心理学报, 2020, 52(1): 81-92. doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2020.00081

研究报告

个性化工作协议对员工主动性职业行为和创造力的影响

罗萍1, 施俊琦,1, 朱燕妮2, 房俨然3

1 中山大学岭南(大学)学院, 广州 510275

2 澳门科技大学酒店与旅游管理学院, 澳门 00853

The influence of idiosyncratic deals on employee proactive career behavior and creativity

LUO Ping1, SHI Junqi,1, ZHU Yanni2, FANG Yanran3

1 Lingnan (University) College, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China

2 Faculty of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Macau University of Science and Technology, Macau 00853, China

通讯作者: 施俊琦, E-mail: shijq3@mail.sysu.edu.cn

收稿日期: 2017-12-15   网络出版日期: 2020-01-25

基金资助: * 国家自然科学基金委杰出青年基金项目资助.  71425004

Received: 2017-12-15   Online: 2020-01-25

摘要

个性化工作协议是员工和组织通过谈判协商, 自愿达成的非标准化工作协议。基于自我决定理论, 本文探讨了个性化工作协议对员工主动性职业行为和创造力的影响机制及其边界条件。通过分析230对“员工-主管”匹配数据, 本研究发现:个性化工作协议增强了员工基本心理需求满足(能力需求、自主需求和关系需求), 促进了主动性职业行为和创造力, 其中能力需求满足中介了个性化工作协议对主动性职业行为和创造力的影响; 此外, 较高水平的工作负荷不仅增强了个性化工作协议对员工能力需求/自主需求满足的促进作用, 也增强了个性化工作协议通过提升能力需求满足, 进而提升员工主动性职业行为和创造力的中介效应。

关键词: 个性化工作协议 ; 心理需求满足 ; 主动性职业行为 ; 创造力 ; 工作负荷

Abstract

Idiosyncratic deals (simplified as “i-deals”) refer to personalized employment arrangements in order to meet both employees and their employers’ benefits. Drawing on self-determination theory (SDT), the current study investigated the relationship between i-deals and the two important employee work outcomes (i.e., proactive career behavior and creativity) by focusing on the mediating role of psychological needs satisfaction (i.e., competence need satisfaction, autonomy need satisfaction and relatedness need satisfaction) and the moderating role of workload.
Three time points of data were collected from 230 supervisor-subordinate dyads in 40 work teams within Guangzhou and Shenzhen. At Time 1, subordinates reported i-deals and provided demographic information. At Time 2, subordinates responded to measures of workload, competence need satisfaction, autonomy need satisfaction, and relatedness need satisfaction. At Time 3, supervisors rated their subordinates’ creativity, and employees self-reported their own proactive career behavior.
Results showed that: (1) i-deals was positively related to all three forms of employees’ psychological needs satisfaction (competence need satisfaction, autonomy need satisfaction, and relatedness need satisfaction); (2) i-deals was positively associated with both employee proactive career behavior and creativity; (3) competence need satisfaction mediated the relationship between i-deals and the two employee work outcomes (i.e., proactive career behavior and creativity), whereas the mediating effect of autonomy and relatedness need satisfaction was not significant; (4) workload strengthened the positive relationship between i-deals and employee competence / autonomy need satisfaction, as well as the indirect effect of i-deals on proactive career behavior and creativity via competence need satisfaction.
The current study contributes to the literature in two aspects. First, drawing on SDT, we identified the mediating mechanism of psychological need satisfaction (competence need satisfaction in specific) in understanding the influence of i-deals on employee’s proactive career behavior and creativity. Second, in testing the moderating role of workload on the effects of i-deals and its outcomes, we clarified the boundary condition of the positive effects of i-deals. The theoretical contributions and practical implications of the results were discussed.

Keywords: idiosyncratic deals ; needs satisfaction ; proactive career behavior ; creativity ; workload

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本文引用格式

罗萍, 施俊琦, 朱燕妮, 房俨然. (2020). 个性化工作协议对员工主动性职业行为和创造力的影响. 心理学报, 52(1), 81-92

LUO Ping, SHI Junqi, ZHU Yanni, FANG Yanran. (2020). The influence of idiosyncratic deals on employee proactive career behavior and creativity. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 52(1), 81-92

1 问题的提出

个性化工作协议(Idiosyncratic deals)是指“员工和组织通过谈判协商, 自愿达成的非标准化工作协议” (Rousseau, Ho, & Greenberg, 2006, p.978)。早期针对个性化工作协议的研究主要聚焦于探讨前因, 或是基于社会交换理论讨论个性化工作协议的作用机制及结果(参见Anand, Vidyarthi, Liden, & Rousseau, 2010; Hornung, Rousseau, Glaser, Angerer, & Weigl, 2010; Rousseau et al., 2006)。近期有关个性化工作协议的元分析研究指出, 个性化工作协议的研究应当尝试探讨在社会交换理论框架之外更多元的作用效果及其内在机制(例如, Liao, Wayne, & Rousseau, 2016)。

为响应这一号召, 本研究借助自我决定理论(Deci & Ryan, 2000, 2002), 充分结合个性化工作协议的理论意义和构念内涵, 提出个性化工作协议会通过增强员工心理需求满足, 促进主动性职业行为和创造力。此外, 由于个体心理需求的满足、内在动机的激发在具有一定工作挑战的环境中更为突出(Deci, 1975), 因而个性化工作协议这一关键工作资源的作用也受到工作负荷水平的调节。

1.1 个性化工作协议与员工主动性职业行为和创造力

不同于其他主要由组织制定的政策或由领导主导的领导力行为, 个性化工作协议是员工与组织磋商达成的非标准化工作安排(Rousseau et al., 2006), 这一雇佣双方共同参与完成的工作再设计, 不仅能够满足员工的个性化诉求(Hornung et al., 2010), 更为员工的长期发展创造条件, 因而应当能够促进员工主动性职业行为。首先, 个性化工作协议体现了员工在个人发展和工作内容上的倾向性(Rousseau et al., 2006), 能促进员工在其所认同的工作内容和职业发展方向上自觉投入更多努力(Strauss, Griffin, & Parker, 2012)。其次, 个性化工作协议为员工的职业发展指明路径, 具有较强的愿景激励功能(Owens & Hekman, 2012), 因而能激发员工职业发展行为(Strauss et al., 2012; 张敏, 叶茂林, 彭坚, 陈宇帅, 2016)。

除了促进员工的主动性职业行为, 具备信息性环境特征的个性化工作协议也应当能够有效提升员工创造力。第一, 个性化工作协议赋予员工具有一定挑战性的工作任务和在职业发展方面有针对性的设计与指导, 使员工进一步明确其工作内容与具体方向, 促进了创造力提升(Hornung et al., 2010)。第二, 个性化工作协议的制定也传递了与员工能力相关的信号(Rousseau et al., 2006), 意味着这些员工往往更有能力完成创造性的工作。第三, 个性化工作协议为员工提供了自主支持的工作环境, 使员工能够尝试对不同工作任务和内涵进行重新组合, 实现创造力的提升(Tierney & Farmer, 2004; Wang & Cheng, 2010)。

基于此, 我们提出:

假设1:个性化工作协议与员工(a)主动性职业行为、(b)创造力正相关。

1.2 个性化工作协议与员工心理需求满足

自我决定理论指出, 能力、自主和关系需求是促进个体认知结构成长的基本要素(Deci & Ryan, 2000), 且信息性的工作环境能促进这三种基本心理需求满足(张剑, 张建兵, 李跃, Deci, 2010), 因而个性化工作协议也应当对员工的三种基本心理需求满足具有促进作用。

首先, 个性化工作协议能增强员工能力需求满足。其一, 个性化工作协议往往以组织对员工的能力和价值判断为前提(Rousseau et al., 2006), 它的达成意味着这些员工与其他同事相比对组织具有更大价值或能够做出更多贡献(Ho & Kong, 2015; Rousseau et al., 2006), 这一与个人能力有关的信号会增强员工能力需求的满足感。其二, 个性化工作协议赋予员工有针对性的任务职责并提供相应的发展指导, 为最大限度发挥员工才能、展示自我提供了支持(Hornung et al., 2010), 这一类鼓励员工不断探索学习的支持性环境能够显著促进员工能力需求的满足(Deci & Ryan, 2000)。

