ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2013, Vol. 45 ›› Issue (11): 1251-1260.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2013.01251

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  1. (1 陕西师范大学心理学院 现代教学技术教育部重点实验室, 西安 710062) (2 华东师范大学社会发展学院, 上海 200241)
  • 收稿日期:2013-01-14 发布日期:2013-11-25 出版日期:2013-11-25
  • 通讯作者: 党健宁
  • 基金资助:

    教育部人文社科研究一般项目(11YJC190012); 中央高校基本科研业务费2010年度专项资金项目(10SZZD05)。

Shyness and Loneliness: The Multiple Mediating Effects of Self-efficacy

LI Caina;DANG Jianning;HE Shanshan;LI Hongmei   

  1. (1 Department of Psychology, Key Laboratory of Modern Teaching Technology, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710062, China) (2 Department of Social Development, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241, China)
  • Received:2013-01-14 Online:2013-11-25 Published:2013-11-25
  • Contact: DANG Jianning


以777名青少年为被试, 运用《羞怯问卷》、《孤独感问卷》、《社交效能量表》和《情绪调节效能感问卷》进行测量研究, 考察了青少年羞怯与孤独感的关系以及社交自我效能与情绪调节自我效能在羞怯与孤独感间的作用机制。相关分析表明:青少年羞怯、情绪调节自我效能、社交自我效能与孤独感间相关显著; 结构方程模型分析结果显示, 羞怯不但能直接正向预测个体的孤独感体验, 还会通过情绪调节自我效能和社交效能间接预测个体的孤独感; 自我效能在羞怯与孤独间起多重中介作用。

关键词: 羞怯, 孤独, 自我效能感, 多重中介


Individuals are born with the need to interact with others and may do so in a variety of ways. Most have sufficient social skills to do so successfully. Some, however, suffer loneliness because they are shy. Shyness, often described as discomfort and behavioral inhibition in social interactions, has been shown to have detrimental effects on individuals’ social adaptation. Studies have shown that shyness coexists with negative emotions and is a robust predictor of loneliness. However, there has been little attention paid to the mediators explaining the relationship between shyness and loneliness. Self-report measurements support expectations of rejection and interpersonal incompetence. Social support, self-esteem and humor style were confirmed as mediators of the relationship. Additionally, self-efficacy appears to be the likely mechanism accounting for the indirect relationship between shyness and loneliness. Social cognitive theory postulates that self-efficacy, a person’s confidence in his or her ability to execute a course of action, plays a vital role in determining their psychosocial functioning. Shy people tended to report lower self-esteem in social interactions and have lower confidence in their ability to maintain a relationship, resulting in difficulty developing intimate relationships. Shy people are thus likely to have a greater sense of loneliness due to low self-efficacy in socioemotional domains. Studies have shown that shyness was closely related to lower regulatory emotional and social self-efficacy, fewer social interactions and greater feelings of loneliness. Regulatory emotional self-efficacy, a measure of an individuals' perceived capacity to form, maintain and inhibit emotion has always been regarded as a domain related form of the construct of self-efficacy. Social self-efficacy, which refers to an individual’s beliefs and confidence in their ability to establish and maintain a lasting relationship, is a related construct. Integrative model of self-efficacy postulates that self-efficacy is a multiple level concept, in which the more general self-efficacy would exert influence on individuals’ social behaviors directly and indirectly through more specific self-efficacy. In applying the model to this study we postulated that regulatory emotional self-efficacy may impact an individuals’ sense of loneliness both directly and indirectly by influencing self-efficacy in social interactions. The present study aimed to determine whether one's regulatory emotional self-efficacy and social self-efficacy would medicate the relationship between shyness and loneliness among Chinese adolescents. Seven hundred and seventy seven adolescents (346 girls) at grade 7-12 were randomly recruited from two middle schools in Shanxi, China. Adolescents’ shyness, affect self-regulation efficacy, social self-efficacy, and loneliness were assessed the Shyness Scale, the Regulatory Emotional Self-Efficacy Questionnaire the Social Self-Efficacy Questionnaire, and the UCLA Loneliness Scale. Structural equation model and bootstrapping analyses were utilized to test the hypothesized mediating model. Path analyses showed that shyness was positively associated with adolescents’ loneliness directly and indirectly through the mediation of regulatory emotional self-efficacy and social self-efficacy. Specifically, shyness was related to lower self-efficacy of expressing positive emotions and regulating negative emotions, then to lower social self-efficacy, and finally to higher loneliness. Moreover, self-efficacy of expressing positive emotions and regulating negative emotions was associated with loneliness to the same extent, but self-efficacy of expressing positive emotions displayed stronger association with social self-efficacy than did self-efficacy of regulating negative emotions. Shyness has great implications for loneliness due to lower regulatory emotional self-efficacy and social self-efficacy. Psychosocial interventions targeting at improving adolescents’ self-efficacy in socioemotional domains should be delivered to shy adolescents to eliminate or weaken the potential detrimental effects of shyness on loneliness.

Key words: shyness, loneliness, self-efficacy beliefs, multiple mediation effect