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  • Table of Content
       , Volume 26 Issue 01 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
    A STUDY ON IMPLICIT MEMORY OF CHINESE CHARACTERS
    Yang Zhiliang, Ye Gewei, Wang Xinfa (East China Normal University)
    . 1994, 26 (01): 1-7.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 12961 )
    Ten treatments constituting of attention factor, task factor, and block factor were studied. The indirect measure of task factor was divided into four subtasks according to global and local process of Chinese characters, Instruction in the test phase created different discrimination tasks which were matched in all other characteristics. It was discovered that there were three necessary conditions of the existence of implicit memory, namely uncued characters, preference discrimination(indirect) measure and global process, in which the performance of indirect measure is significantly greater than chance level while that of direct measure is the opposite, The experiment proposed an alternative branch based on Reingold and Merikle's logic, attempting to form a perfect alternative approach to study implicit memory compared with the dissociation paradigm. The application of matched method is vital.
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    DISTRIBUTION OF WORD SEGMENTATION INFORMATION IN SENTENCE
    Yang Yufang, Sun Jian (Institute of psychology, Chinese Academy of Siences)
    . 1994, 26 (01): 8-13.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 77 )
    This paper investigated the distribution of word segmentation information in sentence using as stimuli partly-deleted phonetically-ambiguous sentences. The results of the discrimination experiment show that the most important word segmentation cues are in the ambigaous syllables; the transitions of proceeding and following syllables for the ambiguous ones are also useful; even the part of sentences excluding the ambiguous syllables and transitions sometime contribute to word segmentation.
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    TEMPORAL ORDER INFORMATION:CODED UPON ACQUISITION OR CONSTRUCTED DURING RETRIEVAL,DELIBERATE PROCESSING OR AUTOMATIC PROCESSING
    Li Guojun(Institute of Psychology, Southwest China Normal University, Chong Qing,P.R.C.)
    . 1994, 26 (01): 14-20.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 89 )
    By using Glucksberg & McCloskey's (1981)Question-Answering Model,two questions, namely, the temporal order coded upon acquisition, or constructed during retrieval, and the temporal order information processing deliberate or automatic, were tested within two experiments. The result shows that it is temporal order coding during item processing that derives the acquisition of temporal order knowledge, and not constructed during item retrieval. Based on Hasher & Zacks'(1979) automatic processing criteria, the processing of temporal order informtion is deliberate, not automatic.
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    A STUDY ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SHORT-TERM MOTOR MEMORY STORAGE AND PRECISION AND MOTOR LEARNING
    Xu Lechun (Shanghai Sports Technics College)
    . 1994, 26 (01): 21-27.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 214 )
    Laboratory and investory methods were employed to explore the short-term motor memory storage and precision and the relationship between them and motor learning indices. The subjects were students and sportsmen of three age groups(10, 14, 18 year-old)respectively. The results showed that: 1)The limit of short-term motor memory storage was“5±2”; Short-term motor memory storage was related to the practice frequency of the motor learning; Short-term motor memory precision was related to the accuracy of the first exercise.2)Shortterm memory storage tended to increase with age. 3)The prectice frequency of motor learning between sportsmen and unsportsmen had significant differance.
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    A STUDY ON SIMULATION OF STROOP TASK BASED ON PDP PRINCIPLE
    Wang Aiping, Zhang Houcan (Department of Psychology,Beijing Normal University)
    . 1994, 26 (01): 28-34.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 168 )
    The experiment simulated performance in the Stroop task with a model of the Stroop color-word task based on PDP principle. The result showed that processing of information in the word pathway was faster and stronger than in the color pathway after training on the word-reading and color-naming tasks. This might be caused by the frequency effect of word training(the ratio between words and colors are 10: 1 8:1, 6: 1, 4: 1). The more word training times given, the stronger the interferences appeared The model showed the continuous nature of automatic processing. The simulated result suggests that the patterns of between-and within-language interference are determined more probably by language proficiency, but it is difficult for the model to distinguish between different processing tasks.
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    THE PRIMING EFFECT OF DIFFERENT ASSOCIATIVE LEVEL WORDS AND ITS DEVELOPMENTAL STUDY
    Zhang Wei,Liu Kui,Pang Zifeng (Department of Psychology,South China Normal University,Guangzhou)
    . 1994, 26 (01): 35-43.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 107 )
    With frequently used Chinese words as studying material, this experiment, was based on the scale of word associative level(WAL) to establish after a great amount of statistical work,to probe how the WAL, processing methods during learning and age can influence the priming effect of word remembering. It was discovered:(a) the divergences of influence of different word associative level on the priming effect was significant,(b)only undergraduate subjects's priming effects were affected by processing methods, (c) the function of age on priming effect were mainly caused by its transaction with WAL. All performance and date treatment were done with IBM/PC.
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    A CROSS-CULTURAL STUDY ON SOCIAL COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT FOR UNDERSTANDING FRIENDSHIP
    Fang Fuxi,Fang Ge (Institute of Psychology,Academia Sinica) Monika Keller (Max Planck Institute for Human Development and Education F.R.G.)
