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ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

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    25 June 1994, Volume 26 Issue 02 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    THE ADVANTAGE OF ACCESSIBILITY OF FIRST-MENTIONED PARTICIPANTS IN CHINESE SENTENCES
    Chen Yongming,Cui Yao(Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica,100012)
    1994, 26 (02):  113-120. 
    Abstract ( 893 )  
    The relations between mentioned order and accessibility of Chinese sentence constituents was explored. Five experiments were conducted and the results were demonstrated as follows:(1) first-mentioned participants were easier to be accessed than second-mentioned participants, mentioned order obviously affected accessibility of the participants.(2) The advantage of first-mentioned participants was relevant to the way of sentence presentation. When the words of the sentence were presented in a sequential way, there was no obvious difference of accessibility between first-and second-mentioned participants or the difference was not very obvious; when the sentence was presented in a simultaneous way. this advantage of first-mentioned participants was very obvious.(3) Under the condition of sequential presentation, the advantage of first-mentioned participants was dependent on the interval between each sentence and its probe word.(4) Under the condition of sequential presentation subjects responded to noun-participants faster than to name-participants, and they responded to patient-participants faster than agent-participants, but this difference disappeared under simultaneous presentation.(5) The order of mention had effect not only on accessibility of sentence participants, but also on accessibility of participants action; first-mentioned action was more accessible.
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    PSYCHOLOGLCAL STRUCTURE OF FUTURE TIME
    Huang Xiting(Southwest China Normal Uniuersity,Chongqing,630715)
    1994, 26 (02):  121-127. 
    Abstract ( 922 )  
    By using seven kinds of time units(i.e.second, minute,hour,day, week,month,and year)and fuzzy statistical test,220 college students evaluated the value of 39 uncertain temporal qualifiers'semantics. The results showed:①the 39 uncertain temporal qualifiers of future had a kind of corresponding relation with the six kinds of time units.②The mental time of future can be sectioned into three parts,that is, second and minute belong to "nearer future", hour, day and month belong to "near future", and year belongs to "far future", ③If the semantic meaning of temporal qualifiers become near the present time, their fuzziness-grade will become small, and the number of assurance-score of evaluation will become large; and vice versa. According to these results,the author proposed a model on psychological structure of future time.
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    EFFECTS OF TARGET──BACKGROUND COLOR MATCHING OF VISUAL PERFORMANCE ON COLOR CRT
    Zhu Zuxiang,Cao Liren(Department of Psychology, Hangzhou University,310028)
    1994, 26 (02):  128-135. 
    Abstract ( 934 )  
    With channel capacity as the dependent variable, an experiment was carried out to investigate the optimal choice of colors used on CRT for both target and background purposes. 8 colors (black, blue, green, light blue,red, purple, yellow, white) were combined into 56 pairs of different target──background color matches as the independent variables. By comparing the visual performance measured under each color match condition, the authors obtained the following results: from the ergonomic view, two tendencies that darker colors were better than lighter colors when used as background colors,and lighter colors better when the target──background colors matched properly,the information transfer efficiency increased significantly. The optimal target──background matches were those with greater contrast such as white──black,yellow──black, green──black.
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    CLEAR UP OF THE McCOLLOUGH EFFECT BY ANTI-ADAPTION
    Wang Zhiheng, Zhang Qizhi(Physics Department,Sichuan University Chengdu 610064)
    1994, 26 (02):  136-140. 
    Abstract ( 1292 )  
    In excitation purity or with eyes closed,the decay process of the McCollough effect lasted for a long tin1e (more than 24 hours) after adaption.However,by anti-adaption, this color after-effect could be cleared up within one-third of an hour.The color of anti-adaption grating was complementery to that of adaption grating,and the spatial frequency of the anti-adaption grating was the same as that of the adaption grating. Brightness and spatial frequency had effect on this elimination.It was suggested that the decay process of the McCollough effect was dependent upon the pattern of retinal stimulation.
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    REVERSAL PRIMING EFFECT──A SELECTIVE ATTENTION APPROACH
    Zhang Daren(Department of Biology &Cognitiue Science Laboratory,Uniuersity of Science & Technology of. China, Hefei,Anhui,230026,P.R.China)Morris Moscovitch(Department of Psychology,Erindale College,Uniuersity of Toronto)
    1994, 26 (02):  141-146. 
    Abstract ( 888 )  
    Selective attention was directly manipulated with a peripheral precue or without the cue, under these two different conditions,the reversal priming was observed. Negative priming existed at nonprecue condition,but positive priming occurred at peripheral precue condition. Tipper's model(1985)was modified for accommodation of the present data. The function of selective attention was discussed based on the Positive priming.
