ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 51 ›› Issue (6): 714-723.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2019.00714

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

a不同权力关系对消极特质否定句使用偏向的影响

李婷1, 魏小平4, 郑梓鑫1, 易湘杰1, 赵雪汝5, 何先友1,2,3()   

  1. 1 华南师范大学心理学院
    2 教育部人文社科重点研究基地 心理应用研究中心, 广州 510631
    3 广东省心理健康与认知科学重点实验室, 广州 510631
    4 保利集团, 广州 510220
    5 北京教育学院基础教育人才研究院, 北京 100044
  • 收稿日期:2018-07-11 出版日期:2019-06-25 发布日期:2019-04-25
  • 通讯作者: 何先友 E-mail:xianyouhe@163.com

The effects of different power relations on negation bias of negative descriptions

LI Ting1, WEI Xiaoping4, ZHENG Zixin1, YI Xiangjie1, ZHAO Xueru5, HE Xianyou1,2,3()   

  1. 1 School of Psychology, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, China
    2 Center for Studies of Psychological Application, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, China
    3 Guangdong Key Laboratory of Mental Health and Cognitive Science, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, China
    4 Poly Group, Guangzhou 510220, China
    5 Research Institute for Basic Education Professionals, Beijing Institute of Education, Beijing 100044, China
  • Received:2018-07-11 Online:2019-06-25 Published:2019-04-25
  • Contact: HE Xianyou E-mail:xianyouhe@163.com

摘要:

采用固定反应范式和自由反应范式, 通过创设语用情景, 考察不同权力关系对消极特质否定句使用偏向的影响。结果表明:(1)低权力者评价高权力者时, 被试倾向于使用否定方式(如“不聪明的”), 并认为否定的表述方式合适性较高, 出现否定偏向; 而高权力者评价低权力者, 或者权力平级时则没有否定偏向的出现, 肯定表述(如“愚蠢的”)被更多使用; (2)权力平级时, 社会距离会影响消极特质否定句的使用, 社会距离越远, 消极特质否定句的使用越少; 社会距离越近, 消极特质否定句的使用越多。结果表明, 权力关系与社会距离是影响消极特质否定句使用偏向的重要因素。

关键词: 权力关系, 否定偏向, 固定反应, 自由反应

Abstract:

Negation is an important language expression that can be used to euphemistically express a speaker's opinions and wishes. Due to the restriction of realistic situational factors, when an individual uses negative statements to describe behaviors that are inconsistent with experience or expectation, that is called negation bias. China has a high power distance culture between individuals, and people in China pay more respect to authority. The power difference makes individual expression different. High-power individuals show low empathy due to having control of more resources and having less dependence on others, and they tend to express themselves directly in communication. Individuals in low-power positions have needs, and they deal with the difference in power when meeting high-power individuals by using euphemisms of negative expression to maintain communication. Differences in negation used in various power relations are untested, and this study aims to explore these differences through experimental design.

In this study, three experiments were used to explore the influence of different power relations on negative negation bias. Experiment 1 used the fixed reaction paradigm: 3 (power relations: high vs low/ low vs high/ no difference) ×2 (words type: affirmative/negative) within subject design, and it investigate subjects’ choice of affirmative and negative sentences. Experiment 2 used the subjective evaluation: 3 (power relations: high vs low/ low vs high/ no difference) ×2 (words type: affirmative/negative) within subject design, and it investigated the degree of suitability for negation in different power relations. In experiment 3, the free reaction paradigm was adopted, calculating the frequency of negation to investigate the influence of different power relations on negative bias

Results show that: (1) Power relationships will influence the use of negation sentences. When low-power individuals evaluate high-power individuals, subjects tend to use negation and believe that this form of expression is more suitable, causing negation bias to appear; negation bias does not appear in conditions when high-power individuals evaluate low-power individuals or when no power difference exists. (2) When no power difference exists, social distance will influence the use of negation sentences; the greater the social distance, the more frequently negative sentences are used.

Key words: power relationship, negation bias, fixed reaction paradigm, free reaction paradigm

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