    . 1994, 26 (01): 44-50.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 193 )
    The paper dealt with the question how children in different cultures develop concepts of moral and interpersonal obligations, and how they apply these concepts in moral reasoning about a situation of conflicting claims. Both 80 lcelandic and Chinese subjects were assessed at ages seven and nine years. They were presented with an interpersonal-moral conflict in which the protagonist had to decide whether she or he kept a promise to the best friend or accepted an interesting invitation from a third child. Various categories of interpersonal/moral reasoning were explored in a qualitative interview.A content analysis of reasons for action choices as well as reasons for the rnoral judgment of these choices was performed. The results of the study showed striking differences between the two cultures with regard to the types of reasons: Chinese children were more oriented towards altruistic obligations and relationship concerns, while egoistic concerns played a small role in their reasoning. In contradistinction,egoistic concerns and the contractual obligations of promise-keeping were more relevant for the lcelandic children. The results also showed the developmental effects.
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    EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE AFFECTION OF FETAL MUSIC ON THE FETUS
    Li Hong (Institute of Child Psychology,Beijing Normal University)
    . 1994, 26 (01): 51-58.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 588 )
    The experiment studied the effects of fetal music on the fetus from three aspects, the results indicate: Fetal music can extend the moving time of the fetus, it testified that the conditioned reflex was in the later period of the fetus. After birth the newborn child can recognize the fetal music, this explains that the hearing- memory was in the later period of the fetus; sex difference and activity types of the newes are the two important factors that influence the reaction of the fetus to music. The significance of the experiment testified that the mental phenomenon was in the period of the fetus. It also introduced the long historical debate whether mental phenomenon was or was not in the period of the fetus into the experimental process of psychlolgy.
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    AGE DIFFERENCES IN RAVEN TEST AND THE RELATION BETWEEN THE DIFFERENCES AND MEMORY TRAINING OF “METHOD OF LOCI”
    Sun Changhua, Wu Zhenyun, Wu Zhiping,Xu Shulian (Institute of Psychology,Chinese Academy of Sciences)
    . 1994, 26 (01): 59-63.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 112 )
    By adopting Combined Raven's Test(CRT)revised by the Psychology Department of East China Normal University, 87 subjects including young and old adult training groups were tested with “Method of Loci”, and control groups matching in age, sex, cultural background and I.Q. The purpose of this study was to explore age differences on the ability of[observation and reasoning from analogy, and the indirect transfer effects of]training to ability. The results showed that the young group performances on Raven Test were signifficantly higher than that of the older group. Age difference was enlarged when the difficulty of task incresed and the test time constrained. The performances of the young training group on Raven test were obviously higher than that of the young control group and the old training group,while no significant differences was observed between the old training group and the old control group.
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    AGE-RELATED COGNITIVE SPEED SLOWING AND LEARNING-IMPROVING PROCESSES
    Li Deming (Institute of Psychology,Chinese Academy of Sciences) SunFuli,Jiao Yan (Xiyuan Hospital,Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine)
    . 1994, 26 (01): 64-68.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 116 )
    A study on age-related cognitive speed slowing and the learning-improving processes was accomplished by using the method of man-computer interaction in arithmetic, symbol-digit, digit discrimination and count tasks. The subjects were 350 volunteers of 46 to 75 years of age. The results indicated that the cognitive speed of all the tasks showed progressively with increased age, however, the cognitive speed could be improved obviously through learning-training in the old aged. The above degrees in change were closely related to the requisite times for the tasks, Thus, it suggested that central cognitive processes slowed more with advancing age than peripheral sensorimotor processes, the learning-improving role could be major in the enhancing on the speed of central processes.
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    A COGNITIVE-KNOWLEDGE SYSTEM MODEL OF PERCEIVED CONTROLLABILITY ON LIFE EVENTS
    Wang Dengfeng, Gan Yiqun (Department of Psychology,Beijing University)
    . 1994, 26 (01): 69-76.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 197 )
    college students rated their perceived controllability(PC) on 60 different events, and their internal-external locus of control(IE) and depression scores were also obtained. The 60 events were put in to three categories according to their real controllability(RC) prerated by 40 graduate students: low RC events, medium events, and high RC events. Results indicated that depressors have lower PCs than non-depressors only on medium RC events; externals have lower PCs than internals on both low and medium RC events; and females have lower PCs across all events. Meanwhile, sex, IE, and depression have significant interactions on PC ratings in medium RC events. These results restricted the “sadder but wiser” phenomena proposed by Abramson and Alloy(1979) and the generalized locus of control expectancies on controllablity, which emphasis the importance of the RC of life events accounted. These results were explained by the Cognitive- Knowledge System Model of locus of control proposed by the auther, and further research designs were also discussed.
