ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2021, Vol. 53 ›› Issue (2): 113-127.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00113

• 研究报告 •    下一篇

意义关联的注意定向效应:基于空间位置的抑制和捕获

王慧媛1(), 陈艾睿2, 张明3,4()   

  1. 1长春师范大学心理学系, 长春 130032
    2苏州科技大学心理学系, 苏州 215009
    3苏州大学心理学系
    4苏州大学心理与行为科学研究中心, 苏州 215123
  • 收稿日期:2020-03-05 出版日期:2021-02-25 发布日期:2020-12-29
  • 通讯作者: 王慧媛,张明 E-mail:wanghuiyuan@ccsfu.edu.cn;psyzm@suda.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(31871092);吉林省教育厅“十三五”社会科学项目(JJKH20181210SK);长春师范大学人文社会科学基金项目(长师大社科合字[2017] 001号);教育部人文社会科学研究项目(20YJC190002);江苏省社会科学基金项目(20JYC008)

Meaningful contingent attentional orienting effects: Spatial location-based inhibition and capture

WANG Hui-Yuan1(), CHEN Ai-Rui2, ZHANG Ming3,4()   

  1. 1Department of Psychology, Changchun Normal University, Changchun 130032, China
    2Department of Psychology, Suzhou University of Science and Technology, Suzhou 215009, China
    3Department of Psychology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123, China
    4Research Center for Psychology and Behavioral Sciences, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123, China
  • Received:2020-03-05 Online:2021-02-25 Published:2020-12-29
  • Contact: WANG Hui-Yuan,ZHANG Ming E-mail:wanghuiyuan@ccsfu.edu.cn;psyzm@suda.edu.cn

摘要:

采用线索化范式, 通过3个实验建立线索和靶子的意义关联, 考察了意义性线索在不同空间位置的注意定向效应。结果表明, 在下视野出现抑制效应, 且位置越下抑制效应越显著; 在上视野出现捕获效应, 且位置越上捕获效应越显著; 同时注意定向效应的程度受引导线索性质的影响。这些结果说明:(1)客体间的意义关联能够引导视觉空间注意, 表现出不同空间位置的注意定向效应; (2)客体性质能够影响意义关联的注意定向, 表现为客体的生动性越高, 调节能力越强, 抽象性越高, 调节能力越弱; (3)意义关联的注意定向具有规律性变化, 表现为基于空间位置的抑制和捕获效应。

关键词: 意义关联, 注意定向, 空间位置, 抑制, 捕获

Abstract:

It is well-known that attentional orienting is contingent on the features of attentional settings, and in recent years, an increasing number of studies have supported that the meaningful contingency between cue and target stimuli modulates spatial attention. However, the spatial distribution of meaning-guided attentional orienting has not been thoroughly elucidated, especially in noncentral space. To address this issue, we examined the attentional orienting effects by establishing the meaningful contingency between the objects and how the attentional orienting was affected by the nature of the objects. Furthermore, the attentional distribution in the noncentral fields was analyzed.

A modified spatial cueing paradigm was employed in the current study. In Experiment 1, cues were presented as strawberry or watermelon sketches, and targets were presented in red or green. The participants were asked to discriminate the location of the gap of the target square in different cue-target blocks. Experiment 2 was identical to Experiment 1, except that the cues were white Chinese characters, “红” (meaning red) or “绿” (meaning green), and the number of possible positions was increased from four to six. Experiment 3 was identical to Experiment 2, except that the cue and target stimuli were swapped, where cues were presented in red or green and targets were Chinese characters in white.

The results indicated that the inhibition effects were found in the lower spatial field and the increasing capture effects were found in the left and right and the upper spatial fields when the sketches were adopted as cues in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, it was found that there was a general trend of inhibition and capture effects from the lower to upper locations, but only part of the inhibition effects reached significance when the number of the positions was increased and the Chinese character cues were employed. Experiment 3 replicated the results obtained in Experiment 1 and Experiment 2 when color cues were utilized, but more robust inhibition and capture effects were obtained.

The results of this study indicated that (1) the meaningful contingency between the objects guided the visuospatial attentional orienting, highlighting the inhibition and capture effects in different visuospatial fields; (2) the nature of the object modulated the meaningful-contingent attentional orienting, showing that the more vivid the object was, the more modulated it was, whereas the more abstract the object was, the less modulated it was; and (3) the meaningful-contingent attentional orienting was performed regularly in different visual fields, highlighting the location-based inhibition and capture from the lower to the upper fields.

Key words: meaningful contingency, attentional orienting, spatial location, inhibition, capture

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