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ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

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    25 September 1994, Volume 26 Issue 03 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    ON TRANSITIVE INFERENCE MAKING OF CHILDREN AGED 3 TO 6
    Wei Huazhong,Song Shilong(Liaoning Normal University,Dalian)
    1994, 26 (03):  225-231. 
    Abstract ( 872 )  
    Three kinds of situations were designed to show children's operation in inference making. It also attempted to find out how children make transitive inference.The results showed.(1)Children aged 3 to 6 do have the capacity to make transitive inference.but they usually don't manifest it.(2)There are two factors leading to Chinese children's failure in transitive inference making:One is that they wrongly interpret the comparative sentences in Chinese, the other is that they don't remember the premises.(3) Children aged 3 to 6 possess different inner processing models in making transitive inference.Most younger children adopt the“partial processing model”,while older children adopt the“entire space processing model”.(4)There is no sex difference in transitive inference making for children aged 3 to 6.
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    IDENTITY RESEARCH ON THE CAUSES OF CONFORMITY AMONG CHILDREN AGED FROM 8 TO 16
    Cen Guozhen(Shanghai Teacher's University)
    1994, 26 (03):  232-239. 
    Abstract ( 1284 )  
    What are the actual causes of conformity?Based on literature,the researcher supposed that there are five causes for conformity.100 children aged 8-16 were tested and their responses verified the supposition.Then 400 children of that age as subjects were asked to rank the above causes according to the order of importance they thought while facing two conformity situations presented, the length of line as the stimulation in the one, and the moral judgement in the other. The results showed the subjects believed the importance of order of the conformity causes were as follows,“considering the majority are correct”is the first, then “to show belonging to the group”,“to show friendship with others”,“to avoid being punished”, and the last is “to save effort and take little trouble for oneself”.Meanwhile, this trend showed distinct features among children between the younger and the elder,and between the different situations.
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    THE RELATIONSHIP OF PEER'S NORMAL PRESSURE AND DIRECT PRESSURE WITH ADOLESCENTS' SUBSTANCE USE
    Fang Xiaoyi(Institute of Child Psychology,Beijing Normal University,Beijing)
    1994, 26 (03):  240-246. 
    Abstract ( 996 )  
    subjects from the 6th,8th and 10th grade were randomly selected to test peer normal pressure and direct pressure and their relationship with cigarette use and alcohol use,the scale of peer normal pressure,and the scale of peer direct pressure,The Cronbach Alpha of every measurement was respectively 0.8615,0.8212 and 0.9500, Results showed perceived peer normal pressure and direct pressure to cigarette use and alcohol use were signigicantly different;The gender and grade difference of peer normal pressure and direct pressure were significant;the perceived peer normal pressure and direct pressure had significant influence to the adolescents'cigarette use and alcohol use;boys were more susceptible to peer normal pressure and direct pressure than girls;Among all the subjects the 8th graders were most susceptible to peer normal pressure and peer direct pressure,
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    BEHAVIORS OF MR CHILDREN IN CLASS AND IN FREE RLAY
    Mao Yuyan(Institute of Psychology,Chinese Academy of Sciences)
    1994, 26 (03):  247-254. 
    Abstract ( 936 )  
    MR children participated in this research project.Time-sampling method was used to make the data-collection in classes and in free plays in a dynamic way. The subjects's categories of behavior in classes and 7 categories of behavior in free plays were analysed according to different Kindergarten and levels of mental retardation.The results showed:numbers of children in one class,different teaching strategies,levels of mental retardation,etc.were correlated with MR children's behaviors. Discussions on methodology of data-collection,the relationships between different Kindergarten with MR children's behaviors,the relationships between different levels of mental retardation with MR children's behaviors,and the high frequency of self-amusement activities were made.Finally,based upon the fidings the author gave some suggestion on teaching stretegies to special education teachers.
