ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2021, Vol. 53 ›› Issue (8): 919-932.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00919

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    

囚徒困境博弈中对手面部表情对合作行为的影响及其作用机制

熊承清1,2, 许佳颖1, 马丹阳1, 刘永芳1()   

  1. 1华东师范大学心理与认知科学学院, 上海市心理健康与危机干预重点实验室, 上海 200062
    2信阳师范学院教育科学学院, 河南 信阳 464000
  • 收稿日期:2020-10-10 发布日期:2021-06-25
  • 通讯作者: 刘永芳 E-mail:yfliu@psy.ecnu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    *国家社会科学基金重大项目(15ZDB121)

The effect of opponent’s emotional facial expressions on individuals’ cooperation and underlying mechanism in prisoner’s dilemma game

XIONG Chengqing1,2, XU Jiaying1, MA Danyang1, LIU Yongfang1()   

  1. 1Shanghai Key Laboratory of Mental Health and Psychological Crisis Intervention, School of Psychology and Cognitive Science, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062, China
    2School of Educational Science, Xinyang Normal University, Xinyang 464000, China
  • Received:2020-10-10 Published:2021-06-25
  • Contact: LIU Yongfang E-mail:yfliu@psy.ecnu.edu.cn

摘要:

3个实验逐步深入地考察了囚徒困境博弈中, 对手的高兴、中性和愤怒面部表情对个体合作行为的影响及相关变量的中介和调节作用。实验1的结果表明, 对手的高兴表情比愤怒表情诱发了更高的合作水平, 且高兴和中性表情均比愤怒表情产生了更高的合作预期, 合作预期中介了面部表情与合作行为的关系; 实验2引入指导语操纵被试的直觉或理性决策模式, 发现实验1的结果仅出现在直觉条件下, 却未出现在理性条件下, 且整体而言直觉决策模式下比理性决策模式下更合作; 实验3采用更加严格的时间压力范式操纵被试的直觉或理性决策模式, 发现除了高兴表情比中性表情也诱发了更多的合作行为外, 其他几乎复制了实验2的结果。基于这些结果, 建立了有调节的中介模型, 以期揭示他人面部表情、合作预期、合作行为及个体决策模式之间的复杂关系。

关键词: 面部表情, 合作预期, 合作行为, 决策模式, 情绪的社会功能

Abstract:

Previous research suggested that emotional facial expressions significantly influence perceivers’ behaviors in interactive decision-making. Although emotional facial expressions of opponents could bias participants’ behaviors, little was known about the reason for this effect. Based on the social functions of emotions and dual-process theories of decision-making, the present study aimed to explore the effect of three emotional facial expressions, i.e. happiness, neutral and anger, on individuals’ cooperative behaviors in prisoner's dilemma game and the underlying mechanism, i.e. the mediating role of expectations of others’ cooperation and the moderating role of individuals’ decision modes.
Three experiments were designed to test the hypothesis. The emotional facial expressions were manipulated by grey-scale images of emotionally expressive faces (3 males and 3 females, 260 × 300 pixels) taken from a standard set of Chinese Affective Picture System (CAPS) in three experiments. Experiment 1 investigated the effects of emotional facial expressions (happiness/neutral/anger) on participants’ cooperation, as well as the mediating role of expectations of partner’ cooperation with a one-factor between-subjects design. A total of 180 adult participants were recruited for this experiment (109 females; mean age 22.36 ± 4.10 years) and were randomly assigned to happy, neutral or angry conditions. Experiment 2 adopted a 3(facial expressions: happiness/neutral/anger) × 2(decision modes: intuitive/deliberative) between-subjects design to examine moderating role of decision modes, as well as the mediating role of expectations of partner’ cooperation. A total of 185 adult participants were recruited for this experiment (130 females; mean age 21.48 ± 2.71 years). And the decision modes were manipulated by instructions. Experiment 3 adopted a 3(facial expressions: happiness/neutral/anger) × 2(time pressure: time constraint/time delay) between-subjects design to examine moderating role of time pressure, as well as the mediating role of expectations of partner’ cooperation. A total of 218 adult participants were recruited for this experiment (148 females; mean age 23.74 ± 3.11 years). And the time pressure were manipulated by imposing a time constraint.
The results of the three experiments showed: (1) participants were found to be more cooperative towards happy partners compared to angry ones, and the expectations of partners’ cooperation mediated the relationship between emotional facial expressions and participants’ cooperative behaviors (Experiment 1); (2) only under the condition of intuitive decision mode, participants were found to be more cooperative towards happy and neutral partners compared to angry ones, and the expectations of partners’ cooperation mediated the relationship between emotional facial expressions and participants’ cooperative behaviors (Experiment 2); (3) only under the condition of time constraint, participants were found to be more cooperative towards happy partners compared to angry and neutral ones, and the expectations of partners’ cooperation mediated the relationship between emotional facial expressions and participants’ cooperative behaviors (Experiment 3).
Our findings contribute to literature in two ways. Firstly, the study extends our understanding of the phenomenon that emotional facial expressions influence individuals’ cooperative behaviors. Secondly, our findings further enrich and extend the evidence and field of the interpersonal effect of emotional facial expressions in interactive decision-making. These findings thereby have important implications for understanding the mechanism underlying the effect of different emotional facial expressions on individuals’ cooperative decision-making.

Key words: facial expressions, expectations of cooperation, cooperative behaviors, decision modes, social functions of emotions

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