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ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

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    25 December 1994, Volume 26 Issue 04 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    FIFTEEN YEARS OF STUDY ON THE PSYCHOLOGY AND EDUCATION OF GIFTED CHILDREN
    Zha Zixiu(Institute of Psychology Academic Sinica)
    1994, 26 (04):  337-346. 
    Abstract ( 1002 )  
    This paper summarized the main results of the study on the mental development and education of gifted children within the recent fifteen years.Theoretical results showed that:(1)Between gifted and normal children differentiations appeared in various aspects of cognition;obvious differences existed in the character of cognitive structure; and the developmental trend of cognition was not the same.(2)Personality trend and characteristics of the gifted are outstanding.Howcver;the development of personality is unbalanced which is expressed in three kinds of personality traits; close correlation existed between personality and academic performance of the gifted.(3)Developmental processes of the gifted could be summarized into four types.(4) Gifted children not only possess high intelligence and creativity but also active development of personality trend and characteristics.Results of the study have been applied to identify and educate the gifted,the effects of the application have been summed up.
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    THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE CHILD′S DEVELOPMENT OF LANGUAGE AND COGNITION (THOUGHT)
    Xu Zhengyuan(Department of Psychologg, Beijing University)
    1994, 26 (04):  347-353. 
    Abstract ( 1041 )  
    On the basis of the results of our longitudinal and experimental researches upon language development of 12 children from birth to three years of age,this article analyzed and compared the stages of the child's language and cognitive development, the respective influencing factors, investigating the relationship between the child's development of language and cognition(thought).Four viewpoints on this question are derived:(1) In the stage of the child's concrete thought before 1 year of age (pre-linguistic stage),children do have cognition (not only sensory perception,memory and presentation, but also thought),but have no language.This showed clearly that it is invalid to say that all the thoughts are linked with language.Nevertheless,abstract thought characteristic to mankind are closely and indivisibly linked with language.Having highly generalized language,human beings can possess highly abstract thoughts.(2) Development of cognition (thought) is the basis of language development.This is illustrated and proved from three aspects,i.e.the order of grasping parts of speech,the process of acquiring personal pronouns,and the effects of cognitive development on language development.(3) Thus we can see that the relationships between development of cognition (thought)and that of language are two-way,dialectic and interacting complicatedly.It is inappropriate to say the relationship between cognition(thought)and language is one determining the other.(4) Approaching the origin of both cognition(thought)and language,we should adopt a dialectical materialist point of view.The reason why human beings have language and highly generalized abstract thoughts is that they practise for the need of adapting,reflecting and changing the objective world.Lastly,brief comments are made on Whorf′s and Piaget's relevant views.
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    THE DEVELOPMENT OF COGNITION ON FAIRNESS AND JUSTICE IN ALLOCATION OF REWARDS IN THE CHILDREN OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL
    Fang Fuxi,Wang Wenzhong(Institute of Psychology,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing,100012)
    1994, 26 (04):  354-361. 
    Abstract ( 848 )  
    This paper explored how Chinese children at ages of 7,9,12 used distributive rules such as"effort","production"and "ability"differently to perform the allocations of rewards and make judgements on the assumed patterns of allocations.The same tests were also given to the adults for comparison with those of the development of children. The results showed that:1) 7 and 9-year-olds were apt to confuse fairness with equality but were able to weigh the distributive rules in unstable and inconsistent ways. A model of allocating rewards had been developed in 12-year-olds who were able to make decisions and judgements steadily for the fair rewards; 2 ) Compared with children,the model of distributive practices of adults were more flexible. While performing and judging an allocation of rewards,the adults not only counted on weighing the concrete rules in a specific situation,but also on the generalized social norms; 3) The children put more weight on"effort"rule while reasoning the allcation, however,the adults emphasized on integrating"effort" with "production".
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    THE COMPETITION AMONG DIFFERENT CLASSIFYING STANDARDS IN CHILDREN′S CLASSIFYING OPERATION
    Li Wenfu (Psychological Institute of C.A.S.)Fan Aimei(Xian-Janssen pharmaceutical Ltd)
    1994, 26 (04):  362-369. 
    Abstract ( 926 )  
    Based on previous research,this study aimed at checking(1)which is the primary factor when category concept,color,shape and theme relation exit in children's classifying operation simultaneously.(2)order and different levels among four classifying standards.150 objects were adopted,age range was from 4 to 8 years of age.We selected 7 category concepts that the children knew well,using concept matching method and matched pair technique.The results showed:(1)Category concept ability developed fast after 5-years of age,reaching the basic mastering level at 8-years of age.(2) Perceptual factor was the last turn among four classfying standards,theme relation was placed at the top at 5-years of age.(3) Order of the four standards were stable and consistant after 6-years of age.(4)Different levels increased with the age growth.(5) 6-7 years of age was the turning point of different levels of changes.