其次, 员工不仅能在个性化工作协议达成当下, 也能在协议达成之后的工作中得到自主需求的满足。一方面, 员工在协议达成的过程中享有较高的自主决定权, 他们通过与组织磋商和谈判来重新设计其工作任务、职业发展和工作灵活性(Rousseau et al., 2006; Hornung et al., 2010), 自主心理需求能够在这一过程中得到满足。另一方面, 从协议的内容, 也就是员工与组织的谈判结果来看, 员工也能够获得更大的工作自主权或灵活性(Rousseau et al., 2006)。

第三, 个性化工作协议也应当能够促进员工关系需求的满足。根据自我决定理论, 他人对自身观点、想法的认同, 以及与他人所建立的亲密关系有助于增强个体关系需求的满足(Deci & Ryan, 2000, 2008)。首先, 个性化的工作安排意味着组织能认可员工的观点和想法, 从而使员工感受到来自组织的尊重(Owens & Hekman, 2012)。其次, 在个性化工作协议的协商过程中, 员工与组织的沟通也进一步增强其与组织的联系, 提高领导-成员交换关系的质量(Anand, 2012), 促进了关系需求的满足。

基于此, 我们提出:

假设2:个性化工作协议与员工(a)能力需求满足、(b)自主需求满足、(c)关系需求满足正相关。

自我决定理论认为, 个体基本心理需求是联接外部环境与个体动机和行为的关键, 信息性的环境能满足个体心理需求、增强内在动机, 进而对其态度和行为产生积极影响(Deci & Ryan, 2000, 2002)。因此, 个性化工作协议作为员工在工作场所中所面临的外部环境之一, 其对员工主动性职业行为以及创造力的影响效用, 也可能通过员工心理需求满足的中介作用实现。

具体而言, 一方面, 当外部工作环境或条件能够满足员工的基本心理需求时, 员工在工作中的内部动机得以提升(Deci & Ryan, 2000), 进而促进工作中的主动性行为(Ohly & Fritz, 2010)。首先, 能力需求的满足可以促进员工职业发展行为。当员工能力需求得到满足时, 他们会自发地在工作上投入更多努力(韩翼, 廖建桥, 龙立荣, 2007), 推动了职业发展活动(刘晋, 黄波, 盛小丰, 王颖, 于晓彤, 2018)。其次, 员工从个性化工作协议中获得的相较于其他同事更大的工作自主权, 使他们感受到组织的信任(Deci & Ryan, 2000), 从而增强工作的使命感和责任感(Ohly & Fritz, 2010), 进一步促进了主动性职业行为。第三, 主管向员工提供的支持(例如与员工商讨确立更适宜员工个人发展的个性化工作协议)也有助于提升员工的内部认同感, 促使其在工作中自觉做出超出期望的行为(Jokisaari & Nurmi, 2009; Nifadkar, Tsui, & Ashforth, 2012), 制定与企业发展相关的职业规划(刘晋等, 2018)。

另一方面, 心理需求满足对员工创造力也具有促进作用。第一, 创造力是以一定的专业知识和技能为基础的(Amabile, 1997), 能力需求的满足能够增强员工创造性开展工作的信心(杨陈, 杨付, 景熠, 唐明凤, 2018)。第二, 自主需求的满足能使员工在工作中感受到更多的自主决定权, 为提升创造力提供更充分的心理资源(Eisenberger & Aselage, 2009)。第三, 关系需求的满足促进了员工工作的沟通, 为创造性想法的实施提供必要的关系基础(Nielsen, Marrone, & Slay, 2010; 杨陈等, 2018)。

综上, 结合假设1和假设2的论述, 我们提出:

假设3:员工(a)能力需求满足、(b)自主需求满足、(c)关系需求满足中介了个性化工作协议对员工主动性职业行为的促进作用。

假设4:员工(a)能力需求满足、(b)自主需求满足、(c)关系需求满足中介了个性化工作协议对员工创造力的促进作用。

1.3 工作负荷的边界效应

根据自我决定理论, 外部环境是影响个体心理需求满足的重要因素, 而具备一定挑战性的工作环境往往更有利于促进个体心理需求的满足(Deci, 1975)。在挑战性的工作情形中, 个体更需要运用个体以及组织赋予的资源以应对这样的压力和挑战, 因而此时工作资源(如个性化工作协议)所发挥的效用也就更大(Bakker, van Veldhoven, & Xanthopoulou, 2010; Seers, McGee, Serey, & Graen, 1983)。具体而言, 工作负荷是个体承担的工作任务, 是个体在工作中需要努力克服, 从而达成目的的挑战性工作压力(LePine, Podsakoff, & LePine, 2005)。当员工面临较低工作负荷时, 他/她即使不动用较多资源也能够应对工作要求, 此时员工所拥有的工作资源对其工作动机、行为的影响相对较弱; 而当员工面临更高的工作负荷, 他/她则需要充分调动所具备的工作资源(如个性化工作协议)以应对挑战, 此时这些工作资源在帮助员工应对工作压力、投入到工作相关的任务中扮演了更重要的角色, 因而对员工工作动机和行为的影响也就更突出。因此, 工作负荷应当强化了个性化工作协议对其心理需求满足的促进作用。基于此, 我们提出:

假设5:工作负荷调节了个性化工作协议与员工心理需求满足的关系:当工作负荷水平更高时, 个性化工作协议对员工(a)能力需求满足、(b)自主需求满足、(c)关系需求满足的促进作用更强。

结合以上假设可见, 个性化工作协议通过促进员工心理需求满足进而提升主动性职业行为和创造力的间接效应也受到不同水平工作负荷的调节。由于员工心理需求满足促进了员工主动性职业行为和创造力, 工作负荷水平也应当调节个性化工作协议通过提升员工心理需求满足, 进而促进员工主动性职业行为和创造力的间接作用。基于此, 我们提出:

假设6:员工(a)能力需求满足、(b)自主需求满足、(c)关系需求满足对个性化工作协议与主动性职业行为的中介作用受到工作负荷的调节:相较于工作负荷较低的情形, 当员工面临更高工作负荷时, 上述中介作用更强。

假设7:员工(a)能力需求满足、(b)自主需求满足、(c)关系需求满足对个性化工作协议与创造力的中介作用受到工作负荷的调节:相较于工作负荷较低的情形, 当员工面临更高工作负荷时, 上述中介作用更强。

本研究所包含的研究假设见图1所示。

图1

图1   本研究理论模型


2 研究方法

2.1 样本及程序

数据采自广州、深圳的服务业和销售业的230对“员工-主管”匹配问卷。受访企业制定有相对灵活的人力资源政策, 员工在一定程度上可以通过与企业商谈获得有别于其他同事的个性化工作任务、培训机会和较为灵活的工作日程安排。调研组事先联系被调研企业人事部门或分管经理, 说明调研目的和取样要求, 进而根据企业提供的人员名单, 以自愿为原则, 开展数据采集工作。为确保数据真实、科学, 调查员在调查开始前, 向参与者说明了问卷的研究用途和保密原则, 并对问卷有关条目进行了解释, 在确认被试理解后, 才开始采集工作。样本中男性96人, 占41.7%, 已婚102人, 占44.3%。被试平均年龄为28.3岁(SD = 6.17), 平均受教育年数为15.9年(SD = 1.26), 在现单位平均工作年限为3.76年(SD = 3.62)。

数据采集分三次进行, 每次间隔为两个月。其中, 个性化工作协议和人口统计学特征在时间1(T1)收集, 工作负荷、能力需求、自主需求和关系需求满足在时间2(T2)收集, 主动性职业行为和创造力在时间3(T3)收集, 收集的变量中除员工创造力由被试员工的主管进行评价, 其余变量由员工汇报。T1发放问卷300份, 回收271份, 剔除无效问卷后(主要剔除关键题项未答问卷, 下同), 得到258份有效问卷。T2收到有效问卷239份, T3收到有效主管问卷40份和匹配的有效员工问卷230份。数据总体回收率为76.7%。独立样本t检验和卡方检验的统计结果表明, 最终样本与流失样本在年龄(t = 1.27, p > 0.05)、性别(χ2 = 0.71, p > 0.05)、个性化工作协议(t = 0.78, p > 0.05)、工作负荷水平(t = -0.69, p > 0.05)、能力需求满足(t = -0.70, p > 0.05)、自主需求满足(t = 0.74, p > 0.05)和主动性职业行为(t = -0.24, p > 0.05)上均无显著差异。

