ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R


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    Special Section of Folk Psychology
    Review on National Psychology of the Minorities in Southwest China
    CAI Xiao-Yue;LUO Lie;HE Bo-Feng
    2012, 20 (8):  1145-1151. 
    Abstract ( 606 )  
    The psychological research of the minority in southwest is an important part of the minority psychological research in our country. Since the 1980s, the research of the minority in southwest has been mainly about the children’s cognitive, intellectual development, personality, values and character and so on. Some excellent results have been achieved. Currently, the psychological study of the minority in southwest has several characteristics. (1) The samples are always the young people and students. (2)The orientation of the study is always the development of national psychology. (3) Most of the studies are related with the education. (4)The scientific of the study of the psychology of the minority needs to be enhanced. (5) The core of the national psychological study is the national culture, and it needs to be related with the national life and national customs. (6) The study regards the nation and national culture as an experimental variable, but it pays little attention to the nature of the minority psychology.
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    A Review of Ethnic Identity Researches in Recent Years in China
    WAN Ming-Gang;GAO Cheng-Hai;LV Chao;HOU Ling
    2012, 20 (8):  1152-1158. 
    Abstract ( 676 )  
    In recent years, ethnic identity researches at home have been focusing on the connotation of ethnic identity, and it’s relation between national identity, ethnic identity and culture adaptation, and the relation of mental health and so on. The major problem of the researches is that there are more theoretical introductions and reviews than empirical studies, and the sample and methods of the study were single. Furthermore, the study lacks of comparable, process, and mechanism study, and it did not pay enough attention to the indigenous studies. In the future studies, multi-disciplinary perspective is needed, combining with using different research methods and advanced statistical methodology to find the nature of the ethnic identity of our country, thus to develop local theories of ethnic identity.
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    Color Terms and Color Cognition: Based on the Perspective of National Psychology
    WANG Juan;ZHANG Ji-Jia
    2012, 20 (8):  1159-1168. 
    Abstract ( 845 )  
    The relations of color terms and color cognition have been highlighted in the field of language’s influence on cognition. Diversities existed between different nations’ language and culture. The popular research method to investigate relations between color terms and color cognition was to utilize the diversities between nations on language and culture. There were two kinds of viewpoints included Universalism and Relativism on color cognition. The previous research showed that many paradigms included philosophy speculation, naming and computation, color classification, color memory and color searching were devoted to the question of color cognition. Based on the previous researches, color cognition’s interaction model based on three layers and six aspects was established.
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    The Cultural Perspectives of Ethnic Minorities’ Coping Research
    ZHI Feng-Ying;ZHANG Jin-Fu
    2012, 20 (8):  1169-1179. 
    Abstract ( 576 )  
    Ethnic minorities’ coping has become an important topic with the rapid change of our society and the integration and collision of diversified culture. The research about the relationship between ethnic minorities’ coping and culture plays an important role in understanding the psychological mechnism of ethnic minorities’ coping and helps to promote national unity and social harmony. This paper gives a review of the cultural perspectives of ethnic minorities’ coping which include the cross-culture study of coping, coping in acculturation, religious coping and coping thought in Chinese traditional culture. Future studies on Chinese ethnic minorities’ coping should pay more attention to combining the research thought of different disciplines and diversified culture perspectives, to collecting data by combining with quantitative and qualitative methods, to expanding the reaseach field and reaseach scope, as well as to the study of different social groups of ethnic minorities’ coping according to the social change in Chinese ethnic areas.
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    Implicit Theories and Group Relation
    GAO Cheng-Hai;HOU Ling;LV Chao;WAN Ming-Gang
    2012, 20 (8):  1180-1188. 
    Abstract ( 767 )  
    The implicit theory, for the laical, is a simple explanation of the social world. People’s understanding of the attributes of the social categorizations (e.g. race, religion, gender, occupation. etc.) have an important influence on individual’s processing, judgment and reaction to the group information. And which can also forecast group process notably, e.g., stereotypes, prejudice, discrimination, Meanwhile, the understanding also moderates the psychological effects of social identification, which also makes up the consideration in the process of society identify with individual diversity, and it has important contribution to the development of the social identity theory. And demonstration research shows that in the practice of improving and promoting to group relation, implicit theories could be used as an agency to reduce the stereotype and prejudice, and thus foster better group relation. In the future studies, there is a need to integrate the conceptions of the implicit theories, and adopt some longitudinal studies to provide scientific guidance for the practice.
