ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2016, Vol. 48 ›› Issue (11): 1434-1444.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2016.01434

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

汉语儿童语素意识与词汇知识的双向关系:一项追踪研究

赵 英1,2; 程亚华3; 伍新春1; 阮氏芳1   

  1. (1北京师范大学心理学院, 应用实验心理北京市重点实验室, 儿童阅读与学习研究中心, 北京 100875) (2河南师范大学教育学院, 新乡 453007) (3宁波大学心理学系暨研究所, 宁波 315211)
  • 收稿日期:2016-01-18 出版日期:2016-11-25 发布日期:2016-11-25
  • 通讯作者: 伍新春, E-mail: xcwu@bnu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家社会科学基金重大项目(13&ZD188); 教育部哲学社会科学研究重大课题攻关项目(11JZD041)。

The reciprocal relationship between morphological awareness and vocabulary knowledge among Chinese children: A longitudinal study

ZHAO Ying1,2; CHENG Yahua3; WU Xinchun1; NGUYEN Thi Phuong1   

  1. (1 Research Center of Children’s Reading and Learning, Beijing Key Laboratory of Applied Experimental Psychology, School of Psychology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China) (2 Institute of Education, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007, China) (3 Department of Psychology, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211, China)
  • Received:2016-01-18 Online:2016-11-25 Published:2016-11-25
  • Contact: WU Xinchun, E-mail: xcwu@bnu.edu.cn

摘要:

以399名小学一、三、五年级学生为被试, 进行为期一年的追踪研究, 通过分层回归, 系统考察了汉语儿童同音、同形和复合三类语素意识与词汇知识的双向关系。结果发现:(1)儿童语素意识和词汇知识随时间均有显著增长; (2)控制词汇知识的自回归效应后, 一年级儿童的同音和复合语素意识对其二年级的词汇知识、三年级儿童的复合语素意识对其四年级的词汇知识、五年级儿童的同形和复合语素意识对其六年级的词汇知识有显著的预测作用; (3)分别控制三类语素意识的自回归效应后, 一年级和五年级儿童的词汇知识可以显著预测其二年级和六年级的三类语素意识, 三年级儿童的词汇知识对其四年级的同形和复合语素意识有显著预测作用。结果表明汉语儿童语素意识与词汇知识存在双向关系, 且不同类型的语素意识与词汇知识的关系随年级的升高呈现规律性的变化。

关键词: 语素意识, 词汇知识, 汉语儿童, 追踪研究

Abstract:

Vocabulary knowledge develops rapidly in elementary school years and plays an important role in children’s reading comprehension and school achievement. Instruction alone is not sufficient to explain the variance in vocabulary acquisition. Cognitive and linguistic skills may make considerable contribution to the development of vocabulary knowledge. As a form of metalinguistic awareness, morphological awareness, defined as “children’s conscious awareness of the morphemic structure of words and the ability to reflect on and manipulate that structure”, is closely related to vocabulary knowledge. The structure system of morphological awareness varies in different language systems. Contrast with alphabetic languages, Chinese has its unique characteristics: most productive compounding structure and abundance of homophones. Homophone awareness, homograph awareness and compounding awareness are three important components of morphological awareness in Chinese. The relationships among various subtypes of morphological awareness and vocabulary knowledge may be different across grades and may be reciprocal. Besides, with the increasing grade, the nature of the reciprocal relationships among three subtypes of morphological awareness and vocabulary knowledge may follow a predictable pattern. This across-grade longitudinal study investigated the reciprocal relationship between morphological awareness and vocabulary knowledge among Chinese children. In total, 399 children (first, third and fifth graders) participated at two time points. The interval was one year. All participants were tested on morphological awareness (homophone awareness, homograph awareness and compounding awareness) and vocabulary knowledge in both times, along with phonological awareness, and nonverbal reasoning at Time 1 as control variables. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to investigate the relationship among children’s three subtypes morphological awareness and vocabulary knowledge after controlling for intelligence, phonological awareness and the auto-regression effects. The results showed that (1) Morphological awareness and vocabulary knowledge of first, third, and fifth grade children improved from Time 1 to Time 2. (2) With the age, IQ, phonological awareness and the autoregressive effect of vocabulary knowledge being controlled, children’s homophone awareness and compounding awareness of the grade 1 at Time 1 significantly predicted their vocabulary knowledge at Time 2 (one year later). However, homograph awareness at Time 1 did not predict vocabulary at Time 2 significantly. Compounding awareness of the grade 3 at Time 1 uniquely predicted the development of their vocabulary knowledge in one year later, but neither homophone awareness nor homograph awareness at Time 1 significantly predicted later vocabulary knowledge. And for the grade 5, homograph awareness and compounding awareness at Time 1 could significantly predict vocabulary knowledge at Time 2, but homophone awareness did not. (3) With the age, IQ, phonological awareness and the autoregressive effects of the three subtypes of morphological awareness being controlled, children’s vocabulary knowledge of the grade 1 at Time 1 uniquely predicted their homophone awareness, homograph awareness, and compounding awareness one year later respectively, and the same pattern was found in the fifth grade students; for the grade 3, vocabulary at Time 1 could predict the change in homograph awareness and compounding awareness between two time points, but did not predict their homophone awareness. The results suggest a reciprocal relationship between morphological awareness and vocabulary knowledge among Chinese elementary children. The relationships among three subtypes of morphological awareness and vocabulary knowledge were variously represented in Chinese children who had different learning experiences. Homophone awareness is a crucial factor for early vocabulary acquisition. However, homograph awareness may contribute to advanced vocabulary development in upper elementary years. In addition, compounding awareness is a salient contributor to Chinese children’s vocabulary development throughout the entire elementary school years. Reciprocally, vocabulary knowledge has unique contribution to the development of morphological awareness for the children in all three grades.

Key words: morphological awareness, vocabulary knowledge, Chinese children, longitudinal study