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  • Table of Content
       , Volume 27 Issue 01 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
    A STUDY ON IMPLICIT MEMORY OF CHINESE CHARACTERS(Ⅱ):TASK DISSOCIATION AND RESPONSE BIAS
    Yang Zhiliang,Ye Gewei(East China Normal University,Shanghai,200062)
    . 1995, 27 (01): 1-8.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 203 )
    This research compared the discrimination ability(A′)and response bias (B″)of preference discrimination (implicit memory) tests and recognition(explicit memory) tests with task dissociation paradigm by manipulating prime duration variable (250ms,500ms, 750ms)and attention variable (cued and uncued characters)of study phase.It was discovered that:(1)A cross over dissociation was found to demonstrate implicit memory with a process-pure assumption, although the criterion of the matched comparison method was not met.(2)In the preference (implicit)tests,a significant positive priming effect was discovered with the 500ms duration and cued characters.Meanwhile,a significant negative priming effect was also found with the 750ms duration and uncued characters.(3)When implicit and recognition memory occurred,a stable mental state accompanied with both forms of memory.However,the bias of preference tests was more liberal and that of the recognition tests was more conservative.
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    THE TWO MECHANISMS OF RECOGNITION ANDPRIMING EFFECTS
    Han Songmei(Institute of educational Research,Tsinghua University)Zhu Ying(DePartement of Psychology,peking University)
    . 1995, 27 (01): 9-14.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 114 )
    The results of two experiments are reported which involved the recognition process of RR(Retrieved-based recognition)items and FR(Familiaritybased recognition)items.In this study,the functional relationship between RR and FR and the relationship between kinds of recognition and priming were investigated in two experiments.RR and FR in undivided attention condition were respectively compared with those in divided attention condition in experiment 1,which used low-frequency words and high- frequency words as material.The results indicated that dispersed attention while studying progressively impaired RR,but PR was not affected by dispersed attention.Lowfrequency words,relative to high-frequency words,enhanced FR but did not influence RR.A second experiment respectively measured word fragment completion rate in RR and FR.The results showed that word fragment completion rate in FR was higher than that in RR. The findings implied that the components in RR and FR were very different: RR was conscious and FR was unconscious.FR and priming perhaps share a common function.
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    A STUDY ON THE COMPREHENSION OF OF CHINESE IDIOMS
    Gu Beiye,Miao Xiaochun(Department of psychology,East China Normal University,Shanghai, 200062)
    . 1995, 27 (01): 15-20.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 166 )
    The purpose of this study was to explore the processing of Chinese idioms.The materials used in the study included:(1) idioms of verb-object structure which have both literal and figurative meaings;(2) phrases of the same structure as(1);(3)idioms of modifier-modified structure which have both literal and figurative meanings;(4)phrases of the same structure as(3);(5)idioms of the same structure as(1) which only have figurative meaning;(6)words.All of these items consist of 3 characters, and are familiar to the subjects.Subjects were presented with these materials and(7) three character nonsense items and were asked to judge whether these items made sense.The RT of all kinds of idioms showed no significant differences. The effect of syntax structure in idiom comprehension was not significant and so was the difference between double-meaning idioms and single-meaning idioms. The effect of idiom form was significant.They were shorter than that of phrases,and longer than that of words.The results basically supported the simultaneous processing model of idiom comprehension. In addition,the article discussed the problem of lexicalization of idiom.
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    THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE DISPERSION OF METRIC FIGURES AND THE INFORMATION TRANSFER EFFICIENCY
    Cao Liren,Zhu Zuxiang,Lu Xinghai(Department of Psychology, Hangzhou University)
    . 1995, 27 (01): 21-27.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 69 )
    Abstract An experiment was conducted to investigate the relationship between the dispersion of figures and information transfer efficiency. The experimentalvariable was the dispersion of figures, which ranged from 0.3 to 0.7. The dependent variable was the channel capacity. The results showed the relationship between the dispersion of matric figures and the information trasfer efficiency approched to a nonlinear function.The figures with middle dispersion (about 0.5)had high information transfer efficiency.Either increasing or decreasing the dispersion caused the decrease of efficiency.
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    AN EXPERIMENT ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF HIERARCHICAL CLASSIFICATION OF CHILDREN FROM AGE 3 TO 6
    Fan Aimei,Li Wenfu(Xian-Janssen pharmaceutical Ltd Xian,710043)(Institute of psychology, Chinese Academy ofSciences,Beijing,100012)
    . 1995, 27 (01): 28-36.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 92 )
    This experiment was conducted in the attempt to understand the development of hierarchical classification of children. children from the age of 3to 6 were given matching tasks with either basic-level or superordinate relations of different perceptual similarity. The result indicated:(1)Even 3-yearold children could consistently sort at the basic level. However,children perform poorly at the superordinate level,and there were developmental differences in the ability to sort at this level.Till age 6,they began to sort based on categories.(2)The perceptual similarity of materials is a very important factor which appears to contribute to children′s matching at superordinate level.(3)Matching and reason are two valuable indexes for the study of children′ability to classifiy and researchers should pay attention to the perceptual similarity of materials.
