ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2016, Vol. 48 ›› Issue (9): 1151-1162.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2016.01151

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

与上司“心有灵犀”会让你的工作更出色吗? ——追随原型一致性、工作投入与工作绩效

彭坚;王霄   

  1. (暨南大学管理学院, 广州 510632)
  • 收稿日期:2015-08-17 出版日期:2016-09-25 发布日期:2016-09-25
  • 通讯作者: 彭坚, E-mail: pengjiannut@163.com 王霄, E-mail: cloud_wx@163.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金重点项目(71333007)。

I will perform effectively if you are with me: Leader-follower congruence in followership prototype, job engagement and job performance

PENG Jian; WANG Xiao   

  1. (School of Management, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China)
  • Received:2015-08-17 Online:2016-09-25 Published:2016-09-25
  • Contact: PENG Jian, E-mail: pengjiannut@163.com WANG Xiao, E-mail: cloud_wx@163.com

摘要:

内隐追随作为一种关于追随角色的认知结构, 包括追随原型和反原型两种。其中, 追随原型表征了个体对追随角色的积极预期。本研究基于角色理论, 考察了领导者−追随者的追随原型一致性对工作绩效的影响及工作投入的中介作用。采用跨层次多项式回归和响应面分析技术, 对64个工作团队的数据进行分析, 发现追随原型能否提升工作绩效主要取决于领导−追随双方的匹配情况。具体而言, (1)领导−追随双方的追随原型越一致, 关系绩效越高。但上述结论并不适用于任务绩效。(2)在一致情况下, 与“低−低”一致相比, 任务绩效和关系绩效在双方追随原型的“高−高”一致时更高。(3)在不一致情况下, 与“领导者的追随原型高−追随者的追随原型低”相比, 任务绩效和关系绩效在“领导者的追随原型低−追随者的追随原型高”时相对更高。(4)追随原型一致性通过工作投入影响任务绩效和关系绩效。

关键词: 追随原型, 内隐追随理论, 任务绩效, 关系绩效, 工作投入

Abstract:

In organizational settings, scholars have suggested that individuals naturally tend to classify people into two types: leader and follower. While a substantial body of research has established implicit leadership theories (ILTs) in the past three decades, the corresponding notion of implicit followership theories (IFTs) has relatively received little research attention (Sy, 2010). IFTs are defined as individuals’ personal assumptions about the traits that characterize followers, which include followership prototype and anti-prototype. To date, most research focuses on the consequence of followership prototype and suggests that followership prototype could enhance job performance through leader’s performance expectations, leader-member exchange and liking for followers. From these aforementioned studies, however, some research gaps have not been addressed. Firstly, the previous research on followership prototype becomes less convincing for they failed to integrate the follower’s followership prototype into the model for examination. Secondly, prior studies have predominantly focused on the effect of followership prototype on task performance and organizational citizenship behavior, while ingoring contextual performance. Thirdly, very few studies discuss the mediating role of job engagement in the relationship between followership prototype and performance. To fill such research gaps, the present study aims to examine the effects of leader-follower congruence in followership prototype on task and contextual performance, as well as the mediating role of job engagement. Data were collected from 243 leader-follower dyads in 64 teams of nine companies in China. Since our data contained a hierarchical structure in which individual scores were nested within teams, we used hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) to conduct cross level polynomial regression combining with response surface analysis. Based on the results, our research presents four conclusions: (1) In terms of the effects on different performance type, leader-follower congruence in followership prototype is positively related to contextual performance but not task performance. (2) In the case of leader-follower congruence, task and contextual performance is higher when followers and leaders are aligned at a high level of followership prototype than when they are at a low level. (3) In the case of incongruence, task and contextual performance is higher when a follower’s followership prototype is higher than a leader’s as compared to when a leader’s followership prototype is higher than a follower’s. (4) Job engagement mediates the effect of leader-follower congruence in followership prototype on task and contextual performance. Our findings offer several important theoretical and practical implications. With regard to theoretical implications, the present research extends the extant IFTs literature from a single-sided perspective to a leader-follower congruence perspective, supporting the person-supervision fit theory and contributing to the research on IFTs, job performance and work engagement. As far as practical implications, we suggest that managers should consider testing leader-follower IFTs before building or reconstructing a team and arrange the leaders and followers who share similar self-reported IFTs in a team. Finally, limitations and directions for future research are discussed.

Key words: followership prototype, implicit followership theories, task performance, contextual performance, work engagement.