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    THE COGNITION OF MANAGERS TO FACTORS OF UNCERTAINTY OF MACRO-DYNAMIC FIELD INFLUENCING DECISION MAKING OF NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT
    Zheng Quanquan(Department of Psychology,Hangzhou University)
    1994, 26 (03):  255-263. 
    Abstract ( 892 )  
    A great deal of uncertainty,especially the factors of uncertainty of macrodynamic field,should be dealt with in decision making of new product development in enterprises,and the cognition of managers to these factors of uncertainty could influence the decision making of new product development.Based on findings of previous studies,in this paper the properties of uncertainty of macro-dynamic field were explored with a questionnaire in which 121 managers from 15 enterprises in three areas of China were involved.The main dimensions of form variation of the factors from external environment were verified:motility,tendency and duration. The total uncertainty of dynamic field consisted of“the uncertainty of business information,upper-level management and recruitment,supply and public relations”.The theoretical significance and the practical values of the research for the decision making of new product development in enterprises in terms of studying cognition of managers were discussed finally.
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    PART-SET CUING EFFECT IN VISUAL IDENTIFICATION
    He Haidong,Jiao Shulan(Institute of Psychology,Academia Sinica)
    1994, 26 (03):  264-271. 
    Abstract ( 942 )  
    When the subjects are asked to recognize a picture,the performance is impaired by previous display of a degraded one of it.This phenomenon is called part-set cuing effect.In the present research,the conditions on which this effect occured were investigated.In Experiment Ⅰ,the results showed that by displaying more than one step of the degraded ones of the same picture,the recognition of this picture was more likely to be impaired.In Experiment Ⅱ, if the subjects had studied the Chinese characters beforehand,the part-set cuing effect occured only if the Chinese characters in a group were similar in shape, and an opposite effect was encountered on the other two condition:the Chinese characters in a group were similar in meaning or were selected randomly,while they were dissimilar in shape. If the subjects had not studied these Chinese characters beforehand,the effect occured in the shape-similar group and the randomly-selected group.A reasonable explanation to these results were given out in this research.
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    DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS OF PRECUES ON THE DETECTION OF TOPOLOGICAL AND LOCAL GEOMETRIC PROPERTIESMORE EVIDENCES
    Han Shihui,Chen Lin(Beijing Lab of Cognitive Science and Vision Laboratory,University of Science and Technology of China)
    1994, 26 (03):  272-278. 
    Abstract ( 1002 )  
    The effects of central and peripheral pre-cues on the detection of orientation and presence-absence was studied. The results indicated that the detection of presence-absence showed shorter RTs and lower error rates than that of orientation in both valid and invalid conditions for central and peripheral cues.Pre-cues affected the detection of orientation in terms of both RT and error rate,but they affected the detection of presence-absence only in terms of RT.The pre-cue effects on the detection of orientation were stronger than that of presence-absence.The present results did not support the possible explanation based on the difference of luminous flux of Han and Chen's[4] experiment,and gave more evidences for the differential effects of pre-cues on the detection of different geometric properties.
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    A MATHEMATICAL DESCRIPTION ON PATTERN OF COGNITIVE SLOWING IN NONLEXICAL TASKS IN AGING
    Li Deming(Institute of Psychology,Chinese Academy of Sciences)Sun Fuli,Yan Yiai(Xiyuan Hospital,Chinese Academy of Traditional Medicine)
    1994, 26 (03):  279-283. 
    Abstract ( 852 )  
    A study on the mathematical pattern of cognitive slowing in 4 nonlexical tasks with age was accomplished by using the multitask regressive analyses of two age dimensions in 734 subjects of 46 to 75 years of age.The results indicated there were linear functional relations between task time of the 5 groups of older adults and the group of 46-50 years of age,the slopes of the linear equations increased with advanced age of the group of older adults.
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    VASOPRESSIN AND MEMORY RETENTION IN ONE-DAY OLD CHICKS
    Chen Shuangshuang,Sui Nan,Guan Linchu(Institute of Psychology,Chinese Academy of Sciences)Kuang Peigen,Zhang Fengying(Neurotransmitter Research Laboratory,Chinese PLA General Hospital)
    1994, 26 (03):  284-288. 
