ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2021, Vol. 53 ›› Issue (5): 481-493.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00481

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

成员关系对协作提取成绩的影响

张环1,2,3, 王欣2, 刘一贝2, 曹贤才1,2,3, 吴捷1,2,3()   

  1. 1教育部人文社会科学重点研究基地天津师范大学心理与行为研究院
    2天津师范大学心理学部
    3学生心理发展与学习天津市高校社会科学实验室, 天津 300387
  • 收稿日期:2019-12-02 出版日期:2021-05-25 发布日期:2021-03-29
  • 通讯作者: 吴捷 E-mail:babaluosha@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    *天津师范大学校博士基金项目(043/135202WW1711)

The influence of members’ relationship on collaborative remembering

ZHANG Huan1,2,3, WANG Xin2, LIU Yibei2, CAO Xiancai1,2,3, WU Jie1,2,3()   

  1. 1Key Research Base of Humanities and Social Sciences of the Ministry of Education, Academy of Psychology and Behavior, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387, China
    2Faculty of Psychology, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387, China
    3Tianjin Social Science Laboratory of Students' Mental Development and Learning, Tianjin 300387, China
  • Received:2019-12-02 Online:2021-05-25 Published:2021-03-29
  • Contact: WU Jie E-mail:babaluosha@163.com

摘要:

当人们与搭档组成社会群体一起协作讨论某些已经发生的事件或经验时, 该社会群体中的成员关系对协作提取成绩的影响仍不明确。本研究通过两项实验, 分别使用语词词单和情景故事作为实验材料, 考察成员关系(包括关系类型和关系时长)对协作提取成绩的影响。研究结果表明, 当记忆的材料为语词词单时, 青年陌生组出现了协作抑制; 而当记忆的材料为情景故事时, 青年夫妻和老年夫妻组均出现了协作促进。此外, 老年夫妻在协作提取情景故事的过程中使用的有效交流策略更多, 且这些有效交流策略的使用与更高的协作提取成绩有关。该结果支持了具有长时亲密关系的老年夫妻之间的“交互记忆系统”对协作促进的关键作用, 为理解成员关系对协作提取成绩的影响提供了全面的证据。

关键词: 协作提取, 成员关系, 交互记忆系统, 语词记忆, 情景记忆

Abstract:

People usually retrieve and reconstruct their memories with others collaboratively in a social context. Extensive interests have been drawn towards the effect of people’s collaboration on informational retrieval. Previous studies reported a robust phenomenon called collaborative inhibition in the group of young strangers who tried to avoid the irrelevant influence of social relationships, motivations or intentions. These studies also frequently used semantic wordlists as learning materials. Our daily life, however, is filled with collaborative recall activities that take place among intimate individuals. For example, married couples generally communicate about episodic and autobiographical events that serve a significant social function for human beings. Therefore, it was critical to examine the effect of collaborative recall on information retrieval for both younger and older couples.
The present study used unpersonal-related semantic wordlists (Experiment 1) and unpersonal-related episodic stories (Experiment 2) as learning materials, respectively, to assess the effect of intimate relationships on collaborative recall for both younger and older adults. In each experiment, three-factor (two between-subjects factors: participant age-younger and older adults; the type of participant relationships-couple and stranger; and one within-subjects factor: retrieval types-collaborative and individual) mixed design was conducted. Specifically, participants in collaborative groups studied the materials alone, then retrieved along with a stranger or their spouse. In Experiment 1, the dependent variable was the accurate retrieval proportion of the group (collaborative or nominal), while in Experiment 2 that used episodic stories as learning material, the dependent variables included the accurate retrieval proportion, the retrieval details and the frequencies of different types of interaction strategies.
Results of Experiment 1 showed that the accurate retrieval proportion of collaborative groups in young strangers was lower than that of nominal groups, consistent with previous studies, and thus provided support for the classical collaborative inhibition model. The other three experimental conditions, however, showed no statistical difference between collaborative and nominal groups. In Experiment 2, collaborative facilitation was found for both younger and older couples, e.g., retrieval accuracy and details were both greater in collaborative groups than in nominal groups with episodic materials. Such facilitation effect was greater in older couples than in younger couples. In addition, older couples employed positive interaction strategies that played an important role in this collaborative facilitation.
Overall, Experiment 1 replicated the classical collaborative inhibition phenomenon in younger strangers, whereas no significant recall difference between collaborative and nominal groups was found for intimate couples. It is possible that Chinese couples rely more on the transactive memory system formed in daily life to overcome the negative effect of collaborative recall in wordlist materials. Such results were further examined in Experiment 2 with episodic stories, in which both younger and older couples had information retrieval with higher accuracy and greater details than nominal groups. The results can be explained by the transactive memory system. That is, based on intimate relationships and shared experiences among them, an effective system of encoding, storing and retrieving information may develop, diminish, or even reverse the negative effect of collaborative recall.

Key words: collaborative remembering, members’ relationship, transactive memory systems, semantic memory, episodic memory

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