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    RE-EXPLORATIONAL STUDY ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN′S COGNITION OF HUMAM AGE
    Fang Ge,Fang Fuxi,Feng Gang(Institute of Psgchology,Academia Sinica)
    1994, 26 (04):  370-377. 
    Abstract ( 849 )  
    The present experiment was conducted to examine additional variables which might interfere with children's understanding of age. The samples totalled 80 children consisting of 4 groups aged 4 to 7 with 20 children in each group selected at random from kindergartens and elementary schools in Beijing,China.The subject was asked to manipulate the photographs of full-length pictures. Moreover the stature of the figure in the pictures was inversely proportional to his or her age,that is,the taller the younger. Secondly,the objective question referred to the subjects themselves. The results indicated that the understanding of human age went through a process in which time-sequences and time durations related to age were differentiated and integrated progressively.Four and five olds have already had some knowledge about age such as they could tell the differences of age in the light of faces and other clues of the appearance, they begin to know who is older or younger which depended on the birth-sequences and so on, however, their understanding of age is apt to be interfered by irrelevant factors such as the statures of the figure and the rate of growing up. They also hardly understood relative age-sequences.Their cognition of age was also constrained by the developmental level of cognition of number. They did not conceptualize age until they came to elementary school having formal schooling.
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    A STUDY ON THE CONGNITIVE STYLES OF SENIOR MIDDLE SCHOOL STUDENTS
    Li Shouxin,Song Guangwen(Department of Education,Qufu Normal University)
    1994, 26 (04):  378-384. 
    Abstract ( 1081 )  
    The Embedded Figure Test (EFT)was used to examine the congnitive styles of 254 senior middle school students.The results indicated that:1)The development of congnitive styles of senior middle school students were relatively stable.2) There was a significant sex difference in The development of congnitive styles of senior middle school students.3)The classification of science and art classes did not have significant influence on the students'congnitive styles of development.4) There was no significant relation between the students' cognitive styles (field dependence-independence)and their Chinese language achievement and mathematics achievement.
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    THE DEVELOPMENT OF EMOTION JUDGEMENT AND IMAGINATION IN THE PROCESS OF MUSIC APPRECIATION IN CHILDREN
    Liang Chengmou,Zhang Yongwei,Zheng Jinwen(Dept,of Education,Southwest Normal University,Chongqing)
    1994, 26 (04):  385-392. 
    Abstract ( 1245 )  
    The experiment was designed to study the emotion judgement and imagination level in Chinese children at the age of 3 to 10 after music appreciation.The results showed that,for children significant differences appeared in accuracy of judgement of happiness and sadness;in emotion judgement,the accuracy rate in happiness was higher than in sadness for preschool children;after the children began to study in primary school,the accuracy in judging sadness increased rapidly;the imagination index increased slowly as they grew;the number of accurate judgement is significantly correlated to the number of imagination-producing.
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    IDENTIFICATION OF THE CHINESE TWO-CHARACTER WORD UNDER REPETITION PRIMING CONDITION
    Peng Danling,Li Yanping,Liu Zhizhong(Psychology Department,Beijing Normal University)
    1994, 26 (04):  393-400. 
    Abstract ( 907 )  
    Using a repetition priming paradigm the present study investigated into the identification of Chinese two-character words.32 compound words and 32 binding words were used as target.The prime followed by a pattern mask was either a constituent of a two-character word,or a word itself.The results showed that identification of the target was facilitated by the prime under the backward priming condition,Facilitation effects for the constituent primed and the whole word-primed were equally large.The binding word 1(the token frequency of its constituent is more than 1) were found to take longer to recognize than the compound words,but the surprising finding was that lexical decisions were significantly faster for the binding word 2 (the token frequency of its constituent is 1)than for the compound words.The results also showed that both the compound words and the binding words 1 have significant position effects.The subject recognized the word in which its first constituent was as prime significantly faster than the word in which its second constituent was as prime.There was no significant difference between transparent compound words and opaque compound words.The results suggest that representations of Chinese two-character words are stored in morphemic form.
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    STUDY ON THE COMPARISON OF LONG-TERM MEMORY IN NORMAL HEARING AND DEAF PEOPLE
    Wang Naiyi(Institute of Psychology,Academia Sinica)
    1994, 26 (04):  401-409. 