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    A STUDY ON THE PSYCHOLOGICAL EXPERIMENT OF COMPREHENSIVE EFFECT OF CLASSROOMTEACHING──A COMPREHENSIVE TEACHING METHOD INVOLVING FIVE ASPECTS, FOUR STAGESAND SEVEN STEPS
    Li Wei(China National Institute for Educational Research)
    . 1995, 27 (01): 37-45.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 135 )
    With the comprehensive viewpoint of modern science as the guidance and with the concept that teaching is to impart knowledge as the starting point,the teaching-learning process was divided into four; stages and the classroom teaching measures were adopted in seven steps,thus resulting in a breakthrough progress in improving the quality of classroom teaching.
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    A STUDY OF CHILDREN′S LOGICAL COGNITION DEVELOPMENT
    Wang Wenzhong,Fang Fuxi,Fang Ge(Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing,100012)
    . 1995, 27 (01): 46-53.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 215 )
    Four items of logical cognition tasks, which consisted of volume conservation, class inclusion, multiplication of class and multiplication of relations,were used to examine the same children of 7-yr-olds,9-yr-olds and 12-yrolds in primary schools for exploring the age differences, inter-intra-individual differences on the cognitive development. The results showed:(1)The results of the cross-section and longitudinal studies showed consistently that achievement of cognition advanced with age.(2)The interindividual differences of children for cognitive development was effected by the schooling quailities,the educated level of the parents and the level of intellgence of the child.(3)The acquisition of the concepts which were assumed to belong to the same cognitive structure was not synchronous. The children′s cognitive development doesn′t change according to a fixed order-from simple to complex.
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    COMPASRISON BETWEEN MIDDLE SCHOOL STUDENTS OF THE JINUO ETHNIC GROUP AND LOCAL HAN NATIONALITY IN PERSONALITY TRAIT AND PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT
    Sha Yuying(Department of Educationm,yunnan Teachers University, Kunming)Qin Zhihua(Kunming Teachers College)
    . 1995, 27 (01): 54-60.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 117 )
    This research adopted personality measuring instrument designed and made by the researchers themselves which were approved by experts.The researchers used the instruments to measure 139 Jinuo students and 112 local Han students.The result showed that the personality of Jinuo students had a number of peculiar characteristics. However, there were more common characteristics in Han and Jinuo students. There was more generality than discrepancy. Both of the nationality students developed steadily in their personality,accompanying some particular character development, whose degree, content,tendency and progress were different. There were more differences between the characters in the two nationalities in Grade One;however,when coming to Grade Two, there was a reduction in discrepancy, the reasons of which are that Han students were willing to be friends with Jinuos, the two nationality students drew closer to each other, Now more Jinuo students are ready to be friends with Han students.
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    A STUDY OF CORRELATION AND MECHANISM BETWEEN TEMPERAMENT AND LEARNING ACHIEVEMENT
    Zhang Luxiang,Qian Hanfen(Anhui Normal University,Wuhu)
    . 1995, 27 (01): 61-68.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 427 )
    The present study examined the relations between temperament and learning achievement as well as personality characteristics of 3163 primary & high school students. The results showed:1.The correlations between learning achievement and emotional feature as well as introversion or extroversion are significant. Sanguine,sanguine-phlegmatic and sanguine-choleric temperaments are favorable for learning.2.There is a relation between temperament and personality. Student groups of different temperament type accordingly have different typical personality characteristics.3. It is important to pay attention to the influences of temperamental differences on personality and learning achievement.
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    ISCHEMIC-INDUCED IRREVERSIBLE DEFICIT OF MEMORY FUNCTION IN WISTAR RATS
    Jia Jianmin(Neurology Department,The First Handan City Hospital,Handan)Jia Jianping(Changchun Bethun Medical University)
    . 1995, 27 (01): 69-77.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 100 )
    This paper reported that ischemia-induced irreversible deficit of memory function in Wistar Rats surviving for a long time after global ischemia by 4-vessel occlusion method in the Water Maze Test and Step Down Test.Contents of ACh, ChAT and AVP were declined in the six brain regions i.e.,frontal cortex,temporal cortex, striatum, hippocampus, thalamus and Myenert nucleus, Changes in the memory function and in the contents of transmitters showed no defference in time and extent. It was proved that ACh, ChAT and AVP were neurotransmitters and neuropeptide which are closely associated with learning and memory.It was also suggested that they play and important part in the process of learning and memory.So these results indicated that changes in the contents of ACh, ChAT and AVP in regions produced irreversible deficit of the memory function.This study is important for reseach mechanisms of vascular dementia and in search of efficient drugs.