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    National Language Influences National Psychology: Evidence from Classifying Kinship Words
    XIAO Er-Ping;ZHANG Ji-Jia
    2012, 20 (8):  1189-1200. 
    Abstract ( 466 )  
    The kinship, which is generally regarded as the initial social relationship of individuals, is formed on the basis of blood relationship and marriage. There are corresponding words to represent kinship in every language, which is called kinship words. Kinship words contain abundant information involving genetics, marriage, sociology and culture. Kinship words, the royal crown of anthropology and ethnonymics, are one of the most important topics in the field of anthropology, ethnonymics and linguistics, especially national psychology. Since 2001, by means of natural classifying, we explored the conceptual structure of kinship words among varied participant groups, including children, youngsters and undergraduates of different nationalities, such as the Han nationality, the Naxi nationality, the Moso, the Dai nationality, the Yi nationality, the Bai nationality and Jinuo nationality. The conceptual structure of kinship words varies from different nationalities. The series studies revealed the factors influencing the semantic categorization and conceptual organization, demonstrating that national language influenced national psychology; and revealed the mechanism of the impact of language on kinship words classifying, providing important evidences for the theories on the influences of language on cognition; and revealed the features of the different nationalities’ kinship, providing important materials for the theoretical basis of the national psychology.
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    A Review of Study on Stereotype Threat Effect
    GAO Bing
    2012, 20 (8):  1201-1206. 
    Abstract ( 915 )  
    Steele and Aronson (1995)proposed the concept of stereotype threat, which make individuals be at risk of confirming, as self-characteristic, a negative stereotype about one’s group. Nation stereotype threat make individuals’ underperformance and affect social interaction between people of different nations. The main mechanism of nation stereotype threat is the deficit of working memory and disidentification.Ingroup model and test without evaluation can reduce the effects of nation stereotype threat. Future studies should define the concepts of race, ethnic group and nation, examine the difference between nation stereotype threat and gender stereotype threat, and the stereotype threat of various nations.
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    The Cognitive Style of Ethnic Minorities
    XU Si-An;ZHENG Xue
    2012, 20 (8):  1207-1211. 
    Abstract ( 513 )  
    Cognitive style refers to the often used, preferred and habitualized way an individual perceives, memorizes, and thinks. And it is the individual difference of people in the process of organizing and processing information and experiences. The cross-cultural research on the cognitive style of ethnic minorities focused on its law of the development, gender differences, differences across nations, and correlation to other variables.
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    The Contribution of Naxi Dongba Characters to Language Cognition Researches
    XIE Shu-Shu;ZHANG Ji-Jia
    2012, 20 (8):  1212-1221. 
    Abstract ( 498 )  
    Summed up the formation features of Naxi Dongba characters and different views of its nature, and outlined its cognitive features found by means of language cognition experiments. Based on it, made some comments on the enlightenment of Dongba characters’ cognitive features to its nature and its contribution to language cognition researches, including its contribution on Word Comprehension Theory, Psychological characterization Theory, and the relation between perception representation and semantic representation. What’s more, pointed out the further researches could focus on the brain mechanism of Naxi Dongba Characters’ cognition. It will provide more evidence for the law of character evolution, and keep going on solving the important problems of language cognition research. In the long run, the researches of Naxi Dongba characters will be an indispensable part of the language cognition researches.
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    Language Representation and Language Association of Ethnic Bilinguals
    CUI Zhan-Ling;Wang De-Qiang
    2012, 20 (8):  1222-1228. 