2.2 变量测量

本研究中的变量测量均选自国外成熟量表, 并采用标准的翻译-回译程序将量表翻译为中文。所有量表均采用5点Likert计分, 5表示“非常赞同”, 1表示“非常不赞同”。

个性化工作协议。本研究采用Hornung, Rousseau和Glaser (2008)以及Hornung等学者(2010)开发的量表测量个性化工作协议。该量表共包含12个测量条目, 其中5个条目用于测量基于发展的内容, 3个条目用于测量基于工作灵活的内容, 4个条目用于测量基于工作任务的内容。这一量表也是目前学者们在研究个性化工作协议中常用的成熟量表, 在以往研究中表现出了较好的信度和效度水平(如Anand et al., 2010; Hornung, Rousseau, Glaser, Angerer, & Weigl, 2011; 吕霄, 樊耘, 张婕, 李春晓, 2016)。量表的代表性条目有“我要求并得到灵活的工作日程安排”、“我要求并得到对我来说具有挑战性的工作任务”等。在本研究中, 该变量的ICC (1)为0.29, ICC (2)为0.70, 说明该变量适宜在个体层面上进行统计分析。该量表在本研究中的Cronbach's α系数为0.89。

能力需求满足、自主需求满足和关系需求满足。本研究采用La Guardia, Ryan, Couchman和Deci (2000)开发的量表测量员工的基本心理需求满足水平。其中, 能力需求、自主需求和关系需求满足的测量各包含3个条目。La Guardia等学者(2000)开发的这一量表也被广泛运用于对个体心理需求满足感的测量中, 在国内外研究中均表现出了良好的信度和效度水平(如Weinstein & Ryan, 2010; 杨陈等, 2018)。能力需求满足量表的代表性条目如“在组织中我感觉非常有能力和有效”等; 自主需求满足量表代表性条目如“我能够在工作中自由表达自己的观点和想法”等; 关系需求满足的代表性条目如“在组织中我能够感受到爱和被关心”等。在本研究中, 能力需求满足的组内方差大于组间方差, 自主需求满足的ICC (1)为0.15, ICC (2)为0.50, 关系需求满足的ICC (1)为0.11, ICC (2)为0.41, 说明员工心理需求满足也适宜在个体层面上进行统计分析。能力需求满足量表、自主需求满足量表以及关系需求满足量表在本研究中的Cronbach's α系数分别为0.76, 0.77和0.70。

工作负荷。本研究采用Ilies等学者(2007)开发的量表对员工工作负荷水平进行测量。这一量表共包含9个条目, 是组织行为学领域测量员工工作负荷的成熟量表, 在以往研究中也都体现了良好的信度和效度水平(如Goh, Ilies, & Wilson, 2015; Ilies, Dimotakis, & Pater, 2010)。代表性条目包括“您有大量的工作需要完成吗?”、“您必须快节奏地工作吗?”等。在本研究中, 该变量的ICC (1)为0.37, ICC (2)为0.77, 说明员工的工作负荷也适宜在个体层面上进行统计分析。该量表在本研究中的Cronbach's α系数为0.83。

主动性职业行为。本研究采用Strauss等学者(2012)开发的量表测量员工的主动性职业行为。该量表综合了Claes和Ruiz-Quintanilla (1998)等关于主动性职业行为的测量, 在以往员工主动性职业行为相关的研究中被广泛运用, 也均表现出了良好的信度和效度水平(如Huang & Hsieh, 2015; Taber & Blankemeyer, 2015)。该量表共包含13个条目, 其中4个条目用于测量员工职业计划行为, 3个条目用于测量职业技能培养行为, 3个条目用于测量职业咨询行为, 3个条目用于测量网络行为。该量表中的代表性条目如:“最近我开始更多地考虑未来一两年我的工作要完成什么”、“我正在拓展的一些技能, 尽管现在看起来没那么重要, 但会对我将来的职位派上用场”等。在本研究中, 该变量的ICC (1)为0.07, ICC (2)为0.29, 说明该变量适宜在个体层面上进行统计分析。该量表在本研究中的Cronbach's α系数为0.88。

员工创造力。本研究采用Tierney, Farmer和Graen (1999)开发的量表, 由员工主管对其下属的创造力水平进行评价。该量表是组织行为学领域中用于测量员工创造力的常用成熟量表, 在以往研究中表现出了良好的信度和效度(如, Grant & Berry, 2011; Gumusluoglu & Ilsev, 2009)。该量表共包含9个条目, 代表性条目包括请团队领导评价员工在多大程度上“在工作中展现了原创性”, “在工作中提出了有创意、可操作的想法”等。在本研究中, 该变量的ICC (1)为0.06, ICC (2)为0.27, 说明员工创造力也适宜在个体层面上进行统计分析。该量表在本研究中的Cronbach's α系数为0.87。

控制变量。借鉴以往的研究经验, 本研究把员工的性别、年龄、教育水平、婚姻状况和工作年限作为控制变量(参见Hornung, Rousseau, & Glaser, 2008; Ho & Kong, 2015)。

2.3 验证性因子分析

为了确保研究中各个变量之间具有足够区分度, 我们对研究所涉及的主要变量(个性化工作协议、能力需求满足、自主需求满足、关系需求满足、工作负荷、主动性职业行为、创造力)进行了验证性因子分析。其中, 按照变量量表设计的理论维度, 个性化工作协议包含了3个一阶因子(分别对应基于发展的特殊规定、基于工作灵活性的特殊规定和基于工作任务的特殊规定), 主动性职业行为包含了4个一阶因子(分别对应职业计划行为、职业技能培养行为、职业咨询行为和网络行为)。验证性因子分析结果如表1所示。由表1可见, 与其他模型相比, 本研究所假设的包含2个二阶因子(个性化工作协议、主动性职业行为)和5个一阶因子(能力需求满足、自主需求满足、关系需求满足、工作负荷、创造力)的七因子模型的拟合指数最为理想, 表明本研究中的7个变量有较好的区分效度, 体现了7个不同的构念。

表1   验证性因子分析结果

模型 χ2 df RMSEA CFI Δχ2 Δdf p
七因子模型 1826.18 1246 0.05 0.90 - - -
五因子模型 2036.01 1257 0.05 0.86 209.83 11 0.00
四因子模型 2585.48 1254 0.07 0.77 759.30 8 0.00
三因子模型 3067.51 1267 0.08 0.69 1241.34 21 0.00
二因子模型 4136.25 1273 0.10 0.50 2310.07 27 0.00
单因子模型 4454.18 1274 0.10 0.44 2628.00 28 0.00

注:(1) N = 230; (2) Δχ2由七因子模型和其他备择模型的χ2相减而得; Δdf由七因子模型和其他备择模型的df相减而得; (3)七因子模型:个性化工作协议, 工作负荷, 能力需求满足, 自主需求满足, 关系需求满足, 主动性职业行为, 创造力; 五因子模型:在七因子模型的基础之上, 将能力需求满足、自主需求满足、关系需求满足合并为一个因子; 四因子模型:在七因子模型的基础之上, 将个性化工作协议、能力需求满足、自主需求满足、关系需求满足合并为一个因子; 三因子模型:在七因子模型基础之上, 将个性化工作协议、工作负荷、能力需求满足、自主需求满足、关系需求满足合并为一个因子; 二因子模型:在三因子模型的基础之上, 将主动性职业行为、创造力合并为一个因子; 单因子模型:将个性化工作协议、工作负荷、能力需求满足、自主需求满足、关系需求满足、主动性职业行为、创造力合并为一个因子。

