ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2014, Vol. 46 ›› Issue (5): 621-638.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2014.00621

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

图片部分线索效应的学习时间分配的发展

唐卫海;刘湍丽;石英;冯虹;刘希平   

  1. (1天津师范大学教育科学学院, 天津 300387) (2天津师范大学心理与行为研究院, 天津 300074)
  • 收稿日期:2012-12-21 出版日期:2014-05-24 发布日期:2014-05-24
  • 通讯作者: 刘希平
  • 基金资助:

    教育部人文社科研究基金(11YJA190015)、天津市哲学社会科学规划重点课题(TJJX13-002)、天津市十二五教育科学规划重点课题(CE2016)、天津市科技计划项目(12ZCZDSF07100)资助。

The Development of Allocation of Study Time on Part-list Cuing Effect of Pictures

TANG Weihai;LIU Tuanli;SHI Ying;FENG Hong;LIU Xiping   

  1. (1 College of Education, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387, China) (2 Academy of Psychology and Behavior, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300074, China)
  • Received:2012-12-21 Online:2014-05-24 Published:2014-05-24
  • Contact: LIU Xiping

摘要:

部分线索效应指让学习者学习一系列材料, 在随后的测试阶段, 给学习者提供先前所学材料的一部分作为提取线索, 让其回忆剩余的材料, 回忆成绩反而比没有提取线索时回忆成绩差的现象。通过3个实验, 以图片为实验材料, 考察了图片部分线索效应学习时间分配的发展特点。实验1考察了图片部分线索效应的边界条件, 结果发现:图片学习中, 以物体名称为线索时, 不存在部分线索效应; 而以图片为线索时, 存在部分线索效应。结果表明:跨域线索是图片部分线索效应的边界条件。实验2利用图片作线索, 考察了图片部分线索效应的发展特点, 结果发现:图片学习中, 不同年龄被试均存在部分线索效应。结果表明:年龄不是图片部分线索效应的边界条件。实验3考察不同年龄被试对部分线索消极作用的记忆监控的发展变化趋势, 结果发现:小学二年级儿童即使经过多次学习, 也不能意识到部分线索的消极作用; 小学五年级儿童经过二次学习后, 方可意识到这种消极作用, 并在部分线索条件下安排了更多的学习时间; 初二和高二年级学生经过一次学习, 即可意识到部分线索的消极作用, 他们均在部分线索条件下安排了更长的学习时间。结果表明:儿童的学习时间分配决策能力在小学二年级到小学五年级之间有一个质的提高; 与初二学生相比, 高二学生对部分线索带来的消极影响做了更多的时间补偿。

关键词: 图片部分线索效应, 学习时间分配, 他控步调学习, 自控步调学习, 发展

Abstract:

When people are asked to recall words they have studied earlier from a list, those given a subset of these words as cues recall fewer words than people who do not receive any cues. This phenomenon is the so called part-list cuing effect. This phenomenon seems to be alien from the general thought that cues can help to prompt memories. The current research examined the part-list cuing effect of participants of different ages in learning pictures, and also explored their memory monitoring and control. Adopting 3 experiments, we explored the development of part-list cuing effect of pictures, and the allocation of study time of different ages. Experiments 1 explored whether retrieval cues would have detrimental effects on participants’ recall of the remaining items after learning pictures, and Experiments 2 explored the performance of students in Grade 2 and Grade 5 of a primary school, Grade 2 of a junior high school, Grade 2 of a senior high school and Grade 2 of a university. Experiments 3 studied the development of memory control of different ages. The results showed that: (1) After participants learned a list of pictures, the presentation of a subset of learned pictures’ names as retrieval cues didn’t have detrimental effects on their recall of the remaining items significantly; (2) After participants learned a list of pictures, the presentation of a subset of learned pictures as retrieval cues had detrimental effects on their recall of the remaining items, that is to say, part-list cuing effect occurred; (3) The part-list cuing effect occurred in all age selected. And with the increase of age, its amount changed as an inverted U shape; (4) Participants’ allocation of study time was affected by the times they had practiced with part-list cueing, which was different among participants of different ages. Grade 2 of primary school students couldn’t predict the detrimental effect of part-list cues no matter how many times they had practiced. After practicing twice, Grade 5 of primary school students could realize part-list cues’ detrimental effect and effectively allocate their cognitive resources. And only after one practice, Grade 2 of junior high school and senior high school students could realize that the part-list cuing recall was more difficult compared to free recall and allocate their study time appropriately. Moreover, students in Grade 2 of senior high school did even better than those in junior high school. The present findings revealed that in the picture studying, cues presented by way of cross-domain is a boundary condition of part-list cueing effect, while age is not a boundary condition of part-list cueing effect. The development of children’s strategy on allocation of study time had a great change from Grade 2 of primary school to Grade 5 of primary school students, while the learning efficiency had a great change from Grade 2 of junior high school to Grade 2 of senior high school students.

Key words: part-list cuing effect of pictures, allocation of study time, experimenter-paced study, self-paced study, development