    Abstract ( 459 )  
    Ethnic students in our country generally master three languages: their mother language, the second language (usually Chinese) and the third language (usually English). The cognitive processing characteristics of ethnic students’ three languages have been an important access to understand the language cognition of ethnic students, as well as the emphasis of studies in linguistic and psychological fields. Previous studies had focused on language representation of ethnic students’ three languages, ways of connection among their three languages and the processing characteristics represented during the course of language comprehension and production. Some researchers also have probed the processing characteristics of their second language. This paper gives a review on previous studies focusing on the above issues, and gives us several pieces of advice on further research. In further research, we should pay more attention to the aspects such as the processing characteristics of different ethnic students and the respective features as well as influencing factors in processing their mother language, their second language (usually Chinese) and their third language.
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    A Theoretical Exploration and Empirical Research of the Regional Cross-culture Psychology of China
    ZHANG Hai-Zhong;JIANG Yong-Zhi;ZHAO Wen-Jin;AN Gui-Hua;ZHANG Xiao-Long;HU Zhi-Jun;ZHANG Wan-Li
    2012, 20 (8):  1229-1236. 
    Abstract ( 727 )  
    The Regional Cross-culture Psychology of China is based on the theory of culture science, sociology, anthropology, human geography, social psychology, cross-cultural psychology and other disciplines, compare and research psychological commonality and differences between individual psychology and group psychology in Chinese urban-rural areas, geographical areas, historical areas, administrative areas and ecological areas residents in different culture. The subjects assigned to cross-cultural psychology, the paper use a series of questionnaires mainly to the Han nationality of urban and rural residents of Hexi and Hedong in Gansu Province and the residents of Inner mongolia and Hunan Province to spot-check in 2004 and 2009. The results showed that the regional cultural differences and the specific identity, the ecological environment, lifestyle, economic development, political system, social structure, level of education, customs and other differences are important variables and factors affecting the mental health of residents, personality traits, social attitudes, stereotypes and other psychological functions. Future research will focus on improving the academic theory and inter-provincial, inter-county comparative study in order to better use the field work and other methods to reveal the relationship and mechanism between the regional culture and the psychological behavior, to form theoretical models and provide a theoretical basis for building a harmonious society, make efforts for the construction of Chinese indigenous psychology and localization of psychology.
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    A Theoretical Exploration and Empirical Research on the Fellow-Townsman Reference Effect in China
    JIANG Yong-Zhi;ZHANG Hai-Zhong;ZHANG Peng-Ying
    2012, 20 (8):  1237-1242. 
    Abstract ( 645 )  
    This paper believes that the essence of fellow-townsman concept is native and ethnic identify, it is expressed as to miss home after leave the home town, attachment to old folk, native dialect identity, helping behavior between fellow-townsman and even organizational behavior between fellow-townsman. The core of fellow-townsman identity is social identity, but the core of social and cultural identity is language identity, fellow-townsman psychological effects consisted of linguistic identity, cultural identity, emotion recognition, customs identity, geographical identity and other ingredients. Among them, the prerequisite is that the central factors and peripheral factors, central factors including away from home, geographically proximate, cultural convergence and mutual support. Six experiments were conducted to explore whether there is a different effect towards fellow-townsman between college students study in local or non-local university. This research revealed that there was a different effect between participants towards their fellow-townsman when they are in local university and non-local university, they can show a fellow-townsman effect in non-local, while don’t perform such an effect in local. Maybe the strange environment in non-local places induced different effect towards people came from the same hometown, and fellow-townsman became an important other that incorprated in self-concept when they in non-local places. Therefore, the fellow-townsman concept is not only fundamental to create a regional psychological personality, but also an important indicator of the interaction between regional cultural differences and personality differences. Fellow-townsman concept is the psychological basis national identity and national identity, however, within the nation and the state, large-scale population movement of cross-cultural adaptation is an important factor affecting social harmony.
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    Using Mandarin and Dialect Together: Dialect Psychological Research and Its Development
    WANG Yue;CHEN Jun;ZHANG Ji-Jia
    2012, 20 (8):  1243-1250. 
    Abstract ( 848 )  
    It is common to see more and more people can speak mandarin and dialect because of the complexity of the Chinese and mandarin popularization. Under the linguistic relativity hypothesis, psychological research focuses mostly on the representation of the dialect speakers, and how diglossia having an effect on memory, time reasoning and language process etc. The attitude towards two languages which includes the using and implicit attitude of mandarin and dialect was discussed. In the future, we should pay more attention to the language representation and extraction system, exploring the neural basis of diglossia and the influence of language on people’s mind.