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2.4 模型初步分析

为确定假设检验中是否有必要纳入所获取的全部人口统计学变量(年龄、性别、婚姻状况、工作年限、教育水平), 本研究在正式检验研究假设之前进行了初步的模型检验工作。首先, 在相关分析中, 除了员工的性别与主动性职业行为显著相关、工作年限与自主需求满足显著相关之外, 其他三项控制变量对研究所涉及的被预测变量均无显著相关关系。其次, 我们也通过回归模型, 初步检验了潜在控制变量对所有被预测变量的影响作用。回归分析的结果表明, 员工的性别、工作年限对主动性职业行为有显著影响、员工的工作年限对自主需求满足有显著影响、年龄对创造力有显著影响, 而员工的婚姻状态以及教育水平对研究所涉及的被预测变量均无显著影响。由于在假设检验中剔除不必要的控制变量能够较为有效地避免削弱模型检验的统计效力(Becker, 2005), 因此, 本研究在假设检验的部分, 将员工的年龄、性别、工作年限作纳入为控制变量进行模型估计。

3 研究结果

3.1 描述性统计

本研究所涉及各研究变量的均值、标准差和两两之间的皮尔逊相关系数总结于表2中。由表2可见, 个性化工作协议与能力需求满足正相关(r = 0.21, p < 0.01), 与自主需求满足正相关(r = 0.26, p < 0.01), 与关系需求满足正相关(r = 0.14, p < 0.05), 与主动性职业行为正相关(r = 0.48, p < 0.01), 与创造力正相关(r = 0.25, p < 0.01); 能力需求满足与主动性职业行为正相关(r = 0.35, p < 0.01), 与创造力正相关(r = 0.26, p < 0.01); 自主需求满足与主动性职业行为正相关(r = 0.36, p < 0.01), 与创造力正相关(r = 0.17, p < 0.05); 关系需求满足与主动性职业行为正相关(r = 0.33, p < 0.01), 与创造力正相关(r = 0.19, p < 0.01)。变量之间的相关性分析结果初步支持了本研究所提出的假设。

表2   主要研究变量的平均值、标准差、信度和相关性

变量名称 M SD 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
1 年龄 28.30 6.17 -
2 性别 0.58 0.49 -0.12 -
3 工作年限 3.76 3.62 0.75** -0.07 -
4 个性化工作协议 3.39 0.61 0.00 -0.01 -0.05 (0.89)
5 工作负荷 3.12 0.59 -0.07 -0.09 -0.11 -0.01 (0.83)
6 能力需求满足 3.73 0.49 0.07 -0.08 0.01 0.21** -0.04 (0.76)
7 自主需求满足 3.80 0.52 -0.03 -0.09 -0.14* 0.26** 0.37** 0.55** (0.77)
8 关系需求满足 3.74 0.47 -0.05 0.01 -0.08 0.14* -0.02 0.46** 0.38** (0.70)
9 主动性职业行为 3.67 0.47 -0.04 -0.19** -0.11 0.48** 0.05 0.35** 0.36** 0.33** (0.88)
10 创造力 3.46 0.51 -0.05 0.03 0.04 0.25** -0.13 0.26** 0.17* 0.19** 0.38** (0.89)

注:N = 230; * p < 0.05, **p < 0.01; 表格中对角线上括号内为α信度系数。

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3.2 假设检验数据分析方法

本研究采用Mplus 7.4软件, 通过估计三个独立的模型来分别检验主效应假设、中介效应假设和调节效应假设。在模型一中, 我们在控制了控制变量对中介变量(能力需求满足、自主需求满足、关系需求满足)、因变量(主动性职业行为、创造力)的效应的同时, 估计了个性化工作协议对员工个体能力需求满足、自主需求满足、关系需求满足、主动性职业行为、创造力的影响。

在模型二中, 我们在模型一的基础之上估计了能力需求满足、自主需求满足、关系需求满足分别对主动性职业行为、创造力的影响。根据模型二的回归系数估计结果, 我们通过计算bootstrap置信区间(5000次抽样)的方式来估计个性化工作协议通过能力需求满足/自主需求满足/关系需求满足对员工主动性职业行为/创造力产生作用的显著性。

在模型三中, 我们在模型二的基础之上加入中心化之后的自变量(个性化工作协议)与调节变量(工作负荷)的交互项作为中介变量(能力需求满足、自主需求满足、关系需求满足)和因变量(主动性职业行为、创造力)的预测项, 并同样通过计算bootstrap置信区间(5000次抽样)的方式检验了工作负荷对理论模型中所涉及的中介机制的调节作用。另外, 在检验工作负荷的调节效应中, 本研究也依据Cohen, Cohen, West和Aiken (2003)的推荐, 依据不同程度的工作负荷水平(+1/-1 SD)进行了作图分析(见Cohen et al., 2003)。

3.3 假设检验结果

本研究用Mplus 7.4估计理论模型中各变量之间的非标准化系数, 并将结果总结于表3表4表5中。由表3中模型一可见, 个性化工作协议显著促进了员工的主动性职业行为(B = 0.36, p < 0.01)和创造力(B = 0.22, p < 0.01)。因此, 研究提出的假设1a与假设1b得到了数据支持。另外, 由表4中模型二可见, 个性化工作协议对能力需求满足有显著的正向作用(B = 0.16, p < 0.01), 对自主需求满足有显著的正向作用(B = 0.21, p < 0.01), 对关系需求满足也有显著的正向作用(B = 0.10, p < 0.05)。因此, 假设2a、假设2b与假设2c均得到了数据支持。

表3   个性化工作协议对员工心理需求满足、主动性职业行为、创造力的回归分析结果

变量 模型一
能力需求满足 自主需求满足 关系需求满足 主动性职业行为 创造力
估计值 标准误 估计值 标准误 估计值 标准误 估计值 标准误 估计值 标准误
年龄 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.01 -0.02* 0.01
性别 -0.07 0.06 -0.09 0.07 0.00 0.06 -0.18** 0.05 0.02 0.07
工作年限 -0.01 0.01 -0.04* 0.01 -0.01 0.01 -0.02 0.01 0.03* 0.01
个性化工作协议 0.16** 0.05 0.21** 0.05 0.10* 0.05 0.36** 0.04 0.22** 0.05
R2 0.06 0.10 0.02 0.27 0.10

注:N = 230; * p < 0.05, **p < 0.01.

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表4   个性化工作协议、员工需求满足对主动性职业行为、创造力的回归分析结果

变量 模型二
能力需求满足 自主需求满足 关系需求满足 主动性职业行为 创造力
估计值 标准误 估计值 标准误 估计值 标准误 估计值 标准误 估计值 标准误
年龄 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.01 -0.02* 0.01
性别 -0.07 0.06 -0.09 0.07 0.00 0.06 -0.16** 0.05 0.04 0.06
工作年限 -0.01 0.01 -0.04* 0.01 -0.01 0.01 -0.01 0.01 0.03* 0.01
个性化工作协议 0.16** 0.05 0.21** 0.05 0.10* 0.05 0.31** 0.04 0.17** 0.05
能力需求满足 0.15** 0.04 0.22** 0.08
自主需求满足 0.08 0.06 0.00 0.07
关系需求满足 0.15** 0.04 0.06 0.07
R2 0.06 0.10 0.02 0.34 0.14

注:N = 230; * p < 0.05, **p < 0.01

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表5   工作负荷在个性化工作协议、员工心理需求满足、主动性职业行为、创造力关系间的调节效应分析

变量 模型三
能力需求满足 自主需求满足 关系需求满足 主动性职业行为 创造力
估计值 标准误 估计值 标准误 估计值 标准误 估计值 标准误 估计值 标准误
年龄 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.01 -0.02* 0.01
性别 -0.06 0.06 -0.05 0.06 0.00 0.06 -0.16** 0.05 0.03 0.06
工作年限 -0.01 0.01 -0.03* 0.01 -0.01 0.01 -0.01 0.01 0.03* 0.01
个性化工作协议 0.19** 0.05 0.24** 0.05 0.09 0.05 0.29** 0.04 0.16** 0.05
能力需求满足 0.15** 0.04 0.18* 0.08
自主需求满足 0.09 0.07 0.08 0.08
关系需求满足 0.15** 0.04 0.05 0.08
工作负荷 -0.06 0.05 0.30** 0.05 -0.01 0.05 0.01 0.05 -0.12 0.06
个性化工作协议×
工作负荷
0.22** 0.07 0.18* 0.07 -0.05 0.07 -0.08 0.06 -0.03 0.08
R2 0.10 0.25 0.03 0.34 0.14

注:N = 230; * p < 0.05, **p < 0.01.

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本研究通过计算5000次bootstrap置信区间来检验所提出的中介假设。数据分析结果表明, 个性化工作协议通过促进能力需求满足, 进而提升员工主动性职业行为的间接效应为0.025, 95%的bootstrap置信区间为[0.008, 0.051], 不包含零, 中介效应显著; 个性化协议通过促进能力需求满足, 进而提升员工创造力的间接效应为0.036, 95%的bootstrap置信区间为[0.009, 0.083], 不包含零, 中介效应显著。因此假设3a与假设4a均得到了数据支持。

此外, 个性化工作协议通过促进自主需求满足, 进而提升员工影响主动性职业行为的间接效应为0.016, 95%的bootstrap置信区间为[-0.009, 0.050], 包含零, 中介效应不显著; 个性化工作协议通过促进自主需求满足, 进而提升员工创造力的中间接效应为0.000, 95%的bootstrap置信区间为[-0.036, 0.032], 也包含零, 中介效应不显著。说明假设3b与假设4b均没有得到数据支持。

另外, 个性化工作协议通过促进关系需求满足, 进而提升员工主动性职业行为的间接效应为0.015, 95%的bootstrap置信区间为[0.000, 0.039], 尽管不包含零, 但间接效应较微弱; 个性化工作协议通过促进关系需求满足, 进而提升员工创造力的中间接效应为0.006, 95%的bootstrap置信区间为[-0.007, 0.038], 也包含零, 中介效应不显著。因而假设3c与假设4c均没有得到数据支持。

表5中的模型三所示, 工作负荷显著调节了个性化工作协议对能力需求满足的影响(B = 0.22, p < 0.01), 以及个性化工作协议对自主需求满足的影响(B = 0.18, p < 0.05), 但工作负荷水平没有显著影响个性化工作协议对关系需求满足的作用(B = -0.05, p > 0.05)。参照Cohen等学者(2003)的建议, 本研究将工作负荷的调节作用展示在图2图3 中。由图2可见, 当工作负荷较低(-1 SD)时, 个性化工作协议对能力需求满足的作用不显著(B = 0.06, p >0.05); 当工作负荷较高(+1 SD)时, 个性化工作协议对能力需求的作用显著为正(B = 0.32, p < 0.01)。由图3可见, 当工作负荷较低(-1 SD)时, 个性化工作协议对自主需求满足的作用较弱(B = 0.13, p < 0.05), 当工作负荷较高(+1 SD)时, 个性化工作协议对自主需求满足的作用较强(B = 0.35, p < 0.01)。因此, 本研究提出的假设5a和假设5b均得到了数据支持, 而假设5c则没有得到数据支持。

图2

图2   工作负荷对“个性化工作协议-能力需求满足”关系的调节作用

注:N = 230; 当工作负荷较低时, 斜率为0.06, p > 0.05; 当工作负荷较高时, 斜率为0.32, p < 0.01


图3

图3   工作负荷对“个性化工作协议-自主需求满足”关系的调节作用

注:N = 230; 当工作负荷较低时, 斜率为0.13, p < 0.05; 当工作负荷较高时, 斜率为0.35, p < 0.01


本研究也通过计算bootstrap置信区间, 检验所提出的被调节的中介假设。5000次bootstrap置信区间结果表明, 首先, 工作负荷显著调节了个性化工作协议通过能力需求满足对主动性职业行为的影响(B = 0.033, 95% CI = [0.008, 0.077])。具体而言, 当工作负荷水平较低(-1 SD)时, 个性化工作协议通过能力需求满足促进员工主动性职业行为的间接影响为0.009, 95% CI = [-0.010, 0.037], 包含零, 中介效应不显著; 当工作负荷水平较高(+1 SD)时, 该间接效应为0.049, 95% CI = [0.020, 0.095], 不包含零, 中介效应显著; 二者之间的差异为0.039, 95% CI = [0.009, 0.091], 不包含零, 差异显著。因此, 假设6a得到了数据支持。

数据分析结果表明, 工作负荷也显著调节了个性化工作协议通过能力需求满足, 影响员工创造力的中介机制(B = 0.039, 95% CI = [0.003, 0.0103])。当工作负荷水平较低(-1 SD)时, 个性化工作协议通过能力需求满足促进员工创造力的间接影响为0.011, 95% CI = [-0.008, 0.052], 包含零, 中介效应不显著; 当工作负荷水平较高(+1 SD)时, 该间接效应为0.057, 95% CI = [0.007, 0.129], 不包含零, 中介效应显著; 二者之间的差异为0.046, 95% CI = [0.003, 0.121], 不包含零, 差异显著。因此, 假设7a也得到了数据支持。

同样通过计算bootstrap置信区间, 我们也检验了工作负荷对个性化工作协议通过自主需求满足, 影响员工主动性职业行为/创造力的中介机制的调节作用。一方面, 工作负荷不能显著调节个性化工作协议通过自主需求满足对主动性职业行为的影响(B = 0.016, 95% CI = [-0.005, 0.053])。另一方面, 工作负荷也不能显著调节个性化工作协议通过自主需求满足对创造力产生的间接影响(B = 0.015, 95% CI = [-0.013, 0.058])。因此, 假设6b和假设7b都没有得到数据支持。

此外, 工作负荷也没有显著调节个性化工作协议通过关系需求满足, 间接影响员工主动性职业行为(B = -0.008, 95% CI = [-0.054, 0.020]; 工作负荷也不能显著调节个性化工作协议通过关系需求满足, 间接影响员工的创造力(B = -0.003, 95% CI = [-0.051, 0.011])。因此, 假设6c与假设7c也没有得到数据支持。

4 讨论与结论

本文基于自我决定理论探讨个性化工作协议对员工主动性职业行为和创造力的作用机制。研究发现:个性化工作协议增强了员工三种基本心理需求满足(即能力、自主和关系需求满足), 也直接促进了主动性职业行为和创造力; 其中, 能力需求满足中介了个性化工作协议对员工主动性职业行为和创造力的影响; 工作负荷不仅正向调节个性化工作协议与员工能力需求/自主需求满足之间的关系, 还正向调节了个性化工作协议通过提升能力需求满足, 进而提升员工主动性职业行为和创造力的中介效应。研究结果为个性化工作协议与员工主动性职业行为和创造力的研究提供了一定的理论与实践启示。

4.1 理论贡献

本研究的理论贡献主要体现在以下三个方面:

首先, 本研究从自我决定理论视角对个性化工作协议的效应进行拓展, 探讨了个性化工作协议对员工心理需求满足, 及其通过心理需求满足进而提升员工主动性职业行为和创造力的间接影响, 回应了Liao等学者(2016)提出的“探究个性化工作协议接受者基于社会交换之外的其他动机”的呼吁, 为有关个性化工作协议的理论研究提供了新的视角。数据分析结果表明, 个性化工作协议对员工三种基本心理需求满足均存在显著的预测力, 且能力需求满足中介了个性化工作协议对员工主动性职业行为和创造力的促进作用。由此, 本研究结果支持了将个性化工作协议界定为信息性外部环境的理论假说, 为自我决定理论在个性化工作协议研究中的适用性提供支持。

其次, 本研究进一步丰富了对个性化工作协议结果变量的探讨。本研究的数据分析结果表明, 个性化工作协议可以有效促进员工主动性职业行为和创造力, 尤其当工作负荷较高时, 个性化工作协议通过满足员工能力需求进而促进主动性职业行为和创造力的作用更加显著。这一研究结果不仅拓展了对个性化工作协议结果变量的研究, 也丰富了主动性职业行为和创造力的前因及边界条件研究。具体而言, 区别于以往主要基于社会交换的理论框架对组织更为关注的以个体对组织目标的遵循和需要个体进行调整适应为主的回馈行为的探讨(如, 组织承诺, Hornung et al., 2008), 本研究着重于从自我决定理论视角将员工与组织协商达成的个性化工作安排与员工的主动性职业行为和创造力相联系起来, 研究结果进一步丰富和拓展了个性化工作协议领域的相关理论知识。

最后, 本研究更深入地挖掘和探讨了个体所处工作环境中不同环境特征的交互作用对个体心理需求满足及其行为表现的影响。具体而言, 组织与员工所协商制定的个性化工作协议作为增强员工参与和决策的信息性环境(Deci & Ryan, 2000, 2002; 张剑等, 2010), 是员工在工作中能够用以应对工作压力和挑战的关键工作资源, 本研究结果说明这一关键工作资源的作用在员工面临更高水平的工作挑战, 即面临更高水平的工作负荷时, 能够更大程度地发挥其效用。因此, 通过关注员工所面临的外部环境中所包含的工作资源与工作压力两方面的特征, 本研究也进一步拓展了自我决定理论的内涵, 为自我决定理论中针对于外部环境的探讨提供了更细腻深入的理论思路, 为Deci (1975)提出的挑战性工作环境进一步强化个体心理需求满足感的理论假说提供了实证支持。

4.2 实践启示

本研究具有一定的实践意义。一方面, 从个性化协议的作用效果和机制来看, 在当代组织管理和工作资源配置上, 通过科学合理的工作设计(如个性化工作协议), 赋予员工个性化的任务职责、培训提升和适度的自主权, 对满足员工的基本心理需求、激励员工自我提升和创新行为具有重要意义。另一方面, 从工作负荷的调节效应来看, 组织应科学认识和善于运用压力因素, 化解压力的消极性影响, 促进工作资源、信息性环境作用的发挥。

4.3 研究不足与展望

首先, 本研究结果显示, 个性化工作协议虽然增强了个体三种基本心理需求满足, 但自主和关系需求满足的中介作用并未得到数据支持。这可能与研究对象的特征, 所处的工作环境、文化和社会背景等因素有关(Ryan & Deci, 2000)。Ryan和Deci (2000)指出, 基本心理需求理论具有跨情境性和跨文化性, 不同环境、文化背景, 以及研究对象的特征对该理论的应用均有一定影响, 相关研究结论也会存在差异。例如, Reinboth和Duda (2006)的研究显示, 在竞技性的工作情形中关系需求的满足不影响个体的行为倾向。我国学者杨陈等(2018)的研究也表明, 谦卑型领导通过增强员工能力需求满足促进任务绩效, 但关系和自主需求满足对任务绩效的提升没有影响。

具体在本研究中, 首先, 我们的研究样本选自中国, 受东方文化的影响, 被试对于“自主”一类的西方观念可能并不十分看重, 因而自主需求的满足对员工工作行为的促进作用受到一定程度的限制。其次, 追求工作自主性的员工也可能更多地寻求诸如工作-生活的平衡, 在工作上未必会投入更大努力(Hornung et al., 2008)。第三, 以往研究表明, 在竞争性环境中, 个体对有价值的信息反馈或激励感知更为敏感, 相较于自主和关系需求满足, 能力需求满足对个体内在激励的作用更强(Reinboth & Duda, 2006)。因此, 未来研究可以考虑在本研究的基础上, 通过收集来自不同工作背景和社会环境的样本, 或是通过探讨个性化工作协议的其他结果变量来进一步丰富有关个性化工作协议的理论知识。

第二, 本研究重点关注了组织为员工提供的外部工作环境(即组织与员工谈判制定的个性化工作协议, 以及工作负荷水平)对员工心理需求和工作行为的影响, 尚缺乏针对员工个体因素在这一作用过程中的探讨。考虑到个体与其所处环境的适应性(P-E fit)也是影响员工工作态度和行为的重要因素(Kristof-Brown, Zimmerman, & Johnson, 2005), 个体水平上的人格特征、价值观等可能影响其对信息性环境和工作特征的反应(Parker, Jimmieson, & Amiot, 2010, 2013)。因此, 未来研究可以考虑在本研究的基础上, 将员工个体特征(如主动性人格、自我效能感等)纳入讨论, 更深入地探讨个性化工作协议对不同个体的适用性。

最后, 本研究将个性化工作协议作为一个统一变量, 来探讨其对员工工作行为的作用、机制和边界条件。然而个性化工作协议是包含了不同内容的多维度构念, 不同维度可能对员工行为产生不同影响或存在迥异的作用机制。因此, 未来研究可以进一步探讨个性化工作协议不同维度对员工的作用, 以更进一步地拓展个性化工作协议的理论知识。

4.4 研究结论

本研究在自我决定理论框架下探讨个性化工作协议对员工心理需求满足、主动性职业行为和创造力的影响及其边界条件。研究结果表明, 个性化工作协议作为一种信息性外部环境和重要的工作资源增强了员工的能力、自主和关系需求满足, 促进了主动性职业行为和创造力; 相较于工作负荷较低的情形而言, 当员工面临更高工作负荷时, 个性化工作协议对员工心理需求满足(即能力需求满足和自主需求满足)的促进作用更强, 个性化工作协议通过增强员工能力需求满足, 进而促进主动性职业行为和创造力的间接作用也更强。

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Ilies R., Schwind K. M., Wagner D. T., Johnson M. D., Derue D. S., & Ilgen D. R . ( 2007).

When can employees have a family life? the effects of daily workload and affect on work-family conflict and social behaviors at home

Journal of Applied Psychology, 92( 5), 1368-1379.

URL     PMID:17845091      [本文引用: 1]

This article presents a longitudinal examination of antecedents and outcomes of work-to-family conflict. A total of 106 employees participating in an experience-sampling study were asked to respond to daily surveys both at work and at home, and their spouses were interviewed daily via telephone for a period of 2 weeks. Intraindividual analyses revealed that employees' perceptions of workload predicted work-to-family conflict over time, even when controlling for the number of hours spent at work. Workload also influenced affect at work, which in turn influenced affect at home. Finally, perhaps the most interesting finding in this study was that employees' behaviors in the family domain (reported by spouses) were predicted by the employees' perceptions of work-to-family conflict and their positive affect at home.

Jokisaari M., & Nurmi J. E . ( 2009).

Change in newcomers' supervisor support and socialization outcomes after organizational entry

Academy of Management Journal, 52( 3), 527-544.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Kristof-Brown A. L., Zimmerman R. D., & Johnson E. C . ( 2005).

Consequences of individuals’ fit at work: A meta-analysis of person-job, person-organization, person- group, and person-supervisor fit

Personnel Psychology, 58( 2), 281-342.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

La Guardia J. G., Ryan R. M., Couchman C. E., & Deci E. L . ( 2000).

Within-person variation in security of attachment: A self-determination theory perspective on attachment, need fulfillment, and well-being

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79( 3), 367-384.

URL     PMID:10981840      [本文引用: 2]

Attachment research has traditionally focused on individual differences in global patterns of attachment to important others. The current research instead focuses primarily on within-person variability in attachments across relational partners. It was predicted that within-person variability would be substantial, even among primary attachment figures of mother, father, romantic partner, and best friend. The prediction was supported in three studies. Furthermore, in line with self-determination theory, multilevel modeling and regression analyses showed that, at the relationship level, individuals' experience of fulfillment of the basic needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness positively predicted overall attachment security, model of self, and model of other. Relations of both attachment and need satisfaction to well-being were also explored.

LePine J. A., Podsakoff N. P., & LePine M. A . ( 2005).

A meta-analytic test of the challenge stressor-hindrance stressor framework: An explanation for inconsistent relationships among stressors and performance

Academy of Management Journal, 48( 5), 764-775.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Liao C., Wayne S. J., & Rousseau D. M . ( 2016).

Idiosyncratic deals in contemporary organizations: A qualitative and meta-analytical review

Journal of Organizational Behavior, 37( S1), S9-S29.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

Liu J., Huang B., Sheng X. F., Wang Y., & Yu X. T . ( 2018).

Employee's proactive career behaviors: The new path for transcending career boundary

Human Resource Development of China, 35( 2), 129-140.