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    ESTIMATION FOR NUMEROUSNESS OF LESS THAN 50 IN RHESUS MONKEYS(macaca mulatta)
    Lin Guobin (Institute of Psychology,Chinese Academy of Sciences)
    . 1994, 26 (01): 77-84.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 118 )
    Estimation has not yet been systematically investigated with primate. In this experiment, the ability of 2 rhesus monkeys(macaca mulatta) in estimating the numerousness of less than 50 was investigated. In all of the six procedures of the experiment. the delaved-match-to-sample was used to test how accurately the animals could recognize the Standard Number(SN) and Comparative Number(CN). The SN and CN were black-filled circles (dots) that were drawn on white cards. Each number from 9-49 with 2 or 4 apart was represented by 20 individually constructed cards. so each number was represented by 40 discriminable patterns. The fixed patterns were avoided and in order to control the cumulative area, three diameters for black dots were used. The results suggested that. there were two factors. the number distances between SN and CN and the magnitude of SN and CN. affected the numerousness estimation of monkeys. The two monkeys completed all performances of estimation for numerousness of less than 50 when the number distances between SN and CN were 4 or more than 4(80% correct criterion). While when the number distance was 2, the two monkeys reached criterion of performances of estimation for 9- 25, but not for 27- 49. The author suggested that the monkeys completed a relative numerousness estimation and it was a process of assignment of a numerical tag.
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    THE FIRST MEETING OF THE SIXTH COUNCIL AND STANDING COMMITTEE OF THE CHINESE PSYCHOLOGICAL SOCIETY
    Chen Yongming(Institute of Psychology,Academia Sinica)
    . 1994, 26 (01): 85-88.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 60 )
    Abstract During VII Chinese Congress of Psychology, the First Meeting of the Sixth Council of the Chinese Psychological Society was held in Beijing on 7 October, 1993. Prof. Wang su, President of the Fifth Council, delivered the working report. The Standing Committee was elected. The elected president is Prof. Lin Zhongxian. On 8 October, the first meeting of Standing Committee was held; The organization of branch committee and the working projects of the Sixth Council were discussed at this meeting.
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    THE Q-TYPE CLUSTERING OF THE TYPES AND CHARACTERISTICS OF UNDER ACHIEVEMENT STUDENTS
    Wu Zengqiang, Duan Huifen, Shen Zhifei,Xu Mangdi,Xu Zisheng (Shanghai Institute of Educational Research)
    . 1994, 26 (01): 92-100.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 186 )
    This research focuses on the ability and personality of 1480 middle school students in Shanghai area by Q-type clustering, The results show six main different types of psychological development which is related to the acadermic achievement of the students 353 under achievement students can be divided into four main types temporary hinder, ability hinder, motivation hinder and systematic hinder, Different types of students show different characteristics, This research can lay a foundation for drawing up a practical instruction program for different types of students.
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    BINOCULAR DISPARITY SENSITIVITY FOR RANDOM DOT STEREOGRAMS WITH DIFFERENT COMPLEXITY OF DEPTH PATTERN
    Jin Guichang,Zhou Guiropg,Zheng Zhuying,Zhang Jingzhi (Institute of Biophsics,Academia Sinica,Beijing,100101) (Laboratory of Cognitive Science,Beijing,100034)
    . 1994, 26 (01): 101-105.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 119 )
    In order to study the effect of different complexities of depth patterns on stereopsis a psychophysical experiment with Random Dot Stereogram (RDS) was conducted. A set of static RDS with different frequencies of sinusoidal variation in disparity, which designated the complexity of pattern, was used to study binocular stereopsis. The result defined a region within certain frequencies of sinusoidal variation of disparity, at which depth could be seen. The range of frequency of sinusoidal variation in disparity was from 0. 1 to 4 (cycle per degree) at the region. The high frequency limitation of depth perception was at 4 cycles per degree. So stereopsis was a function of the complexity of depth pattern. There were some differences of binocular disparity sensitivity in the seven subjects, but the shapes of these seven regions were similar.
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    DOUBLE QUALITY OF MEMORY OF PATIENTS WITH CLOSED-HEAD INJURY:IMPAIRMENT AND PRESERVATION
    He Xiaosheng, Wang Mengyin (Department of Neurosurgery,Bethune International Peace Hospital,Shijiazhuang) Huangfu En,Miao Danmin,Wang Xiaoying (Depatment of Psychology,Fourth Military Medical University,Xian)
    . 1994, 26 (01): 106-112.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 117 )
    The present study explored some characteristics of explict memory(free recall, recognition) and implicit memory( priming effects),of seventeen patients with moderate and severe closed-head injury, under four different levels of processing for single-characters. The results showed that: (1) The patients were impaired in explicit memory but normal in implicit memory. (2) Both groups had a better explicit memory in deep conceptual processing than in the shallow supperficial one; a so-called semantic facilitation occured at the expense of greater effort, the patients used much more effort than the controls did with poorer efficiency. Hence the closed-head injured patients exhibited a double quality of impairment and preservation in memory. Based on this, the authors proposed promising strategies for cognitive rehabilitation training, and provided a further neuro psychological evidence for the theoretical view that human beings possess different memory systems.
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