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    Conceptual Framework
    The Cognitive Mechanisms of Primary Mental Abilities Aging
    PENG Hua-Mao;WANG Da-Hua
    2012, 20 (8):  1251-1258. 
    Abstract ( 605 )  
    The mechanisms of primary menatal abilities aging are one of focus of cognitive aging research. Cross-sectional and longitudinal researches showed that the decline of information processing resources such as sensory functions, processing speed and working memory led to PMA aging. However, there is still an open question concerning the cognitive mechanisms of PMA aging due to correlational design cannot attain data from causal inference. Experimental and intervention design are needed in this project. To explore the changes of age differences of PMA, sensory functions will be manipulated and processing speed and working memory will be trained. The results of this project will provide further evidence to cognitive aging theories.
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    Research Methods
    The Genetic Association Analysis on Developmental Dyslexia
    SU Meng-Meng;ZHANG Yu-Ping;SHI Bing-Jie;SHU Hua
    2012, 20 (8):  1259-1267. 
    Abstract ( 559 )  
    Developmental dyslexia is a highly heritable mental disorder. In the last decade, utilizing association analysis to uncover genetic mechanisms of dyslexia has become a new trend. In terms of methodology, research in association analysis can be divided into three approaches: family based studies, case-control studies and quantitative trait association studies. Combined with other techniques, such as genome-wide scan, neuroimaging and gene function, this new trend enables researchers better examine genetic mechanisms of developmental dyslexia from multiple perspectives across gene, brain, and behavior.
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    Regular Articles
    The Neural Mechanism of Inductive Reasoning
    XIAO Feng;LI Hong;LONG Chang-Quan;CHEN Qing-Fei;WANG Rong-Yan;LI Fu-Hong
    2012, 20 (8):  1268-1276. 
    Abstract ( 676 )  
    Inductive reasoning is the process to infer general knowledge from specific instances. Cognitive neural mechanism of inductive reasoning is the new direction in the current researching field. Analyses of existing findings reveal that: (1) the central process of inductive reasoning is closely associated with the prefrontal cortex and late ERP component; (2) there might be dual systems of inductive reasoning; (3) it is debatable whether the process of inductive reasoning shows left laterality. The above three issues remain open to further investigation on neural mechanism of inductive reasoning.
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    Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy of Anxiety Disorders
    WANG Guang-Xin;LI Li
    2012, 20 (8):  1277-1286. 
    Abstract ( 952 )  
    Virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) is an altered form of behavioral therapy and may be a possible alternative to standard in vivo exposure. Virtual reality integrates real-time computer graphics, body tracking devices, visual displays, and other sensory input devices to immerse patients in a computer-generated virtual environment. The review has focused on the efficacy of VRET in treating anxiety disorders: phobias, agoraphobia, fear of flying and posttraumatic stress disorder. The well-controlled study shows that virtual reality exposure therapy is effective and efficient to treat anxiety disorder. The client who received the VRET shows significant improvement in the self-efficiency and regains the feeling of control over the situation. The skin conduction will be a better predictor for the efficiency of VRET than heart rate. The cognitive and psychophysiological mechanism of VRET is also discussed. More randomized clinical trials in which VRET is compared with standard exposure are required, and the mediating and moderating variables that influence VR treatment effectiveness as well. The psychotherapy will see the new trend: integrating functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) with virtual reality to treat mental disorder.
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    A Review on the Suicide Gatekeeper Training
    LIANG Ting;ZHANG Xiao-Yuan;WANG Zhe
    2012, 20 (8):  1287-1295. 
