ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2016, Vol. 48 ›› Issue (10): 1314-1325.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2016.01314

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

积极应对还是逃避?主动性人格对职场排斥与组织公民行为的影响机制

谢 俊1; 严 鸣2   

  1. (1广东外语外贸大学粤商研究中心, 广州 510006) (2暨南大学管理学院, 广州 510632)
  • 收稿日期:2015-09-29 出版日期:2016-10-25 发布日期:2016-10-25
  • 通讯作者: 严鸣, E-mail: ymnick@live.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(71502042; 71302103; 71372144); 教育部人文社科青年基金项目(14YJC630145); 广东省自然科学基金自由申请项目(2015A030313579); 广东省高等教育“创新强校工程”项目资助(GWTP-LH-2014-08)。

Active coping or avoidance? The effect of proactive personality on the relationship between workplace ostracism and organizational citizenship behavior

XIE Jun1; YAN Ming2   

  1. (1 Center for Cantonese Merchants Research, Guangdong University of Foreign Studies, Guangzhou 510006, China) (2 Management School, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China)
  • Received:2015-09-29 Online:2016-10-25 Published:2016-10-25
  • Contact: YAN Ming, E-mail: ymnick@live.cn

摘要:

基于压力转换理论, 考察主动性人格对职场排斥与组织公民行为的调节机制, 尤其是应对策略对整个调节机制的中介作用。通过对9家企业的249对上下级匹配问卷分析发现, 主动性人格对职场排斥与组织公民行为关系具有调节作用, 对于高主动性人格的员工而言, 职场排斥与组织公民行为负向关系更弱; 主动性人格正向影响积极应对策略, 负向影响逃避应对策略; 积极应对策略对职场排斥与组织公民行为关系具有调节作用, 当员工采用积极应对策略时, 职场排斥与组织公民行为的负向关系更弱; 积极应对策略中介了主动性人格对职场排斥与组织公民行为关系的调节作用。本文的研究结果不仅从理论上丰富和拓展了主动性人格、应对策略及职场排斥的关系研究, 也从排斥应对的视角为实务界提供了实践指导。

关键词: 职场排斥, 组织公民行为, 主动性人格, 积极应对, 逃避应对

Abstract:

Workplace ostracism was defined as being ignored or excluded by others in workplace. Although previous studies have investigated the relationship between workplace ostracism and organizational citizenship behavior, the empirical findings were mixed. Some scholars suggested that employee personality play a critical role in determining how the individuals respond to workplace ostracism. However, the process through which these moderating effects occur has not been fully studied. Fortunately, the transactional model of stress and coping strategies can provide a substantial theoretical framework by which the moderating effects of personality can be explored. The relationship between stressor (e.g., workplace ostracism) and work outcomes depends on the coping strategies that individual adopt. With this argument, we aimed to examine the moderating role that proactive personality and two broad categories of coping strategies—active and avoidance—in the relationship between workplace ostracism and organizational citizenship behavior. In order to test our model, we conducted a survey on 249 employee-supervisor dyads from nine large companies in Guangdong province. The survey questionnaires were coded in order to match employee and their leaders. All respondents were informed that the purpose of the survey was to examine human resource practices. The confidentiality of their responses was emphasized. Respondents put the completed questionnaires into the sealed envelopes and returned them directly to our research assistants. Data were collected from multiple sources to avoid the common method bias. Specifically, employees reported their proactive personality, perceived workplace ostracism, active and avoidance coping strategies. Their leaders were asked to rate the employees’ organizational citizenship behavior. Hierarchical regressions and bootstrap with MPLUS were applied to test our hypotheses. Empirical results supported our arguments that workplace ostracism was negatively related to organizational citizenship behavior. The relationship between workplace ostracism and organizational citizenship behavior was weaker when employees were high in proactive personality. Moreover, the mediated moderation analyses revealed that proactive personality was positively associated with active coping strategies and negatively associated with avoidance coping strategies. Specifically, the relationship between workplace ostracism and organizational citizenship behavior was weaker when employees used active coping strategies. The moderating effects of proactive personality between workplace ostracism and organizational citizenship behavior were mediated by the use of active coping strategies. With these findings, we make some contributions to the literature and management practice. First, we extended previous work on the relationship between workplace ostracism and organizational citizenship behavior by showing that individuals with high proactive personality are more likely to choose constructive behaviors in response to the negative work environment and stressful work events. Second, our results also supported the moderating role of active coping strategies on the relationship between workplace ostracism and organizational citizenship behavior, contributing to the study of boundary effect on the relationship between workplace ostracism and organizational citizenship behavior. Third, our findings suggest that active coping strategies partially mediate the moderating effects of proactive personality on the relationship between workplace ostracism and organizational citizenship behavior, revealing how personality effects on work outcomes. The results also confirmed the notion that coping strategies might be an important psychological construct through which personality traits were expressed.

Key words: workplace ostracism, organizational citizenship behavior, proactive personality, active coping, avoidance coping