ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2024, Vol. 56 ›› Issue (9): 1159-1175.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2024.01159

• 亲社会行为专刊(1) • 上一篇    下一篇


苑明亮1, 伍俊辉2,3, 金淑娴4, 林靓5, 寇彧5, Paul A. M. Van Lange6   

  1. 1安徽农业大学人文社会科学学院心理学系, 合肥 230036;
    2中国科学院心理研究所行为科学重点实验室, 北京 100101;
    3中国科学院大学心理学系, 北京 100049;
    4萨塞克斯大学心理学院, 英国 布莱顿 BN19RH;
    5北京师范大学发展心理研究院, 应用实验心理北京市重点实验室, 心理学国家级实验教学示范中心(北京师范大学), 北京 100875;
    6阿姆斯特丹自由大学脑与行为研究院实验与应用心理学系, 荷兰 阿姆斯特丹 1081BT
  • 收稿日期:2023-07-25 发布日期:2024-06-25 出版日期:2024-09-25
  • 通讯作者: 寇彧, E-mail:
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金面上项目(31971011), 中国科学院青年创新促进会人才项目(2023095), 中国科学院心理研究所科研项目(Y5CX052003), 安徽省高等学校科学研究项目(哲学社会科学) (2022AH050860), 安徽农业大学高层次人才引进项目(rc432201)

The changes in cooperation among strangers in China: A cross-temporal meta-analysis of social dilemmas (1999~2019)

YUAN Mingliang1, WU Junhui2,3, JIN Shuxian4, LIN Jing5, KOU Yu5, PAUL A. M. Van Lange6   

  1. 1Department of Psychology, School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036, China;
    2CAS Key Laboratory of Behavioral Science, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China;
    3Department of Psychology, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China;
    4School of Psychology, University of Sussex, Brighton BN19RH, United Kingdom;
    5Beijing Key Laboratory of Applied Experimental Psychology, National Demonstration Center for Experimental Psychology Education (Beijing Normal University), Institute of Developmental Psychology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China;
    6Department of Experimental and Applied Psychology, Institute for Brain and Behavior Amsterdam (IBBA), VU Amsterdam, Amsterdam 1081BT, The Netherlands
  • Received:2023-07-25 Online:2024-06-25 Published:2024-09-25

摘要: 陌生人间的合作行为对于解决社会公共问题, 应对世界百年未有之大变局意义重大。本研究采用横断历史元分析方法, 基于1999~2019年间开展的254项使用社会困境范式测量我国陌生人间合作行为的研究(共302个合作率, 29249名被试, 平均年龄:18~28岁), 探讨了中国社会中合作行为的变迁及一些社会发展指标在其中的解释作用, 并比较中美两国的合作行为变迁趋势。结果表明, 中国人的合作行为水平随时间而上升, 一些社会发展指标(人均国内生产总值、城市化率、高等教育水平、互联网普及率等)可能是其上升的社会变迁基础。中美两国合作行为表现出相似的上升趋势, 但中国的在更短时间内有更大上升幅度。研究结果对提振民众信心具有重要意义。

关键词: 合作行为, 社会资本, 社会困境, 横断历史元分析, 社会变迁

Abstract: Cooperation among strangers is a key feature of social capital which facilitates societies to effectively compete with other societies. Notably, cooperation among strangers does not remain permanent or stable within a society but can shift with changes in ecology and culture.
In the past few decades, China has experienced tremendous social changes, mainly manifested in rapid economic growth, rising urbanization level, more widespread higher education, and rapid development of the internet. Meanwhile, people's residential mobility and social interaction scope has expanded. Acquaintance society has been shrinking while stranger society has been expanding. Interpersonal trust has declined and individualism has increased. However, little is known about whether cooperation (operationalized as cooperative behavior in social dilemmas) among strangers has shifted along with above societal changes within Chinese society. Thus, based on the history of experimental research on cooperation among young Chinese adults in situations involving conflicting interests (i.e., social dilemmas), this study meta-analyzed 254 studies conducted between 1999 and 2019 with 302 unique samples and effect sizes involving 29249 participants to test for possible changes over time in cooperation among strangers.
We conducted meta-regression analyses applying a three-level mixed-effects meta-regression model and performed multiple imputation to handle missing data in our model. For all analyses, year of data collection was entered as the predictor, and the cooperation estimate as the outcome variable. In addition, we also simultaneously added the study characteristic variables (i.e., dilemma type, proportion of male participants, repetitions, group size, K index, communication, sanctions, and period of cooperation) as control variables to the meta-regression models to rule out the possibility that changes in cooperation are explained by study characteristics. Finally, we also calculated the magnitude of change in cooperation and reported the correlations between the sociocultural indicators and cooperation.
We found cooperation among strangers increased over time in Chinese society: The cooperation rate had increased from 0.33 in 1999 to 0.45 in 2019 after controlling for other variables. In addition, some societal indicators (e.g., societal wealth, urbanization level, higher education level, and internet penetration rate) measured 10 to 5 years prior to measures of cooperation were found to be positively associated with cooperation, suggesting that they may be potential societal underpinnings of increases in cooperation. The cooperative behavior among strangers in China and the United States shows a similar upward trend, but cooperation in Chinese society has a larger increase in a shorter period. These findings have important implications for boosting public confidence in solving present and future challenges.

Key words: cooperation, social capital, social dilemmas, cross-temporal meta-analysis, social change