    Abstract ( 978 )  
    Using visually serial presentation and the method of serial and free recall,the relative efficiency of the phonetic,formal and semantic three coded dimensions in short-term and long-term memory processing in normal hearing and deaf people were compared.The results showed that the normal hearing people produced obvious phonetic similarity effect in short-term serial recall but the deaf people showed prominently the interference of the formal coded similarity.In short-term and long-term memory,both groups showed that the effects of the formal and semantic code were most intense and the effect of the phonetic code was relatively weaker.The two groups also showed obvious serial- position effect and that the long-term retentions were on the whole the same.The relations of the primacy and recency effect to shortterm and long-term stored systems were discussed.
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    LOGICS FOR DEMONSTRATION OF IMPLICIT MEMORY AND THE REVISION OF THE PROCESS DISSOCIATION PROCEDURE
    Ye Gewei(East China Normal University,Shanghai)
    1994, 26 (04):  410-416. 
    Abstract ( 917 )  
    This paper discussed two logics for demonstrating implicit memory and the problem of conscious and unconscious influences within a task.The logic of indirect demonstration was used in functional dissociation experiments,the prerequisite of which was a "pure"assumption of conscious or unconscious influence in a test.The logic of direct demonstration was used in the matched comparison experiments,the prerequisite of which was that both conscious and unconscious influences were engaged in a test.A process-dissociation procedure was proposed based on the latter by Jacoby,however,it separated conscious and unconscious influences within a test by borrowing computations from the classic test theory.The author argued that a revised equation for inclusion test should be generated,that is,Inclusion =R(1-a) + A(1-R),thus the PDP should be revised that includes four equations.It not only considered a failure of unconscious influences(1-a)in the inclusion test that the PDP omitted, but also provided more accurate estimation of recollection (R)than that of the recollection (R0) from the PDP,which had a theoretical basis of mathematics.
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    QUANTITATIVE STUDIES FOR EFFECT OF TEMPORAL INFARCT ON LEARNING AND MEMORY IN WISTAR RATS
    Xiang Jing,Kuang Peigen,Zhang Fengying(Neurotransmitter Research Laboratory,Chinese PLA General Hospital,Postgraduate Military Medical School,Beijing)
    1994, 26 (04):  417-422. 
    Abstract ( 845 )  
    The selective temporal infarct animal model induced photochemically was developed,It was determined in terms of learning and memory ability,neurological functional score and size of infarct area coincidentally for quantitative study of the learning and memory disorders in Wistar rats with temporal infarct,The results demonstrated that the learning and memory ability of rats with temporal infarct was damaged significantiy,while no sensory and motor dysfunctions were found..It also showed that the extents of learning and memory ability damage were related to the size of the te mporal infarct area.It is suggested that the selected temporal infarct is an ideal animal model of dementia.
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    ANALYSIS OF EFFECTING FACTORS ON MEMORY TRAINING RESULTS BY“THE METHOD OF LOCI”
    Wu Zhiping,Xu Shulian,Wu Zhenyun,Sun Changhua(Institute of Psychology,Chinese Academy of Sciences)
    1994, 26 (04):  423-429. 
    Abstract ( 809 )  
    The "Method of Loci"was applied to train subjects of children,adolescents, young,middle-aged and old adults on memory.Before and after training,subjects were tested on intellects, memory,and figural imagination.The purpose of this study was to analyze the relations and predictablity between these cognitive factors and the training effects.The results showed that: ①The performances of word and figure memory at pretest,Digit-Symbol Substitution (DSS),Vocabulary (VO) and figural imagination correlated significantly to memory at post-test; ②The relation between age and memory training effects was non-linearl;③Except VO,all cognitive factors might predict performances of word memory at post-test,and the performances of word memory at post-test,and DSS predicted figual transfer effects at post-test.
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    DEVELOPMENT OF PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE IN OPEN CHINA
    Lin Zhongxian(Chinese Academy of Sciences)
    1994, 26 (04):  430-436. 
    Abstract ( 791 )  
    This paper summarized briefly the development of psychological science in the past 15 years in open China.It described the past and present status and great changes of Chinese psychological science in various fields.
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    MODEL BUILDING AND STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODELLING──A DISCUSSION WITH ZHANG JIANPING
    Meng Hongwei(Central Education Iastitute,Beijing 100088)
    1994, 26 (04):  437-440. 
    Abstract ( 750 )  
    This paper presents the concept of Structural Equation Modelling and the distinctions of LISREL Model and Structural Equation Modelling.The paper presents also a brief introduction of Structural Equation Model─Partial Least Square Model (PLS).
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