Summarily, these results suggest that while bilingual children do develop a distinct neural network to process their second language, it is also partly supported by the brain’s native language network. Additionally, this study further indicates that the neural networks supporting native and second language in bilinguals' brain interact with one another, and this interaction is affected by language proficiency.
In conclusion, our findings demonstrated that the visual processing characteristic of the scene effects was different for different facial expressions. The scenes had an influence on fearful face processing. The scene effects which happened in early structural perceptual encoding of faces depended on broad-band spatial frequency information of scenes. And the scene effects could happen in the task-irrelevant condition. However, the scenes had a different influence on neutral facial expression. Neutral facial expressions are less salient than fearful facial expressions. So it was easy for negative scenes to disturb the early perceptual encoding of neutral facial expressions. Additionally, this disturbance could happen in the condition in which scenes only retained coarse global information or detailed edge information.
This study focuses on the availability of rule learning. Cherubini, Castelvecchio & Cherubini (2005); Cherubini, Rusconi, Russo, Di Bari, & Sacchi (2010) confirmed that the availability of rule learning was influenced by the information amount of the rule. Information amount was explained by how many examples could be covered by a rule. For a rule, the more number of examples could be converted, the less information amount would have. For example, in 2-4-6 task, the information amount in the rule of “even number increase” is 1/n and in the rule of “the third number is the sum of other two” is 1/n2. The information amount theory suggests that a rule with higher information amount is generated more easily than a lower one. However, Some researches (Barsalou,1982; Rips,1989; Medin, Lynch, Coley, & Atran,1997; Shafto, Coley, & Baldwin,2007; Guhe, Pease, & Smail,2011) showed that rule learning would be impacted by the information background of participants.
Experiment 1 found that there were two independent factors, the information amount and the obviousness of the rule, significantly influence availability of rule learning. Experiment 2 is the same as experiment 1 except a rule description between every block of learning. The result of experiment 2 indicated that rules with high information amount and obviousness are more easier to be learned and expressed, while rules of low information amount combine with less obvious could be learned either but hardly be expressed clearly. These results consist with the dual process model in deductive reasoning and reveal that the rules with high amount information and obviousness are processing by an explicit rule system, and with lower amount information and less obviousness are processing by an implicit rule system.
Animal studies have shown that estrogens exert important influence on the acquisition and extinction of conditioned fear, however, the gonadal hormone regulation of fear in human is not known. The purpose of the present study is to examine effects of female menstrual phases on the conditioned fear acquisition and extinction.
Azhu is a Moso word which describes the sexual life pattern among the Moso people, a matriarchal ethnic group living along the border of Yunnan and Sichuan provinces. Azhu relationship refers to a kind of interpersonal relationship between friendship and kinship. A Moso’s azhu is similar to a Han’s lover, both terms indicating a romantic nature. The aim of the current study was to explore the essence of the azhu relationship under the sexual union from a psychological perspective. Two experiments were conducted to investigate the emotional responses and the behavioral tendencies of four different relationships (kin, azhu/lover, friend, and stranger), addressing distinct domains for which kinship is known (such as incest avoidance and altruistic behavior) by comparing the Moso people with the Han people.
The primary purpose for cognitive diagnostic assessment is to classify examinees into mutually exclusive categories. The current practice of obtaining classification categories relies on the distance between the ideal and observed response patterns, such as generalized distance discrimination method (Sun et al., 2011, 2013) and nonparametric approach (Chiu and Douglas, 2013). In these methods, an appropriate set of ideal response patterns can be computed from the universal set of knowledge states and a Q matrix (Tatsuoka, 1995; Leighton et al., 2004; Ding et al., 2009, 2010). However, the ideal response pattern is generated for each knowledge state without considering the stochastic nature of item response, which is contrary to real test situations. For example, examinees who have mastered some of attributes required to solve a particular item can have a higher probability of answering it correctly than less able examinees having mastered none of the attributes.
Cognitive diagnostic computerized adaptive testing (CD-CAT) is an application of cognitive diagnostic testing (CDT) on the computerized adaptive testing (CAT) platform. CD-CAT can provide information on the specific content areas in which a participant needs the most specific help, and it is typically engineered to tailor the test to each participant’s trait level and thus has high efficiency. The search for the best item selection method is currently one of the most pressing issues in the field of CD-CAT research. Besides, studies on CD-CAT have to address the issue on the number of testing strategies to employ: either all participants use the same strategy, or different participants use different strategies. In practice, for some tasks, all participants use the same strategy; whereas for other tasks, different participants use different strategies to solve the problem. Because cognitive strategy aptitudes (or cognitive structures) vary among participants, each strategy requires different attributes. For the latter type of tasks, a participant’s strategy must be identified before his/her knowledge state (KS, i.e., attribute mastery pattern) can be diagnosed. Strategy diagnosis procedures have not been explored in studies on CD-CAT.