such employees usually possess capabilities that enable them to perform their job tasks without much difficulties, while the perceptions of overqualification, or perceived overqualification (POQ), may play a complex role in shaping their attitudes and behaviors. Thus, the issue of overqualification has drawn a great deal of attention in the field of human resources management and organizational behavior. However, there are many unsolved theoretical issues.
We aim to understand the influence of POQ on individual performance, and the affective and cognitive mediating mechanisms. In doing so, we investigated a set of potential mediators based on competing theories including self-regulation theory, equity theory, relative deprivation theory, person-environment fit theory and role theory. We meta-analyzed both English and Chinese primary studies on this topic. Studies were identified with key words including “Overqualification”, “Overqualified”, “Underemployment”, etc., in English datasets including APA PsycINFO, ProQuest (Dissertation), Emerald, JSTOR, Web of Science, and Chinese databases of CNKI and CSSCI from the first available date until September, 2020. Selection criteria included: (1) studies must contain POQ as a variable, (2) correlations and sample sizes were reported in the study, (3) only one study with the most complete number of variables will be analyzed if the same sample was used in different studies, and (4) the published data shall be superior to the unpublished dissertation. We finally analyzed 945 effect sizes from 383 independent samples (N = 575, 061) in 321 articles.
Our research contained three steps. In the first step, we estimated the main effects of POQ on variables including negative emotions (i.e. job boredom and anger), self-concepts (i.e. self-esteem and self-efficacy), negative behaviors (i.e. turnover, counterproductive work behavior (CWB), positive extra-role behaviors (i.e. organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), knowledge sharing, creativity, voice, and job crafting) and task performance with the Hunter-Schmidt meta-analytic method. Thereafter, based on the different perspectives and the self-regulatory theory, we scrutinized potential mediators (i.e. negative emotions and positive self-concepts between POQ and negative extra-role behaviors (i.e. CWB and turnover), POQ and positive extra-role behaviors (i.e. OCB, knowledge sharing, creativity, voice, and job crafting), as well as POQ and task performance via meta-structural equation modelling (meta-SEM). We also tested whether collectivism played a moderating role in those relationships.
The first step of our analysis showed that POQ exerted significant positive effects on negative emotions (i.e. job boredom, anger), specific self-efficacy (e.g. role-breadth self-efficacy, knowledge self-efficacy, voice self- efficacy, etc.), turnover intentions and CWB, while having significant negative effects on organization-based esteem (OBSE). Meanwhile, the relationships between POQ and the other outcomes including general positive self-concepts (i.e. general self-esteem and general self-efficacy), positive extra-role behaviors (OCB, knowledge sharing, voice, creativity, job crafting and general proactive behaviors) and task performance were not significant.
Furthermore, we explored affective and cognitive mechanisms of POQ and negative and positive extra-role behaviors in meta-SEM. Our analyses showed that POQ had positive direct effects on both negative extra-role behaviors (i.e. CWB, turnover), positive extra-role behaviors (i.e. OCB, knowledge sharing, creativity, voice, and job crafting) and task performance, and negative emotions and positive self-concepts were positively affected by POQ. Besides, the direct effects of negative emotions on negative extra-role behaviors were significantly positive, and those of positive extra-role behaviors and of task performance were significantly negative; the direct effects of positive self-concepts on positive extra-role behaviors and of task performance were significantly positive, and those of negative extra-role behaviors were significantly negative. These findings suggested that employees with high levels of POQ felt negative emotions and positive self-concepts, and undertook both negative and positive behaviors to cope with POQ.
Then, we divided all the independent samples into two parts according to the degree of cultural collectivism of countries and regions in which those studies were conducted. Then, we compared three sets of meta-SEM analyses in model 1 (with all the samples), model 2 (with samples from areas of high collectivism) and model 3 (samples from areas of low collectivism). The results of meta-SEM demonstrated that POQ had indirect effects on negative extra-role behaviors (i.e. CWB, turnover) through negative emotions (i.e. job boredom, anger) in all the three models, indicating that affective mechanisms represent a robust explanatory power of POQ’s influences. By contrast, positive self-concepts (i.e. self-esteem and self-efficacy) served as a positive mediator between POQ and positive extra-role behaviors (i.e. OCB, knowledge sharing, creativity, voice, and job crafting) as well as between POQ and task performance only in the samples collected from collectivistic areas; in the cultural context of low-collectivism or high individualism, POQ were found to exert a significant, negative impact on positive self-concepts, and the latter can impact positive extra-role behaviors and task performance significantly. These findings demonstrated that collectivistic culture may restrict the applicability of cognitive resources on explaining the mechanism from POQ to positive extra-role behaviors and task performance. Therefore, we concluded that the social comparing perspective accounts for the processes that POQ come into effect, whereas self-regulation theory may not be a reliable explanation of the influence of POQ on employees without moderating variables taken into consideration.
Last but not the least, we conducted an explorative analysis to identify the correlations between POQ, person-job fit (PJ fit) and person-organization fit (PO fit), as well as their effect sizes on some important psychological and behavioral outcomes including job satisfaction, organizational commitment, strain, CWB, turnover, creativity, OCB, and task performance. With relative weight analysis, we found that POQ was relatively highly correlated to PJ fit, while weakly correlated to PO fit. POQ can best predict strain and turnover among the three, and thus it is unreasonable to take it as a redundant construct.
This study contributes to the POQ literature in several ways. First, we integrated previous empirical studies and reported more precise relationships between POQ and important psychological and behavioral outcomes involving emotions, cognitions and performance, which advances research on the outcomes of POQ. We then tested the direct and indirect effects of POQ on negative and positive extra-role behaviors and task performance, and clarified two foundational perspectives (i.e. social comparison and self-regulation) that address the underlying mechanisms of how POQ affects the outcome variables. Moreover, we evaluated the impact of cultural contexts, collectivism/individualism. Also, we suggest that future studies should pay more attention to the distinctions between POQ and other PE fit variables. Collectively, our contribution consists of our integration of the literature on POQ and its outcomes, our clarification of the mechanisms that underlie POQ, and the conclusion that collectivism/individualism exerts influence on the indirect relationships between POQ and performance.

Key words: perceived overqualification, negative emotion, positive self-concept, person-organization fit, person-job fit, extra-role behavior

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