ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2018, Vol. 50 ›› Issue (9): 940-952.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00940

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

尼古丁对内隐记忆与外显记忆的影响 *

林静远1,2, 林无忌1, 孟迎芳1()   

  1. 1 福建师范大学心理学院, 福州 350117
    2 华侨大学旅游学院, 福建 泉州 362021
  • 收稿日期:2017-10-12 出版日期:2018-09-15 发布日期:2018-07-27
  • 基金资助:

Effects of nicotine on implicit and explicit memory

LIN Jingyuan1,2, LIN Wuji1, MENG Yingfang1()   

  1. 1 School of Psychology, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350117, China
    2 College of Tourism, Huaqiao University, Quanzhou 362021, China
  • Received:2017-10-12 Online:2018-09-15 Published:2018-07-27


胆碱是一种与记忆密切相关的物质, 以往研究主要探讨不同胆碱类药物对外显记忆的影响, 内隐记忆受胆碱影响与外显记忆是否相同仍存在争议。实验1采用词汇判断与词汇再认任务, 比较内隐记忆与外显记忆在拟胆碱药物尼古丁的影响下, 记忆成绩是否发生变化。结果表明, 摄入尼古丁后, 内隐与外显记忆成绩都有一定程度的下降, 但内隐记忆受影响的程度更大。为进一步探讨尼古丁对两种记忆的影响, 实验2分别在编码前与提取前摄入尼古丁, 观察其对两种记忆不同阶段的影响, 并使用ERP技术观察其中受影响的成分。结果表明, 编码前摄入尼古丁使内隐记忆与外显记忆的概念加工都受到影响, 而对知觉加工没有影响。提取前摄入尼古丁则对两种记忆的概念加工与知觉加工都产生影响, 但是对内隐记忆的影响更大。上述结果表明, 拟胆碱物质尼古丁对记忆影响的情况与实验任务较为一致, 而与记忆种类关系较小。对两种记忆的影响不同可能主要源于两种记忆采用不同的实验任务导致, 两者的生理机制有一定程度的重叠。

关键词: 内隐记忆, 外显记忆, 尼古丁, 加工水平


Studies have shown that choline is a substance that is closely related to memory. Previous studies focused on the effect of cholinergic drugs on explicit memory, and those results revealed that explicit memory is sensitive to most cholinergic drugs. However, relatively few studies have discussed the effect of cholinergic drugs on implicit memory. Furthermore, whether the effect of cholinergic drugs on implicit memory is consistent with explicit memory is still uncertain.
The effect of cholinergic drugs on memory was investigated by drawing a comparison between the participants with nicotine condition and those without. We used lexical decision and lexical recognition tasks to test implicit and explicit memory, respectively. In experiment 1, 30 subjects participated in two occasions, 2 days apart. They participated once in memory tasks after receiving 12 mg/ml body weight of nicotine and once after receiving 0 mg/ml placebo. Experiment 2 examined whether receiving treatment before encoding or before the retrieval phase would moderate the cholinergic effect in explicit and implicit memory. In experiment 2, 19 subjects participated in two experimental occasions, 2 days apart, as follows: after receiving 12 mg/ml body weight of nicotine before the encoding phase; after receiving nicotine before the retrieval phase. In addition, we adopted event-related potential (ERP) technology to observe the affected ERPs. Participants were instructed to response to corresponding items by pressing keyboard. The Reaction Time and Accuracy data on retrieval phase of the two memory tasks were recorded and analyzed.
Implicit and explicit memory performance declined under nicotine condition in both experiments. It reflected that receiving nicotine not only impacted explicit memory but also implicit memory. Furthermore, nicotine effects are moderated by the level of processing at the encoding phase. Such impact only occurred on the deep processing level. Moreover, memory retrieval after receiving nicotine was affected. These effects were more remarkable on implicit memory retrieval than on explicit memory. The results of ERP data also showed that related ERPs of memory were affected by nicotine.
In conclusion, results from the current study revealed that effects of cholinergic drugs were similar on implicit and explicit memory. The rest of the segregated results might have been due to the discrepancy of memory tasks rather than the differences in physiological mechanisms of the two memory types. Implicit memory and explicit memory might not belong to two extremely independent memory systems, because there are some covariant effects existing between them.

Key words: nicotine, implicit memory, explicit memory, processing level