ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2014, Vol. 46 ›› Issue (9): 1301-1316.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2014.01301

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇



  1. (中国科学院心理研究所行为科学重点实验室, 北京 100101)
  • 收稿日期:2013-06-07 发布日期:2014-09-25 出版日期:2014-09-25
  • 通讯作者: 朱莉琪, E-mail:
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金(31300859, 30970911), 中国科学院重点部署项目(KJZD-EW-L04), 中国科学院心理研究所科研启动经费(Y2CQ022005)和973项目(2010CB8339004)资助。

Cooperation in Children with High-functioning Autism

LI Jing; ZHU Liqi   

  1. (Key laboratory of Behavioral Science, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China)
  • Received:2013-06-07 Online:2014-09-25 Published:2014-09-25
  • Contact: ZHU Liqi, E-mail:


合作行为是一种重要的亲社会行为, 对儿童的社会适应具有重要意义, 而孤独症儿童的典型特征是社会功能存在缺陷, 从而导致合作行为的缺乏。以往研究未能就孤独症儿童在不同合作任务类型中的表现做出区分, 本研究采用经典的囚徒困境博弈和合作性工具任务比较了6~12岁的高功能孤独症儿童和正常发展儿童在不同任务中的合作行为。结果显示高功能孤独症儿童和正常儿童在囚徒困境中的合作行为没有显著差异, 然而, 他们在工具性任务中表现出比正常儿童更低水平的合作行为。这说明高功能孤独症儿童在对认知能力有不同要求的合作任务中的表现不同。

关键词: 高功能孤独症儿童, 合作, 囚徒困境, 工具性任务


The term autism spectrum disorder (ASD) encompasses a group of neurobiological disorders, which are diagnoses when there are deficits in social functioning, communication and language, and children demonstrate restricted/ repetitive behaviors and/or interests. High functioning autism (HFA) refers to individuals with ASD whose developmental age is close to their chronological age or whose IQ is greater than or equal to 70. One core characteristic of children with ASD is deficits in social functioning. These include impairments in imitation, joint attention, shared attention, and mind reading. However, not all social behavior is delayed. Cooperative play is an important type of social behavior typically delayed in children with ASD. Different types of cooperative behavior rely on different types of mental abilities. For example, cooperation in a prisoner’s dilemma game mainly relies on calculation and strategic thinking, while cooperation implementing a task mainly relies on joint attention and shared intention. No research has yet explored the performance of children with ASD on different kinds of cooperative tasks. The aim of this study is to investigate HFA children’s performance on two different tasks. Researchers hypothesized that HFA children would perform differently on the two kinds of cooperative tasks. The classic prisoner’s dilemma and cooperative implemental tasks were used to investigate cooperation in children with HFA and typically developing (TD) children who were between the ages of 6 to 12 years. Thirty-eight HFA children took part in the experiments, 31 of which completed the prisoner’s dilemma game. Thirty-one TD children, whose age and gender was matched to the participants with ASD, completed the two types of cooperative tasks. Children partnered with an adult assistant for 10 trials during the prisoner’s dilemma game. There were two apparatuses used in the implemental task, including a tube-with-handle task with parallel roles and a double-tube-task with complementary roles. In each implemental task there was an interruption period in which the adult partner stopped interacting with the child. Children’s cooperative performance during the interrupted period was measured. There was no significant difference in cooperation during the prisoner’s dilemma game between participants with HFA and TD children. However, children with HFA showed significantly less cooperative behavior than did TD participants during the interrupted period of the implemental task. Moreover, children with HFA engaged in different types of cooperative and communicative behavior during the interruption period of the two implemental tasks. Results imply that children with HFA performed differently on the two different kinds of cooperative tasks and relied on different types of cognitive abilities.

Key words: high-functioning autism (HFA), cooperation, prisoner’s dilemma game, implemental tasks