ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2014, Vol. 46 ›› Issue (8): 1124-1143.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2014.01124

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

工作场所的组织政治会危害员工绩效吗?基于个人-组织契合理论的视角

高中华;赵晨   

  1. (1首都经济贸易大学工商管理学院, 北京 100070) (2首都师范大学管理学院, 北京 100089)
  • 收稿日期:2013-05-17 出版日期:2014-08-25 发布日期:2014-08-25
  • 通讯作者: 赵晨
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金青年项目(71302170, 71302119)、教育部人文社会科学研究青年基金项目(13YJC630036)、国家自然科学基金创新群体项目(71121001)、国家自然科学基金面上项目(71172178)和北京市委组织部优秀人才培养资助项目(2013D005019000002)。

Does Organizational Politics at the Workplace Harm Employees’ Job Performance? A Person-Organization Fit Perspective

GAO Zhonghua;ZHAO Chen   

  1. (1 College of Business Administration, Capital University of Economics and Business, Beijing 100070, China) (2 School of Management, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100089, China)
  • Received:2013-05-17 Online:2014-08-25 Published:2014-08-25
  • Contact: ZHAO Chen

摘要:

本研究基于个人-组织契合理论的视角, 通过对286份员工与直接主管的配对数据, 揭示了组织政治知觉对员工绩效(任务绩效和组织公民行为)的影响, 马基雅维利主义人格对这两者之间关系的调节作用, 组织认同在这两者之间的中介作用。层次回归分析结果发现:组织政治知觉对任务绩效、组织公民行为具有显著的消极影响, 马基雅维利主义人格可以显著调节组织政治知觉与任务绩效、组织公民行为两者之间的关系, 而组织认同是组织政治知觉与任务绩效、组织公民行为之间的完全中介变量。调节路径分析结果表明:马基雅维利主义对组织政治知觉与员工绩效之间关系的调节作用也是以组织认同为中介, 具体表现为被中介的调节作用。

关键词: 组织政治知觉, 任务绩效, 组织公民行为, 马基雅维利主义, 组织认同

Abstract:

Organizational politics is defined as a social influence process in which organizational members engage in opportunistic behavior for purposes of self-interest maximization. It is typically not recognized by the formal rules and regulations in organizations, but is prevalent in the workplace. Previous studies have argued that employees’ perceptions of organizational politics lead to a variety of negative outcomes for organizations, including low levels of job satisfaction, organizational commitment, task performance, and organizational citizenship behaviors, yet recent studies have suggested that there could be a positive relationship between perceived politics and individual outcomes. Bozeman et al. (2001) have shown that individual reactions to perceptions of organizational politics are largely dependent on how the phenomenon is construed by individuals. However, there has been limited theoretical work that identifies the boundary conditions of the relationship between employees’ perceptions of organizational politics and individual outcomes. In this study, we develop a theoretical model based on the theory of person-organization fit. In this model, we identify the possible boundary conditions of the relationship between employees’ perceptions of organizational politics and their job performance, as well as the psychological process linking these two constructs. First, Machiavellianism is examined as a moderator. We predict that when Machiavellianism is high, the negative relationship between perceived organizational politics and job performance tends to be attenuated because high Machiavellianism seems to fit the high level of perceived organizational politics. In contrast, the negative relationship between perceived organizational politics and job performance tends to be stronger when Machiavellianism is low because of a lower fit. Second, organizational identification—a psychological process—is examined as a mediator. We propose that organizational identification not only mediates the relationship between employees’ perceptions of organizational politics and job performance, but also mediates the moderating effect of Machiavellianism on this relationship. To test our hypotheses, we collected paired data from 286 subordinates and their direct supervisors from five companies in the hospitality and tourism industry located in Beijing and the Henan Province. Two sets of structured questionnaires–one for the subordinates and another for their direct supervisors–were administered to avoid common method bias. In the subordinate questionnaire, we measured perceived organizational politics, Machiavellianism, and organizational identification. Specifically, perceived organizational politics was measured by 9 items adjusted from Vigoda (2001). Machiavellianism was measured by 16 items adapted from Dahling, Whitaker, and Levy (2009). Organizational identification was measured by 5 items adapted from Smidts, Pruyn, and Van Riel (2001). In the supervisor questionnaire, we measured subordinates’ task performance and organizational citizenship behavior-individuals (OCBI) using 6 items from Williams and Anderson (1991). Cronbach's alpha coefficients for these measures range from 0.71 to 0.84, above the recommended value of 0.70. This indicates acceptable reliabilities for all of the measures in this study. Results from a hierarchical regression analysis show that employees’ perceptions of organizational politics have significant negative effects on both task performance and OCBI. Machiavellianism moderates the above relationship such that the higher employee’s Machiavellianism, the weaker the negative effects of perceived organizational politics on both task performance and OCBI. In particular, the negative effect of perceived organizational politics on task performance turns positive for employees who are high on Machiavellianism. Organizational identification mediates the relationship between employees’ perceptions of organizational politics and job performance such that perceived organizational politics exerts influence on both task performance and organizational citizenship behavior through organizational identification. Results from a moderated path analysis reveal that organizational identification also mediates the moderating effect of Machiavellianism such that the interaction of Machiavellianism and perceived organizational politics exerts influence on both task performance and OCBI through organizational identification. In sum, in this study, we uncovered the relationship between perceived organizational politics and employees’ job performance by identifying a possible boundary condition and the psychological process. Our research helps to extend our understanding of the mechanisms of organizational politics at the workplace. Finally, we discuss the theoretical and managerial implications, as well as the limitations of this study.

Key words: perceived organizational politics, task performance, organizational citizenship behavior, Machiavellianism, organizational identification