Bilingual individuals need to switch their languages to understand different language information in daily life, which is called bilingual comprehensive switching. Prior studies mainly focused on whether the non-target language was activated when bilinguals intended to understand the target language, while inconsistent results were concluded for methodological ambiguities in paradigms. Therefore, this study was designed to further investigate the activation of non-target language in language comprehension with an immediate cross-language priming paradigm and event-related brain potential (ERP) technique.
The majority of Chinese characters are compound characters, and around 80% of the compound characters are phonograms which are comprised of a semantic radical and a phonetic radical. The semantic radical usually implies the meaning of the phonogram (e.g., 桐, tong2: tung, whose semantic radical is 木, mu4: wood), and the phonetic radical offers a phonological clue for the pronunciation of its host phonogram (e.g., 桐, tong2: tung, whose phonetic radical is 同, tong2: together/same). Since the semantic and phonetic radicals have different functional values, some researchers turned to investigate the issue whether their distinctive functions would generate different processing patterns during the phonogram recognition. However, regretfully, current results are confusing, with some studies reporting that the effect of the phonetic radicals were earlier and stronger than that of semantic radicals, however, others assuming that the semantic radicals played a predominant role.
In summary, the interaction between emotional concept and emotional face perception existed in the deep semantic level and deep perceptual processing level. The depth of semantic processing and perceptual processing affected the relationship between emotional concept processing and emotional face perception.
The results of the final behavioral data analysis revealed that the condition of emotion T1 (fear faces) led to a significant reduction in the efficiency of T2 recognition, which was much lower than that in the conditions of neutral T1 (neutral faces) and T1 missing. These behavioral results indicated a typical EAB effect. In addition, the ERPs results provided the first evidence for the process of the EAB. In this research, we focused on the P3 components of the two processing stages of T1 and T2, respectively. Because these P3 components indexed the resource of attention in central processing. The final results showed that compared with other stimuli conditions (neutral T1 and T1 absent), the P3 amplitudes evoked by emotion T1 and T2 presentation were both enhanced. This effect should deny the resource bottleneck between the T1 and T2 competition but support the emotional/affective overinvestment in EAB. Based on these results, the neural mechanisms of EAB were discussed.
In conclusion, the collective perception of school psychological environment played important and direct roles in students’ academic achievement, especially for students from more disadvantaged schools. Findings from this study suggested that the collective perception of school psychological environment is an important indicator for assessing basic education quality.
This is the first empirical study to test the narcissism–empathy relationship hypothesis proposed by Stone (1998), who argued that there could be separable aspects of ability and willingness that affect narcissistic individuals’ empathic functioning. Some narcissistic individuals may have intact empathic ability, but choose to disengage from others’ pain or distress. These findings extend the empirical evidence of empathy and altruism in terms of individual differences, and contribute to the understanding of mechanisms underlying prosocial behavior among narcissists. Narcissism is essentially emotional and motivational in nature, and emotionally based priming appears to bear particularly strong promise for increasing altruistic behaviors among narcissists. The results suggest possible pathways to practical improvement in the lack of empathy among narcissistic individuals.
Our findings enrich literature about company’s communication in social media by focusing on consumers’ sharing behavior rather than purchases. First, this study provides a new perspective on company communication by differentiating the content into two types: economical information and emotional information. Second, present paper examined the impact of relationship norm in the domain of company communication by showing that consumers in different relationship norm might share different information. Third, we delineate the underlying mechanism of the interactive effect of information type and relationship norm by examining consumers’ sharing motivation. Besides theoretical contribution aforementioned, this study also provides useful implications for companies to utilize the social networks.