ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2021, Vol. 53 ›› Issue (5): 469-480.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00469

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

概念内隐记忆中的注意促进效应

孟迎芳1(), 董月晴1, 陈荃1,2   

  1. 1福建师范大学心理学院, 福州 350117
    2浙江传媒学院心理健康与生命教育中心, 杭州 310018
  • 收稿日期:2020-02-27 出版日期:2021-05-25 发布日期:2021-03-29
  • 通讯作者: 孟迎芳 E-mail:175695016@qq.com
  • 基金资助:
    *国家自然科学基金青年项目(31800906);2018年福建省自然基金面上项目(2018J01719)

Attentional boost effect in conceptual implicit memory

MENG Yingfang1(), DONG Yueqing1, CHEN Quan1,2   

  1. 1School of Psychology, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350117, China
    2Mental Health and Life Education Center, Communication University of Zhejiang, Hangzhou 310018, China
  • Received:2020-02-27 Online:2021-05-25 Published:2021-03-29
  • Contact: MENG Yingfang E-mail:175695016@qq.com

摘要:

Swallow和Jiang (2010)最早发现, 编码时的目标探测会促进同时呈现的背景信息在随后记忆测验中的表现, 并将这一现象称为注意促进效应(Attentional Boost Effect, ABE)。随后研究发现这一现象并不会出现在概念内隐测验中, 由此提出目标探测主要促进的是背景信息的知觉加工, 而非语义加工。本研究通过3个实验, 操纵了对背景信息的编码加工类型(知觉加工或概念加工)。结果发现, 当与目标探测同时进行的是对背景信息的概念加工任务, 则ABE会出现在随后的概念内隐测验中。反之, 当对背景信息进行的是知觉加工任务时, 则ABE会出现在随后的知觉内隐测验而不是概念内隐测验中。这些结果表明, 目标探测既可能促进背景信息的知觉加工, 也可能促进背景信息的语义加工, 但只有在目标探测下背景信息的编码加工与随后内隐测验中所依赖的提取加工具有一致性, 才会产生ABE。

关键词: 注意促进, 内隐记忆, 概念加工, 知觉加工

Abstract:

The attentional boost effect (ABE) was first discovered by Swallow in 2010, which means that when subjects perform coding and target detection tasks simultaneously, the memory performance of background information presented in target items is better than those presented in distracted items. Previous studies believe that this promotion effect is mainly due to the fact that target detection enhances the perceptual processing of background information; however, many experimental results contrary to this perceptual processing enhancement hypothesis indicate that “target detection does not necessarily promote the perceptual processing of background information.”
Can target detection promote semantic processing? If so, why is ABE not found in the implicit test task of concepts that rely on semantic information? We speculate that this may be related to the encoding tasks used in these experiments. In reading words aloud, subjects may only perform perceptual coding but not conceptual coding. If the time-selective attention mechanism promotes cognitive processing simultaneously with target detection, ABE should appear in implicit conceptual tests when conceptual processing of words is performed simultaneously with target detection.
This study adopts the classic ABE paradigm of Swallow and Jiang ( 2010) and further controls the different processing types of memory materials in the encoding stage to explore whether target detection promotes semantic processing of simultaneously presented background materials. In Experiment 1, lexical materials were used, and subjects were asked to read words aloud while performing target detection tasks in the encoding stage. Perceptual (true and false word judgment) and conceptual priming tests (semantic judgment) were then completed. The experimental design was a 2 × 2 in-subject design. Results showed that the ABE effect only appeared under the perceptual priming test condition, and the priming amount under the target condition was significantly greater than those under the distraction condition, while under the conceptual condition, the priming amounts under the target and distraction conditions were not significantly different. Based on Experiment 1, Experiments 2 and 3 used vocabulary and picture materials, respectively, to further control the processing types of memory materials in the coding stage, including perceptual (vocabulary structure judgment, presence of white in pictures) and semantic coding (vocabulary, picture pleasure judgment). A conceptual implicit test (semantic judgment) was then conducted to investigate whether the two coding methods have different effects on ABE in subsequent conceptual implicit tests to verify whether target detection promotes semantic processing of background materials presented simultaneously. The experimental design was a 2 × 2 in-subject design. Experiments 2 and 3 revealed that the ABE effect only appeared under the condition of semantic encoding but not under the condition of perceptual encoding.
Results showed that in the dual-task processing, target detection can promote not only the perceptual processing of background information but also the semantic processing of background information. The promotion effect of target detection on background information is related to the processing of the background information. If the encoding process of background information under target detection is consistent with the extraction process that relies on in subsequent implicit tests, ABE will be generated.

Key words: attentional boost effect, implicit memory, conceptual processing, perceptual processing

中图分类号: