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  • Table of Content
       , Volume 48 Issue 1 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    The influence of parafoveal processing of character N+2 on saccade targeting in Chinese reading
    WANG Yongsheng; BAI Xuejun; ZANG Chuanli; GAO Xiaolei; GUO Zhiying; YAN Guoli
    Acta Psychologica Sinica. 2016, 48 (1): 1-11.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2016.00001
    Abstract   PDF (360KB) ( 2153 )

    采用边界范式, 在副中央凹呈现一个双字词或两个单字词, 操纵字N+2的预视(目标预视和假字预视), 来考察副中央凹中词汇特征是否影响读者随后的眼跳长度及注视位置。结果发现, 读者能够获得字N+2的预视; 双字词与两个单字词条件下注视位置没有显著地差异; 当副中央凹中为双字词时, 字N+2为目标预视时随后的眼跳长度显著地长于假字预视条件, 随后的注视位置距离词首更远; 当副中央凹中为两个单字词时, 两种预视条件下随后的眼跳长度及注视位置没有显著的差异。本研究结果提示:在汉语阅读中, 读者能够对字N+2进行预视加工, 这种加工的影响只发生在当副中央凹中为双字词时。

    Electrophysiological evidence for memory-based attentional capture and memory-based attentional rejection effects
    HU Yanmei; ZHANG Ming
    Acta Psychologica Sinica. 2016, 48 (1): 12-21.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2016.00012
    Abstract   PDF (888KB) ( 2931 )

     

    Biased competition theory suggests that stimuli matching the contents of visual working memory can always capture attention. However, the tests of this hypothesis failed to product consistent results. Some researches indicated that items matching the contents of visual working memory can automatically capture attention (i.e., memory-based attentional capture). Others argued that the contents of visual working memory are not necessary to capture attention. They can be rejected when they were irrelevant to the goal of the current task (i.e., memory-based attentional rejection). One of the remained questions is that whether or not the memory-based attentional capture effect is obligatory during the early deployments of visual attention, or in other words, whether or not the memory-based attentional rejection effect can be found during the early attentional deployments.
    Present study conducted an ERP experiment to investigate the time course of memory-based attentional guidance. Participants performed a visual search task while concurrently maintaining an item in visual object working memory. The search task included one target and one distractor. In matching trials, the search distractor shared the same color with the memory item. In control trials, neither the search target nor the distractor matched the color of the memory item. Meantime, the proportion of matching trials (20%/50%/80%) was manipulated. Higher proportion of matching trials elicits higher level of cognitive control incentive.
    Behavioural results showed search RTs were faster in matching trials than in control trials when the proportion of matching trials was set to be 50% and 80%, suggesting that items matching the contents of working memory can be rejected. However, no effect of trial type was found on search RTs when the proportion of matching trials was 20%. ERP results firstly revealed N2pc components at approximately 200~300 ms post-stimulus in all three proportion conditions (20%/50%/80%), suggesting the memory-based attentional capture effects. Furthermore, N2pc amplitudes were reduced when the proportion of matching trials increased from 50% to 80%. N2pc latencies were speeded with higher proportion of matching trials. Secondly, the positive difference waves corresponding to the inhibition of the memory-matching item were then observed after N2pc (since approximately 300 ms post-stimulus) in 50% and 80% conditions, suggesting the memory-based attentional rejection effects. Such positive difference waves were enhanced when the proportion of matching trials increased.
    In sum, our results indicate the guidance effect of visual working memory on attention has two phases, i.e., the memory-based attentional capture on the early phase and the memory-based attentional rejection on the later phase. The early memory-based attentional capture effect is involuntary, though the effect-size and time course of it can be varied by the level of cognitive control incentive. The later memory-based attentional rejection effect is voluntary and more in evidence with higher cognitive control incentive.
    The MAOA rs6323 polymorphism interacts with maternal supportive parenting in predicting adolescent depression: Testing the diathesis-stress and differential susceptibility hypotheses
    CAO Cong; WANG Meiping; JI Linqin; WEI Xing; CAO Yanmiao; ZHANG Wenxin
    Acta Psychologica Sinica. 2016, 48 (1): 22-35.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2016.00022
    Abstract   PDF (551KB) ( 1529 )

     

    Depression is among the most prevalent, disabling and costly mental health conditions worldwide. Adolescence is a critical time for studying the vulnerability to depression as there is dramatically increasing risk for its onset during this period. Research has demonstrated that MAOA gene played an important role in the development of depression and maternal parenting was also tightly associated with depression. More importantly, accumulating evidence of gene-parenting interactions has been observed in recent years. However, most of these studies have largely focused on adverse rearing environments such as childhood abuse, and rarely on positive parenting. Moreover, most of them were guided by the diathesis-stress model and “risk alleles” assumption, whereas the genes could be “plasticity” rather than “risk” according to the differential susceptibility model. The present study aimed to examine the interaction between MAOA rs6323 polymorphism and maternal supportive parenting on adolescent depression, and further test these two competing models: diathesis-stress vs. differential susceptibility.
    One thousand and twenty five adolescents (male = 679) from 39 classes of 14 primary schools in Jinan City were followed from grade 6 till to grade 9. Adolescent depression was accessed using Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI), and mothers were asked to report their supportive parenting (including warmth and encouragement of autonomy) via the Chinese version of Child-Rearing Practices Report (CRPR). DNA samples of adolescents were extracted from their saliva to genotype the MAOA rs6323 polymorphism. Statistically, two newly-developed approaches, RoS (regions of significance) method and re-parameterized regression models were used to examine the interaction between rs6323 polymorphism and maternal supportive parenting on adolescent depression and further test the two competing G×E hypotheses. The main findings of the present study were as follows:
    The MAOA rs6323 polymorphism significantly interacted with maternal supportive parenting in predicting adolescent depression, but this interaction was only observed in females. Both maternal warmth and encouragement of autonomy negatively predicted female adolescent depression among carriers of GG homozygotes but not TT homozygotes. Moreover, the indexes in RoS method and re-parameterized regression models both provided strong support for the differential susceptibility hypothesis.
    By elaborating the moderating effect of maternal supportive parenting and gender, the present study enriches the literature of the relation between MAOA gene and adolescent depression and further expands our knowledge about the G×E underpinnings of depression. Also, this study provides additional strong support for the differential susceptibility hypothesis by using RoS and re-parameterized regression methods.
    Perceived ethnic socialization of Jingpo junior high school students
    YIN Keli; BAO Guanghua; QIAN Limei; MA Nishan
    Acta Psychologica Sinica. 2016, 48 (1): 36-47.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2016.00036
    Abstract   PDF (484KB) ( 1596 )

     

    Ethnic socialization is key element of a minority family’s education in a multinational state, and it has an important influence on the ethnic attitude development of adolescents. Perceived ethnic socialization refers to the minority child’s understanding of information, and consists of cultural socialization, preparation for bias, promotion of mistrust, etc. Essentially, this is what their parents transmit to them regarding ethnicity. Research in this field is based on the work of American psychologists, and the methods focus primarily on cross-sectional self-reporting. Few researchers have examined the ethnic socialization of ethnic Chinese minorities through empirical study.
    In study 1, 464 students from the Jingpo minority community in Yunnan Province completed a questionnaire that illuminated a perceived ethnic socialization scale (Chinese revision). Another 159 junior high school students took part in an open-ended questions survey to collect conflicting stories and biases. Study 2 was a situation-experiment designed to simulate conflict contexts with bias or non-bias between Jingpo students and Dai students, and explored ethnic socialization message-transmission after experiencing contextual simulation for 335 Jingpo junior high school students. Experiment 3 examined ethnic socialization messages by using story completion tasks, and was completed by 119 Jingpo junior high school students.
    Results indicated that Jingpo junior high students perceived four types of ethnic socialization messages: cultural socialization, promotion of mistrust, preparation for bias and the promotion of harmony (which is significantly different). As a percentage, “promotion of harmony” was reported as significantly higher than “cultural socialization” and “preparation for bias”; the least reported was “promotion of mistrust”. There was a significant difference evident between simulating contexts with bias versus non-biased clues in preparation for bias. Genders also tested differently: girls reported more information about “promotion of harmony”, and boys “preparation of bias”. The neighborhood’s ethnic composition seemed to show no significant difference.
    Cultural differences exist in adolescent ethnic socialization and, in contrast to American’s ethnic minority youths perception that their mothers lay particular stress on the “transmission of cultural socialization and preparation for bias”, Jingpo junior high school students perceive their mothers as putting particular stress on the “promotion of harmony”.
    Relationship between working through information and communication technologies after hours and well-being among Chinese dual-earner couples:  A spillover-crossover perspective
    MA Hongyu; XIE Julan; TANG Hanying; SHEN Chuangang; ZHANG Xiaoxiang
    Acta Psychologica Sinica. 2016, 48 (1): 48-58.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2016.00048
    Abstract   PDF (666KB) ( 1871 )
    People are working around the clock communicating with one another on the electronic platform even after work. We examined the outcomes of Working through Information and Communication Technologies after Hours (W_ICTs), and attempted to delineate the mechanism of W_ICTs. Findings of previous researches on W_ICTs’ were inconsistent in terms of their impacts on people’s work and life, with some being positive while others being negative. This obscured people’s general perceptions of the possible effects of W_ICTs’, thus challenging our recommendation on the management of W_ICTs. Furthermore, previous studies on the mechanism of W_ICTs focused more on the impact on the individuals or the organizations, without considering the effect on individuals’ spouses. Most previous studies were also limited in the sense that they had been conducted in the western cultural context, with a lack of localized research in the Chinese culture. The present study based on the Spillover-Crossover Effect among dual-earner Chinese couples, therefore, is intended to fill the gap by investigating the positive and negative effects of W_ICTs on the well-being of both husbands and wives in China.
    The study surveyed 278 Chinese dual-earner couples who had fixed working hours. They completed the W_ICTs scale, the work-to-family conflict scale, the work-to-family facilitation scale, the social undermining scale, the work satisfaction scale and the marital satisfaction scale. In the study, ‘whether the couples have children under the age of 18’ and ‘whether the couples’ parents help with the children’s housework’ were treated as control variables. The structural equation model, the dyadic data analysis method, and the bias corrected bootstrap method were used to examine the research hypotheses.
    The results showed that: (1) W_ICTs was positively related to work-to-family conflict and work-to-family facilitation; (2) work-to-family conflict was positively related to spouses’ social undermining, while work-to-family facilitation was negatively related to it; (3) wives’ social undermining induced the same behavior of husbands, but not vice versa; (4) both wives’ and husbands’ well-being had a mutually significant positive impact on each other; (5) W_ICTs could aggravate work-to-family conflict and induce the social undermining between the couples, further reducing the couples’ well-being, simultaneously promoting work-to-family facilitation, reducing social undermining between the couples, further raising the couples’ well-being. On the whole, however, wives’ W_ICTs could reduce husbands’ well-being significantly, while husbands’ W_ICTs could not.
    This study can provide guidance for organization management practices. From the perspective of the organization, as that W_ICTs can increase not only work-to-family conflict but also work-to-family facilitation, managers should cope with employees’ W_ICTs accordingly. From the perspective of employees, considering that the social undermining between the couples is an important mediator variable, employees can set boundaries of W_ICTs and communicate more with their spouses to inhibit W_ICTs’ negative influence. Furthermore, the result suggested that wives’ W_ICTs could reduce significantly their own and their husbands’ well-being, so organizations had better take into account female employees’ family role, when establishing border management or family friendly policies.
    A process test of priority models of intertemporal choice
    JIANG Cheng-Ming; LIU Hong-Zhi; CAI Xiao-Hong; LI Shu
    Acta Psychologica Sinica. 2016, 48 (1): 59-72.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2016.00059
    Abstract   PDF (543KB) ( 1362 )

     Intertemporal choice is vital to human survival and development, hence the interest of scientists today in analyzing how it is made. Mainstream theories hold that a discounting process serves as basis for making choices, but other theories forego this process. For example, priority models, such as the tradeoff model and equate-to-differentiate theory, show that individuals tend to compare the difference between dimensions of delay and outcome before deciding in a single dimension when selecting between a smaller, sooner outcome (SS) and a larger, later outcome (LL). To tackle this question and improve our knowledge of the mechanisms underlying human decision making, concrete evidence based on psychological process is required. In the current study, we tested priority models by using a process-oriented method.

    A total of 822 college students participated in the study; 238 participated in Experiment 1A, 194 in Experiment 1B, 97 in Experiment 1C, and 293 in Experiment 2. In Experiment 1A, we manipulated the differences of two alternatives (i.e., SS and LL) in terms of monetary outcome (in Problem 1) and delay (in Problem 2). We then asked participants to indicate their preference between SS and LL and to compare the difference on the delay dimension with that on the outcome dimension (we called this process “difference- comparing process”). The aim of Experiment 1A was to examine whether one’s preference was mediated by the difference-comparing process. For Experiment 1B, we altered the procedure used in Experiment 1A (i.e., participants were first asked to conduct the difference-comparing process then indicate their preference) because we wanted to ensure that the difference-comparing process is the online process of selecting rather than the artifact of the experimental procedure. In Experiment 1C, we asked participants to indicate their preference and conduct the difference-comparing process at separate occasions. The aim of Experiment 1C was to address the problem of common-method bias. In Experiment 2, we examined whether the difference-comparing process can explain anomalies cited in previous studies on intertemporal choice.
    The results of Experiment 1 showed that the difference-comparing process mediated the preferences of the participants. This finding implied that the participants will more likely select LL when the perceived difference on the outcome dimension is larger than that on the delay dimension, whereas they are likely to select SS when the perceived difference on the delay dimension is bigger than that on the outcome dimension. In addition, we inferred that increasing the magnitude of both outcomes by the same multiplicative constant increases the perceived difference on the outcome dimension, hence the magnitude effect. Adding a constant to both delays decreases the perceived difference on the outcome dimension, hence the common difference effect. Replicating the results of Experiment 1A, Experiment 1B also demonstrated that the difference-comparing process is an online selection process, and Experiment 1C mitigated the concern of common-method bias. The results of Experiment 2 replicated the effects of several existing anomalies, which demonstrates that the difference- comparing process can explain most of such anomalies, except for the sign and speedup/delay effects.

    In summary, the results of the four experiments showed that the dimensional difference-comparing is a key process but not the only psychological process of intertemporal choice. The results of our study deepened our understanding of the mechanisms underlying intertemporal choice and added important procedural evidence to current priority models.

