ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2016, Vol. 48 ›› Issue (10): 1270-1281.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2016.01270

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇


李利平1,2; 伍新春2; 周宁宁3; 程亚华4; 阮氏芳2   

  1. (1山西师范大学教师教育学院, 山西省心理与认知行为实验教学中心, 临汾 041000) (2北京师范大学心理学院, 应用实验心理北京市重点实验室, 儿童阅读与学习研究中心, 北京 100875) (3陕西省安康市高新中学, 安康 725000) (4宁波大学心理学系, 宁波 315211)
  • 收稿日期:2016-01-22 发布日期:2016-10-25 出版日期:2016-10-25
  • 通讯作者: 伍新春, E-mail:
  • 基金资助:

    教育部新世纪优秀人才支持计划项目(NCET-10-0246); 教育部哲学社会科学研究重大课题攻关项目(11JZD041); 山西师范大学教育科学基金(YJ1505)。

The cognitive characteristics and influential factors of Chinese word callers in primary school

LI Liping1,2; WU Xinchun2; ZHOU Ningning3; CHENG Yahua4; NGUYEN Thi Phuong2   

  1. (1 School of Teachers Education, Experimental Teaching Center of Psychology and Cognitive Behavior, Shanxi Normal University, Linfen 041004, China) (2 School of Psychology, Beijing Key Laboratory of Applied Experimental Psychology, Research Center of Children’s Reading and Learning, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China) (3 Shannxi Ankang Gaoxin Middle School, Ankang 725000, China) (4 Department of Psychology, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211, China)
  • Received:2016-01-22 Online:2016-10-25 Published:2016-10-25
  • Contact: WU Xinchun, E-mail:


读词者是指能够流畅地进行字词识别和解码, 却难以很好地理解文本内容的学生。以840名小学一到六年级学生为研究对象, 对其进行阅读速度、阅读理解、语素意识(包括同音语素意识、同形语素意识和复合语素意识)、汉字识别、口语词汇、工作记忆、一般智力等测查, 通过现状描述和多分类logistic回归分析, 结果发现:(1)一年级汉语儿童读词者的检出率为0.7%, 二年级之后的检出率在6.5%~10.1%之间; (2)在语言特异性认知因素上, 控制了年龄和智力后, 与其他学生相比, 读词者在汉字识别任务上表现较好, 在语素意识各个任务及口语词汇上表现较差; (3)年龄和智力是造成读词者比率增加的一般因素; (4)同音语素意识和口语词汇是造成读词者比率增加的语言特异性认知因素。

关键词: 汉语儿童, 读词者, 认知加工, 语素意识, 口语词汇


According to the Simple View of Reading, reading comprehension is the product of word decoding and linguistic comprehension. Both components are necessary for reading comprehension, but neither is sufficient alone. If a child can read words quickly and accurately, but does not understand the meaning of words, he or she will not understand the text. Some readers can efficiently decode the words in the text into their spoken forms without comprehending the passage. These students are called word callers. Although many researchers agree that word callers indeed exist in reading comprehension, few studies pay attention to Chinese word callers and the factors that may impact poor comprehension in Chinese word callers are unknown. The present cross-sectional study involved 840 students (428 males, 412 females) from grade 1 to grade 6 in two primary schools of Shanxi province, China. At the beginning of autumn semester, a battery of measures were administered, including IQ, word list reading, reading comprehension, homophone awareness, homograph awareness, compound word production, character recognition, vocabulary definition and working memory. ANOVAs and logistic regression were conducted to answer three research questions: (1) What was the prevalence of word callers for Chinese children? (2) What were the linguistic and cognitive characteristics of word callers? (3) What are the underlying difficulties in reading comprehension for word callers? The results showed: (1) The prevalence of word callers in Chinese primary schools was similar to that of alphabetic language reader, ranging from 0.7% ~ 10.1% in grade 1 to grade 6. The prevalence of word callers in the first grade was 0.7%, and the prevalence was between 6.5% and 10.1% after the second grade; (2) Controlling for age and IQ, word callers performed better than typical readers in character recognition, however, word callers had poorer performance in morphological awareness and vocabulary definition; (3) The logistical analysis showed that age and IQ contributed to the prevalence rate of word caller, and both standard regression coefficients were significant (β = 0.87, p<0.001; β = −0.43, p < 0.001 respectively); (4) As the linguistic factors, homophone awareness and vocabulary also contributed to the incidence rate of word caller (β = −0.28, p < 0.05; β = −0.30, p < 0.05 respectively). The results demonstrated that not only the general factors (e.g. age and IQ) but also the linguistic and cognitive factors (e.g. homophone awareness and vocabulary) impact poor comprehension in word callers. The phenomenon of word caller in the current study indicates that there is a gap between word reading fluency and reading comprehension for some Chinese elementary-age children. Understanding word caller has both theoretical and practical implication for improving reading instruction.

Key words: Chinese children, word caller, cognitive process, morphological awareness, vocabulary