ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2021, Vol. 53 ›› Issue (9): 960-975.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00960

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

儿童认知发展水平诊断工具IPDT的动态化编制及其在低社会经济地位儿童中的应用

张丽锦1,2,3(), 暴卿1,4, 陈蕾5, 梁渊1   

  1. 1陕西师范大学心理学院
    2陕西省儿童青少年心理与行为健康哲学社会科学重点研究基地
    3陕西省行为与认知神经科学重点实验室, 西安 710062
    4宁夏大学新闻传播学院, 银川 750021
    5北京中科启元教育科技投资有限公司中科启智儿童发展中心, 北京 100080
  • 收稿日期:2020-07-28 出版日期:2021-09-25 发布日期:2021-07-22
  • 通讯作者: 张丽锦 E-mail:zhanglijin2013@snnu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    教育部人文社会科学研究一般项目(18XJA190001);北京师范大学中国基础教育质量监测协同创新中心重大成果培育项目(2019-05-019-BZPK01)

Dynamic adaptation of the Inventory of Piaget's Developmental Task (IPDT) and the application for children with low socioeconomic status

ZHANG Lijin1,2,3(), BAO Qing1,4, CHEN Lei5, LIANG Yuan1   

  1. 1School of Psychology, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710062, China
    2Shaanxi Key Research Center of Child Mental and Behavioral Health, Xi’an 710062, China
    3Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Behavior and Cognitive Neuroscience, Xi’an 710062, China
    4School of Journalism and Communication, Ningxia University, Yinchuan 750021, China
    5Childhood Development Centre, Beijing CAS Ospire Educational Technology & Investment Co., Ltd., Beijing 100080, China
  • Received:2020-07-28 Online:2021-09-25 Published:2021-07-22
  • Contact: ZHANG Lijin E-mail:zhanglijin2013@snnu.edu.cn

摘要:

“皮亚杰认知发展量表” (IPDT)中的守恒与关系领域经动态化改编后已被证实适用于小学低年级儿童的潜能评估。在此基础上, 本研究旨在构建适用于小学高年级儿童的IPDT表征、分类、规律领域的动态测验; 并运用所构建的IPDT动态测验对低社会经济地位(SES)儿童进行认知潜能评估; 而后经过对低SES儿童的推理认知干预, 进一步考查认知干预在低SES不同潜能儿童的认知能力和数学成就中的促进作用。结果发现:(1)改编的IPDT表征、分类、规律领域的动态测验包含“前测—干预—迁移—后测”4个阶段, 所构建的逐级提示干预方案合理适切, 可以有效区分不同认知潜能水平的小学高年级儿童, 特别是弱势儿童; (2)推理认知干预对由IPDT动态测验细致区分出的不同潜能水平的低SES儿童作用不同, 尽管他们在认知能力与数学成就上均有进步, 但低SES高潜能儿童比低SES低潜能儿童从干预中获益更多。

关键词: 动态测验, 低社会经济地位, 皮亚杰认知发展量表(IPDT), 最近发展区, 认知潜能

Abstract:

Low socioeconomic status (SES) has an adverse effect on children’s cognitive development and academic achievement. The dynamic test is based on the concept of Vygotsky's “Zone of Proximal Development” (ZPD), which is an effective and necessary supplement to the conventional intelligence test. It can identify the cognitive potential especially for children with low SES, more comprehensively and accurately. This assessment can classify high-potential children who have not yet shown good cognitive performance but are likely to perform well through the intervention and assessment process. The domains of conservation and relations in the Inventory of Piaget’s Developmental Task (IPDT) have been proved to be applicable to children’s cognitive potential assessment in the lower grade of elementary school. Purpose of this study was to construct a dynamic test based on the representation, classification, and regulation domains of the IPDT in senior primary school children. Furthermore, the newly developed IPDT dynamic test was applied to the cognitive intervention study of low SES children to examine the improvement of cognitive ability and academic achievement of low SES children with different potentials after the inferential cognitive intervention.

In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the dynamic test, ninety-one children in the fifth grade of a primary school were randomly selected as participants. The dynamic assessment consisted of four steps: pre-test, intervention, migration, and post-test, with each step having a set of questions. According to the theoretical basis and operation methods of the formulating intervention steps in the conservation and relations domains of IPDT, the intervention steps were divided into six levels, and the participants were prompted to answer step by step. The results showed that the passing rate of the participants increased with the interventional levels, indicating that the intervention was appropriate and effective at all levels.

The study further distinguished the SES of 320 fifth-grade children from two primary schools, and evaluated children’s cognitive potentials through the adapted dynamic test of IPDT. Furthermore, the procedure of “pretest-inference cognitive intervention-posttest” was used to explore the cognitive changes and mathematical academic promotion of the low SES children with different potential. On the basis of controlling the pre-test scores, an ANCOVA was performed on the post-test scores of Raven’s inference test in children of different potential groups. The results showed that the post-test scores among the groups were significantly different. In the intervention group, the scores of the low SES children with high potentials were significantly higher than that of other three low SES groups, but withoutsignificant differences with the performance of middle SES children having high potentials. The post-test scores of math achievement also showed similar results. The scores of low SES children in control groups were significantly lower than those of middle SES children. In addition, the growth scores on Raven’s test of the two intervention groups were significantly higher than the other groups.

In summary, according to the results of our research, two conclusions can be drawn: Firstly, the revised IPDT dynamic test in the domains of representation, classification, and regulation can effectively evaluate children’s cognitive potentials. Secondly, according to the revised IPDT dynamic test, it is inferred that cognitive intervention has different effects on low SES children with different potentials. After the intervention, children’s cognitive ability and math performance were improved in varying degrees. Low SES children with high potentials benefited more than children with low potential.

Key words: dynamic test, low socioeconomic status (low SES), Inventory of Piaget’s Developmental Tasks (IPDT), zone of proximal development (ZPD), cognitive potential

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