    Abstract ( 752 )  
    Suicide gatekeeper training is considered to be the one of the most effective strategies of suicide prevention in western countries. The main contents of the suicide gatekeeper training include imparting the basic knowledge, identifying the signs of suicide, preliminarily assessing suicide risk and referring the individuals at high suicide risk. The suicide gatekeeper training had been showed to positively affect the knowledge, attitudes and skills of trainees by many researches, but the effect of the suicide gatekeeper training on suicide rates still needs future elucidation. There are some limitations in current studies: 1.There are few randomized controlled trials to assess the effectiveness of the suicide gatekeeper training; 2.The real effects of the suicide gatekeeper training on the deduction of suicide rates are hard to prove; 3. We have no unified assessment tool to evaluate the effectiveness of gatekeeper training and the indicators we use to evaluate its effectiveness are too simple. In the future, more researches should be done to make up for the limitation of past studies and more emphasis should be placed on the cross-cultural research of evaluating the unique effect of the suicide gatekeeper training.
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    The Impact of Psychological Contract Breach on Work-Related Attitude
    and Behavior
    QI Lin;LIU Ze-Wen
    2012, 20 (8):  1296-1304. 
    Abstract ( 882 )  
    Psychological contract breach occurs when employees perceive that their employers fail to deliver on what they perceive was promised. The present paper distinguished the psychological contract breach and the psychological contract violation conceptually. And we reviewed the empirical researches, at home and abroad, on the effects that psychological contract breach has on employees’ attitudes and behaviors from the aspects of direct effects and indirect effects (the mediating effects and the moderating effects), and commended on the deficiencies of the research methods and theoretical basis. Furthermore, we gave some suggestions to the future researches which are: (1) create psychological contract scale for Chinese enterprises based on the Chinese culture background; (2) inspect the effects that the psychological contract breach has on both sides in a dynamic process from two separate perspectives-the employees’ and the employers’ perspectives.
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    Employee’s Job Crafting: A New Perspective of Job Design
    ZHANG Chun-Yu;WEI Jia;CHEN Xie-Ping;ZHANG Jin-Fu
    2012, 20 (8):  1305-1313. 
    Abstract ( 1644 )  
    Job crafting is defined as a bottom-up way in which employees redesign their job. It complements classic top-down view of job design through emphasizing the proactive change behavior. Job crafting has been categorized to several forms, including task crafting, relational crafting and cognitive crafting, individual job crafting and collaborative job crafting. Job crafting is related to proactive personality, career orientation, autonomy and person-environment misfit. Job crafting could predict numerous positive outcomes, including job satisfaction, work meaning, work engagement, job performance and organizational commitment. However, job crafting is investigated mostly through qualitative research or research based on correlational design. Researches in the future are suggested to develop the longitudinal design to address the long−term consequences of job crafting. Additionally, the influence mechanism and negative consequences of job crafting are also necessary to be further explored. Local researchers should consider the influences of Chinese traditional culture and collectivism culture on job crafting.
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    The Entitativity of Social Group: Retrospect and Prospect
    YANG Xiao-Li;LIU Li;LI Qiong;WAN Mei-Na
    2012, 20 (8):  1314-1321. 
    Abstract ( 747 )  
    The entitativity of social groups refers to the degree to which groups are perceived to be a significantly substantive entity. Entitativity is influenced by percipient, social contexts and cultural factors. It has important consequences on intergroup relations; It affects ingroup identification, stereotypes, bias and group conflict. Group entitativity is not either a positive or a negative group attribute per se; rather, it depends on the context and the relationship between the perceiver and the group. The future researches should focus on how to enhance the positiveness of group entitativity, and how to strengthen entitativity studies in Chinese culture context, so as to achieve a harmonious society in China.
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    Musical Ability Tests: Construct Extension and Analytical Transition
    LIU Yuan;LIU Hong-Yun
    2012, 20 (8):  1322-1328. 
    Abstract ( 571 )  
    In the aspect of test construct, the classic musical ability tests, containing subtests of basic cognitive ability, aesthetic ability, and creativity ability, have transited to the very mode ones also including playing an instrument or singing, performance and communication ability, and personal quality as extension. Analytic method, on the other hand, has turned its direction from the traditional summative assessment towards formative assessment, in which the cognitive diagnose assessment (CDA) has been proved to be feasible by analyzing items of National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) on attribute level. Future researches should allot more attention on integrity and coherence of musical ability tests, and on applying CDA in practice.
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