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    “BOTH-HEMISPHERE EFFECT” IN THE COGNITION OF CHINESE CHARACTERS
    Guo Kejiao,Yang Qizhi(East China Normal University)
    . 1995, 27 (01): 78-83.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 151 )
    This research paper approached the distinction between the functions of two hemispheres in the cognition of the script, phonologic, and semantics of Chinese characters.The first experiment adopted the same "Chinese character pairs"stimulus material,three groups of subjects participated in the script identity matching,phonological identity matching, and semantic categorization matching. As a result,both the response time and the rate of correct response indicated that the cognition of the script,phonologic, and semantic categorization all had something to do with the two hemispheres which demonstrated that“both-hemisphere effect" existed in Chinese character cognition. The second experiment adopted the approach of "Chinese character-Graph"meaning conformity judgement to further examine "both-hemisphere effect"in the cognition of semanatics. The result of the experiment agreed with the first experiment.The author considered that "both-hemisphere effect "in the cognition of Chinese characters is essentially related to the characteristics of the Chinese character itself.
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    THE DEVELOPMENT OF SOCLAL AND COGNITIVE COMPLEXITY IN PRESCHOOLERS5'PLAY──A CROSS CULTURAL COMPARISON
    Yang Lizhu,Zou Xiaoyan(Liaoning Normal University,Dalian)Doris Bergen(Miami University)
    . 1995, 27 (01): 84-90.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 627 )
    This comparative study on the social and cognitive complexity in play among 150 Chinese and American children had been made based on time-sampling observation video-tape. The results indicated.:1.The level of social and cognitive development of preschoolers advanced with age.2.There was a correlation between the higher level cognitive play behavior and the higher level of development of social skills,both of them influenced each other.3.There was a coincidence in the progress of social and cognitive ability between the children from both countries as well as in the developmental modes of the play behavior.4. There was a difference in the forms and contents of the preschoolers, play, in the social and cognitive level between the children from both countries, which showed the influence of different cultural backgrounds.
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    METHODOL OGICAL EXPLORATION OF JOB EVALUATION IN DISTRIBUTION REFORMS
    Wang Erping(Institute of Psychology,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100012)Chen Guocheng(Qinshan Nuclear Power Company,Haiyan,Zhe jiang Provice 314300)Li Qingxiang(Institute of Compensation,Ministry of Labor,Beijing 100029)
    . 1995, 27 (01): 91-97.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 94 )
    This approach is based on the postulation that the large variance of comparable job worth component leads to large contribution to pay differentials.The evaluation procedure was as follows:1)Job description by incumbents; 2)principal component analysis on the job description data; 3)job classification by hierarchical cluster analysis based on Ward's method 4)as the critical step,weight assessment for job comparable worth components by using variance analysis to generate evaluation points. A weight is to be greater than or equal to 0.These weights are to be compared directly with each other.The sum of weights is to be 1. And most important, the size of a weight is to match with the variance of the relative component; and 5)transformation from job evaluated points into pay rates. A constant c and an adjusting coefficient a in the transformation are estimated to fit the conditions of an organization.A total of 571 samples from 524 jobs in 2 organizations were evaluated with this approach.The results proved this approach effective and applicable.
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    EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON PHYSIOPSYCHOLOGICAL REACTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS TO OPTOKINETIC STIMULUS
    Shi Wanghong,Wang Xiaoying,Ren Jianjun,Huang Fuen(Psychology Section, Fourth Military Medical University)
    . 1995, 27 (01): 98-103.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 154 )
    In this research 30 military university students each experienced a series of optokinetic step stimulation(5 , 10,15,20,30,40,60,80,100,120deg/sec)under two different instructions, Each stimulus continued for 20 seconds. The optokinetic nystagmus was recorded with tape recorder, at the same time, the latency and fuzzy estimate magnitude of the illusion were recorded. The nystagmus was analysed with a computer analysis system of ENG,the magnitude of illusion was measured with a fuzzy set model to estimate the magnitude of vestibular sensation.The main results are as follows:1.The SV, FV, SA, FA of Optokinetic nystagmus incresed with optokinetic speed, between 60-120/s, after that they stayed constant,but the ST and FT were different by decresing with stimulus speed, the lowest point was at 60/s, then incresing slowly.2. Between 5-120/s,the magnitude of optokinetic illuision incresed with stimulus speed lineally.3.There was no cause and result between OKN and optokinetic illusion. OKN does not elict optokinetic illusion, and optokinetic illusion does not produce OKN.Under low stimulus velocity,the fuzzy magnitude of the illusion increased significantly while the OKN was refrained. Indicating that OKN reduced the optokinetic illusion.
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    CITATION STATISTUCS AND ANALYSIS OF ACTA PSYCHOLOGLCA SINICA
    Tian Ping(Hangzhou Medical College)
    . 1995, 27 (01): 104-111.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 100 )
    Statistical analysis was made of the citation of articles published in Acta Psychologica Sinica in the last six years,The distribution of the number of citations, number of self-citations,types of articles,language and year were also quantitatively described in the purpose of comprehending the citation situation of core journals in the field of psychology,and also to find out some laws of citations of the articles on psychology in China as well as problemsreflected.
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