    Abstract ( 860 )  
    One-day old chicks were trained in a single-trial passive avoidance task.Based on the performance of memory retention, the chicks were divided into wo groups.AVP levels of the chick brains of each group were measured by using radioilmmunoassay.The results showed the AVP level in the good performance group was significantly lower than that in both the bad performance group and the control group. However, there were no significant differences in the AVP level between the bad performance group and the contrast group.The result suggested that the endogenous AVP might have been consumed in the memory process.
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    A COMPARED INVESTIGATION OF FRONTAL AND NONFRONTAL TUMOR ON WORD FLUENCY TEST
    Wang Xiaoming(Beijing Neurosurgical Institute)Xu Shulian(Institute of Psychology,Academia Sinica,Beijing)
    1994, 26 (03):  289-295. 
    Abstract ( 1126 )  
    The purpose was to explore the process and characteristics of speaking words of the same category,and words not of the same category and Stroop Test on patients with frontal,temporal and parietal-occipital tumor,The results indicaded that(1) The total number of speaking the same category of words in the fontal group was significantly poorer than that of the temporal group,(2)The time for reading colored words and word color of the frontal group was markedly longer than the temporal and parietal-occipital groups,(3) There was a higher rate of error in speaking colored words and word color of the frontal group than the parietal and normal groups,(4)The scores of speaking black colored words and word-color in the left brain tumor group was lower than the right brain tumor group,These results supported the fact that compared with temporal and parietal-occipital tumor,frontal tumor easily affected the ability of word memory,selected attention and category ability of the subjects.
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    FURTHER STUDY ON THE LEARNING-DEPENDENT LONG-TERM POTENTIATION OF SYNAPTIC EFFICACY IN THE HIPPOCAMPAL CA_3 REGION
    Xu Shitong,Guan Jianghui,Ou Yingqi(Neurophysiology Reserch Laboratory,South China Normal University,Guangzhou,510631)
    1994, 26 (03):  296-299. 
    Abstract ( 866 )  
    Previous work demonstrated that there was learning-dependent long-term potentiation (LDLTP)of synaptic efficacy at the PP-CA3 synapses of rats during learning.In the present study it was further observed that LDLTP happened synchronously at MF-CA3 and Comm-CA3 synapses in learning,but the potentiation degree of MF-CA3 synapse was much larger than that of Comm-CA3 synapse(P<0.01). previous work showed again that the injection of picrotoxin, GABA receptor antagonist, facilitated the production of LDLTP at PP-CA3 synapse during training, In this study, it was found that the injection of picrotoxin into the ipsilateral CA3 area could facilitate the production of LDLTP at contralateral MF-CA3 synapse and correspondingly the behavioral response.These results demonstrated that LDLTP can be induced at the synapses of several inputs in hippocampal CA3 during learn ing and both lateral CA3 areas coordinate each other for the induction of LDLTP.
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    EFFECT OF MAMMILLARY BODY ON LEARNING-DEPENDENT LONG-TERM POTENTIATION IN HIPPOCAMPAL DENTATE GYRUS
    Wang Ji,Xu Shitong,Ou Yingqi(Neurophysiology Research Laboratory,South China Normal University,Cuangzhou)
    1994, 26 (03):  300-304. 
    Abstract ( 936 )  
    Population spikes(PS) were recorded from dentate gyrus(DG)of freely moving rats following stimulation of the perforant path. The rats were trained to perform conditioned drinking behavior.(1)High-frequency stimulation(HFS) of the mammillary body(MB) could elicit a temporary inhibition of PS in DG.(2)Animals were treated with HFS of MB before daily trai ning session,the development of learning-dependent long-term potentiation(LDLTP)was depressed significantly, and the establishment of conditioned response was suppressed parallelly,(3)The inhibitory effect of HFS of MB on PS in DG was weakened significantly as the enhancement of PS amplitude reached the maximal level.(4)HFS of MB had no clear effect on the retention of LDLTP and the consolidation of conditioned response.The results suggested that MB might exert an inhibitory modulation on the development of LDLTP in DG.