    Undermining effect exists or not: Relationship between extrinsic and intrinsic motivation in workplace
    ZHANG Jian; SONG Yahui; LIU Xiao
    Acta Psychologica Sinica. 2016, 48 (1): 73-83.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2016.00073
    Abstract   PDF (444KB) ( 1989 )
    In economics, we assume incentives promote effort and performance, and a lot of empirical evidences suggest they often do. Initiating extrinsic motivation is commonly used to provide incentive in modern enterprises. Nonetheless, some well-established enterprises run into problems with the use of extrinsic rewards. Some psychological researchers call this the “undermining effect” of extrinsic motivation on intrinsic motivation. Other researchers have a different view and question whether undermining effect really exists or not, and this debate becomes a core issue for organizations and researchers. The effective way of clarifying this debate should be an appropriate classification of extrinsic motivation. Based on the self-determination theory, firstly, the present study explored the relationships between intrinsic motivation and three types of extrinsic motivations ——external, introjected and identified regulations which differ in their degree to internalization. This study would then explore the relationship between internalization of extrinsic motivation and autonomy support.
    In order to understand the dynamic of motivation, a two-time-point longitudinal method was used in the present study. By interviewing the managers of enterprises, we found that the performance appraisal cycles were usually one year, half a year and one month, while the performance goal had to be achieved usually in a month. So the kind of work employees would not change within this one month period. The task and content during the investigation period should be controlled in order that the change of work passion caused by the change in the kind of work could be eliminated. Therefore, one month was chosen to be the time interval for this longitudinal study. We sampled 165 employees from several companies in Beijing and Shandong. Employees filled in the questionnaires to measure their demographics, work motivation and perceived autonomy support in both Time 1 and 2.
    Results of multiple regression on Time 1 and 2 constructs showed that external and introjected regulations in Time 1 negatively predicted the change of intrinsic motivation between Time 1 and 2. In contrast, identified regulation in Time 1 positively predicted the change of intrinsic motivation between Time 1 and 2. Furthermore, autonomous support in Time 1 positively predicted the change of identified regulation between Time 1 and 2. These results revealed that external and introjected regulations as controlled or uninternalized motivation would undermine intrinsic motivation of employees; while idendified regulation as autonomous or internalized motivation would promote and protect intrinsic motivation rather than undermining it. Analyses further showed that autonomous support would enhance the internalization of extrinsic motivation (increase in identified motivation) and thus reducing the undermining effect of extrinsic motivation on intrinsic motivation. Implications for management were discussed.
    On the basis of the self-determination theory, the present study explored the undermining effect of extrinsic motivation as well as the relationship between internalization of extrinsic motivation and autonomy support. The findings of this study facilitate our understanding of the undermining effect of extrinsic motivation on intrinsic motivation in workplace, enrich the empirical literature of internalization of extrinsic motivation in Chinese organizations, and extend the scope of applications of the self-determination theory in organizations in a cross-cultural setting. The study brings some management implications as well. It is necessary for managers to distinguish and choose the appropriate type of extrinsic incentive methods. Autonomy support can be used to promote internalization of extrinsic motivation of employees and identified regulation can be enhanced by training.
    The influence of team faultlines on team performance: Mediating effect of team transactive memory system
    CHEN Shuai
    Acta Psychologica Sinica. 2016, 48 (1): 84-94.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2016.00084
    Abstract   PDF (507KB) ( 1691 )

     To improve team effectiveness and build up competitive advantage, team leader has to make clear of the dynamics of team composition first and make best use of it then. Research on the relationship between team faultlines and performance has grown popular over the last two decades. Nevertheless, cumulative findings of the effects of demographic faultlines have been inconsistent. I argued that these inconsistent findings were partly due to the neglect of the typology of faultlines. Further, there is little knowledge about the intermediate process between different types of faultlines and team performance. This study tended to address the puzzling issue of inconsistency by hypothesizing that social category faultlines might dampen team performance and information- based faultlines benefit team performance. In addition, transactive memory system was hypothesized to mediate the relationship between social category / information-based faultlines and team performance.