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    DEVELOPMENT OF DATABASE OF CHINESE CONSTITUENTS INFORMATINON──STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF THE FREQUENCY OF THE CONSTITUENTS AND THEIR COMBINATION
    Han Buxin(Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing,100012)
    1994, 26 (02):  147-152. 
    Abstract ( 1037 )  
    Frequency parameter of Chinese characterconstituent and their combinations,in GB2312-80 were computed using FoxBASE techenique. "The Database of character constituents" and The Database of Character "Constituent Combinations"were produced as the result. The former consisted of 576 character constituents.the later consisted of 7583 2 constituents combinations Everv constituent or combination had 2 attributions. one was the number of Chinese characer combining by character constituents or their combination, another was the frequency.The character constituents or their combination, another was the frequency,The character constituents and their combinations had similar pattern of uneven distribution,and most of them had low frequences. These 2 databases could be applied in the experimental research of Chinese cognition, learning and memory, it also could be used in the qualitative analvsis of Chinese character and computer processing ot Chinese information.
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    A STUDY ON THE MENTAL HEALTH LEVEL AND ITS INFLUENCING FACTORS OF SENIOR MIDDLE SCHOOL STUDENTS
    Hu Shengli(Xiamen Institute of Education Research,361003)
    1994, 26 (02):  153-160. 
    Abstract ( 1421 )  
    The Sympton1s Check List g0 (SCL-90) was used to examine the mental health condition of 500 senior middle school students The results indicated that 10.8%of the students showed all kinds of obvious mental health problems and that these mental health problems were essentially focused on obsessive-compulsive, hostilty, paranoid ideation, interpersonal sensitivity and depression.It was uncovered in a multiple factors analysis that the major factors which influenced the mental health of the students were school education, social culture, family environment and the student himself.
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    SOME RECENT DEVELOPMENT OF PIAGETIAN THEORY:THE CONTRIBUTION OF THE DIFFERENTIAL PERSPECTIVE
    Pierre-Andre Doudin(The University of Lausanne,Switzerland)
    1994, 26 (02):  161-168. 
    Abstract ( 887 )  
    The paper presented briefly discribed a new trend of Piagetian cognitive developmental theory:The transition from the epistemology of the intellectual development to the psychology of the intellectual development. The recent findings of the differential psychology in which provided methods and means for those transition were also introduced. Finally the author speculated upon that focusing on the psychological differentiation in the post-Piagetian theory was significant in pedagogy and clinical psychology.
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    INFANTS' ABILITY TO DISCRIMINATE FACIAL EXPRESSIONS AND ITS DEVELOPMENTAL PATTERN
    Wang Lei(Peking University,100871)Zhang Lan(University of Chicago)Li Li(SUNY at Stony Brook)
    1994, 26 (02):  169-175. 
    Abstract ( 1224 )  
    Using the infant control habituation-recovery procedure,this reserach investigated 8 to 12-month-olds' ability to discriminate the facial expressions(H: Happy,F: Fear.A:Anger) in six emotional pairs:H-A,A-H,H-F,F-H,A-F,F-A; the habituation rates of these three expressions were studied. The results indicated that:1) Most infants gave their peak fixation in the early stage of habituation;2) Infants at the different ages showed no significant difference in the rate of habituation; 3) In the six pairs of three emotional expressions,infants at different ages could distinguish a second expression following habituation to the first one,that is,there was no order effect in the process of recognition.
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    THE METHOD OF LOGICAL TRAPS FOR LIE DETECTION AND IT'S MATHEMATICAL TESTIFYING
    Dong Anbang(Department of Management Engineering,Xi'an Jiaotog University,710049)
    1994, 26 (02):  176-183. 
    Abstract ( 1056 )  
    During psychological testing, some subjects often lie and give false answers,which will cause the result to lack fidelity.Thus in this study a method was developed by which we can set logical traps in psychological questionnaire to detect lies.The principle and design of the logical traps were expounded.In addition,the concrete mathematical description and testfying of the method were presented.
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    A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON COGNITIVE TASKS IN AGING
    Li Deming,Wei Xing(Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijing 100012)Sun Fuli(Xiyuan Hospital,Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine Beijing 100091)
    1994, 26 (02):  184-189. 
    Abstract ( 929 )  
    A comparative study on the cognitive pattern of 12 tasks in aging was accomplished by using the methods of language-operation and man-computer interaction in 242 subjects of 46 to 75 years of age.The results indicated:1) Some cognitive performances decreased obviously with age,such as symbol-digit, visual digit span, auditory digit span,pairedassociation learning,free recall of picture and recognition of meaningless figure But other cognitive performances did not decrease with age, such as picture classification,card classification,arithmetic and progressive matrices.2) It was examined that the cognitive speed of 4 nonlexical tasks slowed down progressively with age,these tasks were arithmetic,symbol-digit,digit discrimination and count.
