ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2018, Vol. 50 ›› Issue (4): 377-389.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00377

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 自上而下的目标调节奖赏联结干扰子 的注意定向和脱离

 张 燕1;  曹慧敏1;  郑元杰2;  任衍具1   

  1.  (1山东师范大学心理学院; 2山东师范大学信息科学与工程学院, 济南 250358)
  • 收稿日期:2017-06-15 出版日期:2018-04-25 发布日期:2018-02-28
  • 通讯作者: 任衍具, E-mail: renyanju@gmail.com E-mail: E-mail: renyanju@gmail.com
  • 基金资助:
     山东省自然科学基金面上项目(ZR2017MC058); 山东省高等学校人文社会科学研究计划项目(J13WH07); 山东省“泰山学者海外特聘专家”项目(TSHW201502038); 山东省高校人类认知与行为发展重点实验室; 山东师范大学“二层次”人才资助项目。

 Top-down goals modulate attentional orienting to and disengagement from rewarded distractors

 ZHANG Yan1; CAO Huimin1; ZHENG Yuanjie2; REN Yanju1   

  1.  (1 School of Psychology, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250358, China) (2 School of Information Science and Engineering, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250358, China)
  • Received:2017-06-15 Online:2018-04-25 Published:2018-02-28
  • Contact: REN Yanju, E-mail: renyanju@gmail.com E-mail: E-mail: renyanju@gmail.com
  • Supported by:
     

摘要:  近年来传统的注意控制理论已经无法解释部分注意控制现象, 有研究者提出将奖赏联结/价值驱动的注意捕获作为一种新的注意引导源。奖赏联结的注意捕获是否会受到自上而下的目标定势的调节已成为该领域一个重要的理论问题。研究采用空间线索范式的变式, 探讨了奖赏联结干扰子与目标的相关性对奖赏联结注意捕获中的定向和脱离的调节作用。研究结果发现: 当学习阶段习得的奖赏联结干扰子在测验阶段与目标相关时(实验1), 有奖干扰子相对于无奖干扰子具有优先的注意定向和延迟脱离; 而学习阶段习得的奖赏联结干扰子在测验阶段与目标无关时(实验2), 有奖干扰子和无奖干扰子在注意定向和脱离方面均无显著差异。由此可见, 奖赏联结的注意捕获并不是完全自动化的, 自上而下的目标定势能够调节其注意定向和脱离的成分, 支持奖赏联结的注意捕获与自上而下的目标定势交互引导视觉注意的观点。

关键词: 奖赏联结, 自上而下, 注意定向, 注意脱离

Abstract:  The traditional distinction between exogenous and endogenous attentional control has recently been enriched with an additional mode of control, termed as reward history. Recent findings have indicated that previously rewarded stimuli capture more attention than their physical attributes would predict. However, an important question is whether reward-based learning (or value-driven) attentional control is fully automatic or driven by strategic, top-down control? Most researchers have suggested value-driven attentional control is fully automatic, not driven by strategic, top-down control. Although previous studies have examined the phenomenon of value-driven attention capture, few studies have distinguished early attentional orienting and later attentional disengagement in the value-driven attentional control process. Therefore, the present study employed a modified spatial cueing paradigm to disentangle attentional orienting and disengagement and manipulated the goal- relevance of reward distractors to investigate the characteristics of value-driven attentional control. In Experiment 1, rewarded distractors were goal-relevant, and we would expect the prioritized orienting to and the delayed disengagement from rewarded distractors (compared with no-reward distractors) to be evident when both were goal-relevant (i.e., part of the target-set); In Experiment 2, rewarded distractors were not goal-relevant, and we would expect prioritized orienting to and delayed disengagement from rewarded distractors (compared with no-reward distractors) not to be evident when both were not goal-relevant. Forty-eight participants (Experiment 1: 24; Experiment 2: 24) with normal or corrected-to-normal vision were tested. During the training phase, the four positions in the search display were all circles of different colors (such as red, green, blue, cyan, orange, and yellow). Targets were defined as a red or a green circle, exactly one of which was presented on every trial. Inside the target, a white line segment was oriented either vertically or horizontally, and inside each of the nontargets, a white line segment was tilted at 45° to the left or to the right. The feedback display informed participants of the reward earned (+10, +0) on the previous trial, as well as total reward accumulated thus far according to their responses. During the test phase, each trial started with the presentation of the fixation display (900 ms), which was followed immediately by the cue display (100 ms). After the cue display, the fixation display was presented again (100 ms), followed by the target display (100 ms). The target display was followed by a gray screen (until response). The feedback display at test informed participants only whether their response on the previous trial was correct. That is, no reward was provided during the test phase. Results showed that: (1) Across Experiments 1 and 2, we observed the significant main effects of reward. (2) In the test phase in Experiment 1, rewarded distractors were goal-relevant and we observed prioritized orienting to and delayed disengagement from rewarded distractors (compared with no-reward distractors) be evident; in Experiment 2, rewarded distractors were not goal-relevant, and we observed prioritized orienting to and delayed disengagement from rewarded distractors (compared with no-reward distractors) not be evident. The present findings demonstrate that: (1) In the training phase, participants have learned the effect of reward. (2) In the test phase, orienting to and disengagement from rewarded stimuli are modulated by current top-down goals. These findings provide a new perspective on the domain of attention to rewarded stimuli by indicating that even the early orienting of attention to rewarded stimuli is contingent on current top-down goals, suggesting early orienting to rewarded stimuli to be more complex and cognitively involved than previously hypothesized.

Key words: reward association, top-down, attentional orienting, attentional disengagement

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