[本文引用: 2]

[ 刘晋, 黄波, 盛小丰, 王颖, 于晓彤 . ( 2018).

跨越职业边界的新途径: 员工的主动职业行为

中国人力资源开发, 35( 2), 129-140.]

[本文引用: 2]

Lv X., Fan Y., Zhang J., & Li C. X . ( 2016).

How proactive personality effects on in-role performance: The influence of idiosyncratic deals and individual innovation behavior

Science of Science and Management, 37( 8), 170-180.

[本文引用: 1]

[ 吕霄, 樊耘, 张婕, 李春晓 . ( 2016).

前摄型人格对角色内绩效的影响: 个性化交易和员工创新行为的作用

科学学与科学技术管理, 37( 8), 170-180.]

[本文引用: 1]

Nielsen R., Marrone J. A., & Slay H. S . ( 2010).

A new look at humility: Exploring the humility concept and its role in socialized charismatic leadership

Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 17( 1), 33-43.

URL     PMID:31901068      [本文引用: 1]

The exponential rise in healthcare costs in developed nations has sharpened the need for greater &amp;quot;value&amp;quot; in healthcare. Porter's (2010) seminal work is one of the most cited definitions and equation for value-based care. The pursuit of greater value in our healthcare system is of paramount importance, yet translating value-based healthcare (VBHC) into a framework that can be effectively utilized in the Canadian system remains a challenge. To address this challenge, we propose that VBHC can be adapted to fit the Canadian healthcare system through (1) visionary leadership for and conceptualization of VBHC at the federal government level and (2) thoughtful application of VBHC at the provincial government level. Our applied value in healthcare framework serves as a platform from which VBHC initiatives, programs and outcome measures can be systematically organized and executed within provincial healthcare systems. This methodical approach could support both provincial ministries and their health systems in pursuit of VBHC and provide the basis for explicit measurement of VBHC success, thereby helping to address the pressing issue of sustainability of the Canadian healthcare system while optimizing patient-centred outcomes of care.

Nifadkar S., Tsui A. S., & Ashforth B. E . ( 2012).

The way you make me feel and behave: Supervisor-triggered newcomer affect and approach-avoidance behavior

Academy of Management Journal, 55( 5), 1146-1168.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

We examine how supervisor-triggered newcomer affect may link supervisor behaviors with newcomer adjustment and performance. Using emotion as feedback system theory and the approach-avoidance framework, we investigate the influence of newcomers' accumulated supervisor-directed affect on their outcomes. We develop scales to measure the proposed construct, supervisor-triggered newcomer affect, using multicompany samples and test the hypothesized model using longitudinal, multisource data from an Indian information technology company. Results indicate that supervisor-triggered newcomer affect plays an important role in the process of newcomer adjustment. This study contributes to research on newcomer adjustment and the longer-term role of target-specific affect in the context of supervisor-subordinate relationships.

Ohly S., & Fritz C . ( 2010).

Work characteristics, challenge appraisal, creativity, and proactive behavior: A multi-level study

Journal of Organizational Behavior, 31( 4), 543-565.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

Owens B. P., & Hekman D. R . ( 2012).

Modeling how to grow: An inductive examination of humble leader behaviors, contingencies, and outcomes

Academy of Management Journal, 55( 4), 787-818.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

Although a growing number of leadership writers argue leader humility is important to organizational effectiveness, little is known about the construct, why some leaders behave more humbly than others, what these behaviors lead to, or what factors moderate the effectiveness of these behaviors. Drawing from 55 in-depth interviews with leaders from a wide variety of contexts, we develop a model of the behaviors, outcomes, and contingencies of humble leadership. We uncover that leader humility involves leaders modeling to followers how to grow and produces positive organizational outcomes by leading followers to believe that their own developmental journeys and feelings of uncertainty are legitimate in the workplace. We discuss how the emergent humility in leadership model informs a broad range of leadership issues, including organizational development and change, the evolution of leader-follower relationships, new pathways for engaging followers, and integrating top-down and bottom-up organizing.

Parker S. L., Jimmieson N. L., & Amiot C. E . ( 2010).

Self-determination as a moderator of demands and control: Implications for employee strain and engagement

Journal of Vocational Behavior, 76( 1), 52-67.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Abstract

Does job control act as a stress-buffer when employees’ type and level of work self-determination is taken into account? It was anticipated that job control would only be stress-buffering for employees high in self-determined and low in non-self-determined work motivation. In contrast, job control would be stress-exacerbating for employees who were low in self-determined and high in non-self-determined work motivation. Employees of a health insurance organization (N = 123) completed a survey on perceptions of role overload, job control, work self-determination, and a range of strain and engagement indicators. Results revealed that, when individuals high in self-determination perceived high job control, they experienced greater engagement (in the form of dedication to their work). In addition, when individuals high in non-self-determination perceived high job demands, they experienced more health complaints. A significant 3-way interaction demonstrated that, for individuals low in non-self-determination, high job control had the anticipated stress-buffering effect on engagement (in the form of absorption in their work). In addition, low job control was stress-exacerbating. However, contrary to expectations, for those high in non-self-determination, high job control was just as useful as low job control as a stress-buffer. The practical applications of these findings to the organizational context are discussed.

Parker S. L., Jimmieson N. L., & Amiot C. E . ( 2013).

Self-determination, control, and reactions to changes in workload: A work simulation

Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 18( 2), 173-190.

URL     PMID:23458059      [本文引用: 1]

The objective of this experimental study is to capture the dynamic temporal processes that occur in changing work settings and to test how work control and individuals' motivational predispositions interact to predict reactions to these changes. To this aim, we examine the moderating effects of global self-determined and non-self-determined motivation, at different levels of work control, on participants' adaptation and stress reactivity to changes in workload during four trials of an inbox activity. Workload was increased or decreased at Trial 3, and adaptation to this change was examined via fluctuations in anxiety, coping, motivation, and performance. In support of the hypotheses, results revealed that, for non-self-determined individuals, low work control was stress-buffering and high work control was stress-exacerbating when predicting anxiety and intrinsic motivation. In contrast, for self-determined individuals, high work control facilitated the adaptive use of planning coping in response to a change in workload. Overall, this pattern of results demonstrates that, while high work control was anxiety-provoking and demotivating for non-self-determined individuals, self-determined individuals used high work control to implement an adaptive antecedent-focused emotion regulation strategy (i.e., planning coping) to meet situational demands. Other interactive effects of global motivation emerged on anxiety, active coping, and task performance. These results and their practical implications are discussed.

Reinboth M., & Duda J. L . ( 2006).

Perceived motivational climate, need satisfaction and indices of well-being in team sports: A longitudinal perspective

Psychology of Sport & Exercise, 7( 3), 269-286.

URL     PMID:31900043      [本文引用: 2]

Goal-setting is a widely used and accepted strategy for promoting physical activity. Locke and Latham's goal-setting theory is the primary theoretical framework for setting goals in psychology and plays a prominent role in physical activity promotion. Recently, however, there have been calls to reconsider current goal-setting practice in this field. Therefore, we aimed to critically review and update the application of goal-setting theory in physical activity promotion, by examining core developments in this theory since 1990. Current practice relies on setting specific 'performance' goals as a means of increasing physical activity (e.g., 10,000 steps; national physical activity guidelines). This approach was initially consistent with key tenets of goal-setting theory. However, since 1990 this theory has evolved to differentiate between performance and learning goals. Both goal types are context-dependent and it is now recognised that, in some cases, performance goals can even be detrimental to the achievement of desired outcomes. Consequently, current practice may be theoretically appropriate for physically active individuals but a different approach (e.g., learning goals) may be preferable for inactive individuals who are new to physical activity (i.e., most of the population). We conclude by discussing implications for policy, research, and practice in goal-setting for physical activity promotion.

Rousseau D. M., Ho V. T., & Greenberg J . ( 2006).

I-deals: Idiosyncratic terms in employment relationships

Academy of Management Review, 31( 4), 977-994.

URL     [本文引用: 8]

Ryan R. M., & Deci E. L . ( 2000).