    Data were collected using a questionnaire survey approach. Two different questionnaires were presented: a team manager questionnaire and a team member questionnaire. The team manager questionnaire was used to collect team performance data, whereas the team member questionnaire was used to collect member demographic information and transactive memory system data. I contacted and invited 293 workgroups to participate. By excluding team data that was lacking adequate observations, 222 teams remained with matched observations. By further eliminating samples with incomplete individual demographic information as required by the measure for faultlines (Thatcher et al., 2003), the effective sample size was 115 teams (including 115 team leaders and 667 team members).
    Structural equation modeling (SEM) was conducted with the Amos 6.0 program to examine the hypotheses. First, a direct effect model was constructed to examine the relationship between social category / information-based faultlines and team performance. I found support for the positive effect of information-based faultlines on team performance. However, social category faultlines were found to be unrelated to team performance. Furthermore, I used a mediated model to examine the mediating effects of transactive memory system, the findings of which suggested that team transactive memory system mediated the relationship between information-based faultlines and team performance (the indirect effect was 0.12, and the 95% CIs obtained for transactive memory system did not include zero (0.010, 0.250)).
    The study extended research on faultlines by theorizing how different faultline bases (social category and information-based faultlines) might have differential effects on the performance of workgroups. The empirical results led some support to the hypotheses, suggesting that the refinement of content of faultlines might help explain the divergence in faultline effect. Furthermore, the study had elaborated the mediating effects of team transactive memory system, uncovering the black box between different types of faultlines and team performance.
    The synergistic effect between corporate image and product’s superior benefits: A stereotype content model approach
    JIANG Hongyan; WANG Haizhong; HE Yun; ZHU Li
    Acta Psychologica Sinica. 2016, 48 (1): 95-105.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2016.00095
    Abstract   PDF (424KB) ( 2118 )

     Models of social perception in social psychology can help our understanding of consumers’ perception and relation with brands. Consumers’ relationships with brands sometimes resemble people’s relationships among themselves. It is thus speculated that the Stereotype Content Model (SCM) on how social perception works would possibly apply to brand perception. Few studies, however, have investigated the antecedent variables of the different dimensions of brand perception at the corporate and product levels, as well as their interaction mechanism. This research explored the possible antecedent roles of corporate image and product’s superior benefits in brand perception. We further hypothesized a synergistic effect of corporate image and product’s superior benefits on purchase intention, with brand admiration playing a mediating role.

    In Experiment 1, participants were randomly assigned to a 2(Corporate image: ability vs. trustworthiness) × 2(Product’s superior benefits: utilitarian vs. hedonic) design, with brand perception and purchase intention as dependent variables, and brand admiration as the mediating variable. A total of 120 (112 valid) MBA students participated in this experiment. Following the methods in previous research, we manipulated corporate image and product’s superior benefits. Participants were then asked to complete the ratings of brand perception, brand admiration, and purchase intention. In Experiment 2, participants were randomly assigned to a 2 (Perceived risk: low vs. high) × 2 (Corporate image: ability vs. trustworthiness) × 2 (Product’s superior benefits: utilitarian vs. hedonic) design with identical dependent variables in Experiment 1. The 200 (117 valid) undergraduates were told that they were in one of two beverages purchase scenarios. In the low-risk scenario, participants imagined themselves purchasing beverages for home consumption. In the high-risk scenario, participants imagined themselves purchasing beverages to take to dinner at good friends’ parties.
    The results of Experiment 1 showed an interaction between corporate image and product’s superior benefits on the purchase intention. Specifically, when corporate image was ability-based, product’s superior hedonic (vs. utilitarian) benefits led to higher purchase intention. When corporate image was trustworthiness-based, product’s superior utilitarian (vs. hedonic) benefits led to higher purchase intention. Moreover, this synergistic effect was mediated by brand admiration. Experiment 2 investigated the moderating role of perceived risk in the synergistic effect between corporate image and product’s superior benefits. Results showed that perceived risk moderated the interaction effect between corporate image and product’s superior benefits on purchase intention. More specifically, when perceived risk was low, there was a synergistic effect between corporate image and product’s superior benefits on purchase intention. However, when perceived risk was high, there was a congruency effect of corporate image and product’s superior benefits on purchase intention.
    This paper provides a new perspective by probing into the antecedent variables of brand perception with the Stereotype Content Model (SCM). Moreover, this research investigates the mechanism causing the synergistic effect by adopting “the complementarity of competence-warmth perception” as theory framework. Finally, our research provides insightful implications on how to achieve a synergistic promoting effect of corporate image strategy and product benefits strategy, and beyond.
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    Acta Psychologica Sinica. 2016, 48 (1): 109-110.  
    Abstract   PDF (178KB) ( 7573 )
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