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    INVESTIGATION INTO THE MECHANISM OF LEARNING AND MEMORY DISORDER INDUCED BY TEMPORAL INFARCT:MICRODIALYSIS AND ULTRASTRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
    Xiang Jing,Kuang Peigen et al.(Neurotransmitter Research Laboratory,Chinese PLA General Hospital Postgraduate Military medical School,Beijing,100853)
    1994, 26 (02):  190-194. 
    Abstract ( 827 )  
    Rats with selective temporal infarct induced Photochemically was used as an animal model of dementia. The changes of neuratransmitter amino acids in extracellullar fluid in the hippocampus were monitored with microdialysis technique in vivo, and the ultrastructures altered were observed using TEM electromicroscope, also the changes of neurons under the light microscope and the learning and memory ability were determined simultaneously.The results demonstrated that:(1)there were a large amount of releasing of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitter amino acids in the hippocampus during temporal ischemia;(2)there were many vesiculae accumulated at the presynapse membrane in the hippocampus at the early period of temporal infarct,then the number of vesiculae reduced and the size of vesicalea became uneven;(3)there was a selective neuron necrosis in hippocampus and neocortex in rats with temporal infarct;(4)there were significant correlations between the releasing of amino acids and selective neuron necrosis and learning and memory disorders. The findings showed that the temporal infarct could induce the selective neuron necrosis in the hippocampus via releasing of neurotransmitter amino acids especially the excitatory amino acids,and the temporal infarct and selective neurons necrosis could result in the learning and memory disorders. The authors believe that inhibiting the release of excitatory amino acids are useful for the treatment of vascular dementia in human beings.
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    THE PRELIMINARY RESEARCH ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AROUSAL LEVEL AND ADULT AGE DIFFENCES OF MEMORY
    Wu Zhiping,Xu Shulian(Institute of Psychology,Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijing,100012)
    1994, 26 (02):  195-198. 
    Abstract ( 670 )  
    Abstract
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    ON THE CHARACTERISTICS AND HISTORICAL STANDING OF BANDURA'S OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING THEORY
    Ye Haosheng(Institute of Educational Sciences, Nanjing Normal University,210024)
    1994, 26 (02):  201-207. 
    Abstract ( 1134 )  
    Three characteristics of Bandura's theory of observational learning-integration of reinforcement and cognition, behavioral constructivism and reciprocal determinism were discussed in the paper.The present writer considers Bandura's outstanding contribution to psychology is that he investigated the observational learning which had been neglected by other learning theorists In. the author's opinion, in his reseach of observational learning,Bandura emphasized the function of social influewce, expounding the processes and functions of observational learning in cognitive terms and lay stress on experiments in which human beings were used as subjects. All of these rendered Bandura's theory of observational learning to play an important role in the development of learning psychology.
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    THE RELATION BETWEEN PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF ECONOMY,SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
    Fu Xiaolan,Jing Qicheng(Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica Beijing,100012)
    1994, 26 (02):  208-218. 
    Abstract ( 1018 )  
    The relationships between the development of psychology as a diseipine and the lerel of development in economy,and in science and technology were investigated through analyses of data from 29 provinces and cities in China and 45 countries and regions in the world. It was revealed that countries and regions with greater economic development and advanced lerels of,science and technology showed relatively higher development in psychology.The increase in the number of psychologists depended on economic and social demands.The development of its psychology in most countries might be later than the development of its economy and follow a familiar S-shaped model. In countries where the economy is relatively underdeveloped,it is still important to provide even more opportunities to train psychologists.Chinese psychology requires more emphasis to accelerate its development and meet the demands of China's economic development.
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    HOMOGENELTY OF PROBLEM SOLVING STRATEGIES AND THE FITTING OF LINEAR LOGISTIC TEST MODEL
    Yu Jiayuan(Department of Education,Nanjing Normal University,Nanjing210024)
    1994, 26 (02):  219-224. 
    Abstract ( 907 )  
    The fitting condition of Linear Logistic Test Model(LLTM)and its relationship with homogeneity of problem solving strategies were discussed.In this research the subjects were asked to compare two negative whole number index powers.It was found that the data of all of the subjects could not fit Rasch model and LLTM.But after the subjects were divided into four strategy homogeneous groups, the data within each of these groups could fit Rasch model well.However,some items fit LLTM better,others did not fit LLTM so well within each group.This showed that the homogeneity of problem solving strategies was the necessary condition but not the sufficient condition for the fitting of LLTM.
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