When rewards compete with nature: The undermining of intrinsic motivation and self-regulation

Intrinsic & Extrinsic Motivation, 13-54.

URL     PMID:31901139      [本文引用: 2]

Geographic range size has long fascinated ecologists and evolutionary biologists, yet our understanding of the factors that cause variation in range size among species and across space remains limited. Not only does geographic range size inform decisions about the conservation and management of rare and nonindigenous species due to its relationship with extinction risk, rarity, and invasiveness, but it also provides insights into fundamental processes such as dispersal and adaptation. There are several features unique to plants (e.g., polyploidy, mating system, sessile habit) that may lead to distinct mechanisms explaining variation in range size. Here, we highlight key studies testing intrinsic and extrinsic hypotheses about geographic range size under contrasting scenarios where species' ranges are static or change over time. We then present results from a meta-analysis of the relative importance of commonly hypothesized determinants of range size in plants. We show that our ability to infer the relative importance of these determinants is limited, particularly for dispersal ability, mating system, ploidy, and environmental heterogeneity. We highlight avenues for future research that merges approaches from macroecology and evolutionary ecology to better understand how adaptation and dispersal interact to facilitate niche evolution and range expansion.

Seers A., McGee G. W., Serey T. T., & Graen G. B . ( 1983).

The interaction of job stress and social support: A strong inference investigation

Academy of Management Journal, 26( 2), 273-284.

[本文引用: 1]

Strauss K., Griffin M. A., & Parker S. K . ( 2012).

Future work selves: How salient hoped-for identities motivate proactive career behaviors

The Journal of Applied Psychology, 97( 3), 580-598.

URL     PMID:22122111      [本文引用: 3]

The term future work self refers to an individual's representation of himself or herself in the future that reflects his or her hopes and aspirations in relation to work. The clearer and more accessible this representation, the more salient the future work self. An initial study with 2 samples (N = 397; N = 103) showed that future work self salience was distinct from established career concepts and positively related to individuals' proactive career behavior. A follow-up longitudinal analysis, Study 2 (N = 53), demonstrated that future work self salience had a lagged effect on proactive career behavior. In Study 3 (N = 233), we considered the role of elaboration, a further attribute of a future work self, and showed that elaboration motivated proactive career behavior only when future work self salience was also high. Together the studies suggest the power of future work selves as a motivational resource for proactive career behavior.

Taber B. J., & Blankemeyer M . ( 2015).

Future work self and career adaptability in the prediction of proactive career behaviors

Journal of Vocational Behavior, 86, 20-27.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Tierney P., Farmer S. M., & Graen G. B . ( 1999).

An examination of leadership and employee creativity: The relevance of traits and relationships

Personnel psychology, 52( 3), 591-620.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Tierney P., & Farmer S. M . ( 2004).

The pygmalion process and employee creativity

Journal of Management, 30( 3), 413-432.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Abstract

The study examined the Pygmalion process for creativity among 140 R&D employees. Results generally supported the Pygmalion model. Supervisors holding higher expectations for employee creativity were perceived by employees as behaving more supportively of creativity. The effects of these behaviors on employee creative self-efficacy were mediated by employee view of creativity expectations. Creative self-efficacy mediated the effects of supervisor expectations, supervisor behaviors, and employee view, on creative performance. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

Wang A. C., & Cheng B. S . ( 2010).

When does benevolent leadership lead to creativity? The moderating role of creative role identity and job autonomy

Journal of Organizational Behavior, 31( 1), 106-121.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Weinstein N., & Ryan R. M . ( 2010).

When helping helps: Autonomous motivation for prosocial behavior and its influence on well-being for the helper and recipient

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 98( 2), 222-244.

URL     PMID:20085397      [本文引用: 1]

Self-determination theory posits that the degree to which a prosocial act is volitional or autonomous predicts its effect on well-being and that psychological need satisfaction mediates this relation. Four studies tested the impact of autonomous and controlled motivation for helping others on well-being and explored effects on other outcomes of helping for both helpers and recipients. Study 1 used a diary method to assess daily relations between prosocial behaviors and helper well-being and tested mediating effects of basic psychological need satisfaction. Study 2 examined the effect of choice on motivation and consequences of autonomous versus controlled helping using an experimental design. Study 3 examined the consequences of autonomous versus controlled helping for both helpers and recipients in a dyadic task. Finally, Study 4 manipulated motivation to predict helper and recipient outcomes. Findings support the idea that autonomous motivation for helping yields benefits for both helper and recipient through greater need satisfaction. Limitations and implications are discussed.

Yang C., Yang F., Jing Y., & Tang M. F . ( 2018).

How humble leadership enhances employee performance: The mediating role of psychological need satisfaction and moderating role of work unit structure

Nankai Business Review, 21( 2), 121-134.

[本文引用: 4]

[ 杨陈, 杨付, 景熠, 唐明凤 . ( 2018).

谦卑型领导如何改善员工绩效: 心理需求满足的中介作用和工作单位结构的调节作用

南开管理评论, 21( 2), 121-134.]

[本文引用: 4]

Zhang J., Zhang J. B., Li Y., & Deci E. L . ( 2010).

An effective path for promoting work motivation: The self-determination theory perspective

Advances in Psychological Science, 18( 5), 752-759.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

Self-determination Theory focuses on the motivation of human behaviors and the conditions within organizations that promote optimal motivation. This review discusses the philosophical basis of SDT, which uses organismic and dialectical assumptions. It also summarizes research on work motivation in organizations that has been guided by SDT. The research confirms the SDT perspective which suggests that organizational factors that support satisfaction of employees’ basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence and relatedness will promote intrinsic motivation and the internalization of extrinsic motivation, which will in turn promote effective performance and psychological health in organizations.

[ 张剑, 张建兵, 李跃, Deci E. L . ( 2010).

促进工作动机的有效路径: 自我决定理论的观点

心理科学进展, 18( 5), 752-759.]

URL     [本文引用: 2]

Self-determination Theory focuses on the motivation of human behaviors and the conditions within organizations that promote optimal motivation. This review discusses the philosophical basis of SDT, which uses organismic and dialectical assumptions. It also summarizes research on work motivation in organizations that has been guided by SDT. The research confirms the SDT perspective which suggests that organizational factors that support satisfaction of employees’ basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence and relatedness will promote intrinsic motivation and the internalization of extrinsic motivation, which will in turn promote effective performance and psychological health in organizations.

Zhang M., Ye M. L., Peng J., & Chen Y. S . ( 2016).

Future work self: Concept, measurement and related research

Advances in Psychological Science, 24( 5), 794-803.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Future work self (FWS), a future-oriented concept, refers to representation of the self in the future that reflects individual&rsquo;s hopes and aspirations in relation to work. FWS is the application of possible self in the field of work, and provides us with a new perspective for understanding the motivation of proactive career behaviors. Distinct from occupational possible self, FWS has two critical attributes, i.e., future work self salience (FWSS) and future work self elaboration (FWSE). At present, empirical studies have suggested that self-esteem, proactive personality and career exploration can predict FWS, while FWS can influence proactive career behaviors, job search outcomes, creativity and job performance. Future research should focus on FWS elasticity and accessibility, the predicting effect of cognition, the mediating effect of emotions, the moderating effect of leadership styles and intervention effect.

[ 张敏, 叶茂林, 彭坚, 陈宇帅 . ( 2016).

未来工作自我: 概念、测量及其相关研究

心理科学进展, 24( 5), 794-803.]

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Future work self (FWS), a future-oriented concept, refers to representation of the self in the future that reflects individual&rsquo;s hopes and aspirations in relation to work. FWS is the application of possible self in the field of work, and provides us with a new perspective for understanding the motivation of proactive career behaviors. Distinct from occupational possible self, FWS has two critical attributes, i.e., future work self salience (FWSS) and future work self elaboration (FWSE). At present, empirical studies have suggested that self-esteem, proactive personality and career exploration can predict FWS, while FWS can influence proactive career behaviors, job search outcomes, creativity and job performance. Future research should focus on FWS elasticity and accessibility, the predicting effect of cognition, the mediating effect of emotions, the moderating effect of leadership styles and intervention effect.

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