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    A STUDY OF CHINESE CHARACTER COPYING IN PATIENTS WITH CEREBRAL LESION
    He Jincai,Zhang Jinxiang,Wang Xiaotong(Department of Neurology,Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical College,Wenzhou)
    1994, 26 (03):  305-311. 
    Abstract ( 868 )  
    This paper was designed to study Chinese-character-copying in 37 patients with cerebral lesions.The results showed that lesions of the cerebral hemisphere may lead to Chinese character copying disorder,but the degree of disorder had no statistical difference between the right side and the left side,between the cortical and the subcortical area, and no difference between patients with.aphasia and those with nonaphasia whether the patients were aphasic or not,there was no interrelation between copying and dictation, the relationship between copying of Chinese character and copying painting was dependent on the educational background,patients with less edeucation(not being able to read and write) showed significant interrelation between the ability of copying of the Chinese character and that of copying of painting and also under the influence of unilateral spatial neglect, while for the patients with reading and writing ability,the above mentioned factors could not be found in the copying of Chinese characters.It was suggested that different ways of writing Chinese characters had different neural mechanisms. The main process of copying for the persons who were not able to read and write was related to the right cerebrum, while that for the persons who were able to read and write was related to the usage of the right and left cerebrum.
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    PSYCHOLOGICAL THOUGHTS OF ZHOU YI AND ITS DEVELOP MENT IN PRE-QIN DYNASTY
    Yan Guocai(Department of Educational Management,Shanghai Normal University)
    1994, 26 (03):  312-318. 
    Abstract ( 901 )  
    Zhou Yi is one of the oldest books in China,The history of ancient Chinese psychological thought can trace back to this work,This paper emphasizes three aspects of psychological thoughts as follows:1,Basic viewpoint;views on heaven and man,Ying and Yang and on development;2,Description on perception, emotion and motive;3,Ideal personality.
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    TEN YEARS OF FOLLOW-UP STUDY ON THE MENTAL HEALTH OF JINO MINORITY
    Zhu Hua,Li Jianhua,Wan Wenpeng(Yunnan Mental Hospital)
    1994, 26 (03):  319-323. 
    Abstract ( 942 )  
    In the past ten years,many changes occurred in the Jino minority,The closed society opened to the outside and poor people became rich by cultivating economic plants, Jino people welcome these changes with selfconfidence, There community seems stable and calm, The average rate of crime per year is 7/100,000; the rate of suicide is 9.61/100,000;the rate of divorce is 14/100,000. All the rates are comparatively low, Only 7 cases of neuroses came to the mental hospital.But alcohol abuse is becoming an important problem to the Jinominority,Traditionally Jino people like to drink,now they have money to buy spirits,so many people drink a lot, the rate of pathological drinking is 6.97%,that means an average of 80g of alcohol per day, the rate of alcohol dependence is 0.67‰, higher than the rate in inner parts of China.
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    DEVELOPMENT OF SPORTS PSYCHOLOGY IN CHINA:HISTORY,PRESENT STATUS AND PROSPECTS
    Zhang Liwei(Sports Psychology Laboratory,Beijing Physical Education Unviersity)Ding Xueqin(Sports Psychology Laboratory,Institute of Sports Sciences,National Sports Committee)
    1994, 26 (03):  324-330. 
    Abstract ( 953 )  
    This paper briefly reviewed the history of the development of sports psychology in China, pointing out that as an applied science,its main practice is the appraisal of psychological characteristics of outstanding athletes in the competition field and psychological selection of youth and teen-aged athletes,aiming at problems in training and competition,launching psychological trai ning and psychological counseling,and the training of coaches.In the future Chinese sports psychology should extend its research field,develop measurement tools and methods to fit the characteristics of Chinese physical education, and pay attention to absorb the new achievements in other fields such as cognitive psychology.
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