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  • Table of Content
       , Volume 27 Issue 02 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
    TACTILE DISCRIMINATION OF DISTANCE BETWEEN TWO POINTS UNDER EFFECT OF A NEARBY EXTRA POINT
    Wang Su,Zhang Ming(Department of Psychology, Beijing University 100871)
    . 1995, 27 (02): 113-120.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 98 )
    In the experiment with three-point pattern(Lugvigh Target)the stimuli either touched upon or moved with fast or slow speed across the index finger pad which remained immoble. The experimental variables were distance between the two external points and degree of deviation of the middle point from the imaginary line between the external two. Six subjects were tested.Their task was to judge the distance between the external two and to reproduce it on a ruler. The basic findings were as follows: 1. The actual distance was always underestimated at fast speed, the apparent distance at fast speed was significantly shorter than that at slow speed and immobility. 2. The apparent distance at large deviation of the middle point was significantly shorter than that at small deviation regardless of stimulus presentation mode. The middle point at large deviation seemed to shrink the distance between the two external points. This phenomenon of perceptual affinity was discussed in ralation to the perceptual strategy.
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    THE EFFECTS OF LEVEL OF WORKLOAD AND CODES OF INFORMATION INPUT AND OUTPUT ON SENSITIVITY OF MENTAL WORKLOAD MEASURE DURING THE PER-FORMANCE OF VISUAL TRACKING TASK
    Zhang Zhijun, Zhu Zuxiang (Psychology Department, Hangzhou University, Zhejian, 310028)
    . 1995, 27 (02): 121-126.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 82 )
    The study examined the effects of the level of workload and codes of information input and output on the sensitivity of visual tracking task mental workload. The results were as follows: ①Primary task performance was sensitive to mental workload;②The codes of information input and output had influence on the sensitivity of mental workload measure.
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    FUZZY-RECOGNITION (FR) JUDGEMENT──A NEW METHOD FOR THE STUDY OF METE─MEMORY
    Qu Jun, Han Kai (Department of Psychology, Beijing University 100871)
    . 1995, 27 (02): 127-132.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 89 )
    The FOK paradigm created by Hart showed that in the stage of memory retrieval the object-level recall can evoke the meta- level FOK judgement, but all prevous research had neglected that recognition can also evoke a metajudgement, which was raised by this article as“ Fuzzy-Recognition judgement ”(FR judgement). As a meta- judgement happening in the stage of memory retrieval, the FR judgement was of equal importance and had similar research method to the FOK judgement, so the FR paradigm gave new thinking and methods to the study of meta-memory.
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    DEGREE FUNCTION AND IT’S RELIABILITY
    Meng Qingmao(Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875)
    . 1995, 27 (02): 133-138.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 80 )
    Experiments and theories were used to suggest that: (a) as the reliability of the degree functioned, the value of θsatisfied the relationship: 1/m≤θ≤1/m and changed conversely to the reliability(i,e, if the reliability of a is large, will be small; otherwise, if the reliability of a is small,θ will be large). Usually the value of θ is about half of the upper bound plus lower bound. (b) when the fuzzy statistic model or the probabilistic statistic model was applied to the multi-step rating scale method to deal with group data, the means of degree function were almost the same. Their correlation coefficient, was very conspicuous, reaching high to the value of 0.997. (c)when the probabilistic statistic model was applied to multi-step rating scale method to deal with group data, the standard deviation only reflected the difference among the degree function of the dependants, and showed no relationship to the reliability of degree function. (the correlation coefficient equalled 0.0024 and was not conspicuous). To the personal results, if the value of reliability θwas calculated by using the formula θ=1/m∑θj, following the calculation of the mean and standard variance, how the deviation of θ changed could also be obtained.
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    THE DEVELOPMENTAL SHIFT OF THE ROLE OF GRAPHIC CODE AND PHONETIC CODE IN CHINESE READING
    Song Hua (Capital Normal University, 100037) Zhang Houcan, Shu Hua (Beijing Normal University, 100875)
    . 1995, 27 (02): 139-144.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 136 )
    In order to study the role of graphic and sound code of the character in Chinese reading, proof-reading task was used, which approximates real life reading. The results of the two experiments illustrated that: 1. In Chinese reading, there was a developmental shift for the role of graphic code and sound code of the character: the beginners rely more on sound code of the character while the adult reader relies more on the graphic code of the character. Within the same grade, students with high reading ability progressed to the next stage first. 2. The word recognition skill improved from low grade low reading ability to high grade high reading ability.
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    PERCEPTUAL REPRESENTATION OF WORDS AND VISUAL, AUDITORY PRIMING
    Fan Jin, Zhu Ying, Tian Li (Department of Psychology, Beijing University, Beijing Lab of Cognitive Science Laboratory and Vision Laboratory, Beijing 100871)
    . 1995, 27 (02): 145-151.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 141 )
    Two experiments were conducted to examine the priming effect of the right cerebral hemisphere (RH) and the left cerebral hemisphere (LH) by using English words, Chinese characters and pictures as experimental material.Subjects received fragment completion & identification test. Results of the two experiments indicated that: if the size and form of the Chinese characters were the same, the visual priming of RH was larger than that of LH. In contrast, neither English words nor the pictures’priming fo RH was large than that of LH. These data suggested that at least there was a separate system encoding the visual representations of Chinese characters that produced priming. The system that was more effective in RH was better at the representation of form- specific information. For the representation of abstract-form information of Chinese characters, the difference between RH and LH was not significant. The fragment completion & identification test of Chinese characters was capable of measuring visual perceptual representation and it was a perceptual (or data-driven) implicit memory test.
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    THE RELATIONSHIPS OF CHINESE COGNITIVE OPERATIONS AND STYLES WITH ECOLOGICAL AND CULTURAL FACTORS
    Zheng Xue (South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631) Chen Zhongyong(Inner-Mongolia Normal University, Huhehaote 010022)
    . 1995, 27 (02): 152-158.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 226 )
    This paper used cogitive tests, anthropological literature and field investigations to study 460 Chinese adults'cognitive operations, cognitive styles,and the relationships with eco-cultural factors. A 8×2×3 ( 8 subsistence strategies: agricultural, irrigation, fishing, hunting, forest industrial, city industrial, and trading/man and woman/18- 34 years of age, 35-49 years of age, and above 50 years) ANOVA with covariable(the influences of modernization)revealed significant covariable effect and main effect of subsistence strategy, sex and age in the analysis operation, significant covar-effect and main effects of subsistence strategy and age in the connection operation, significant covareffect and main effects of subsistence strategy in cognitive style. A regression (stepwise) revealed that ecology, subsistence style, social structural tightness, socialization emphases (compliance-assertion),and the influences of modernization are valid factors of predicting sample'cognitive operations and styles. This research result supported the eco-cultural model of cognitive operations and styles.
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    TEACHER'S SENSE OF TEACHING EFFICACY: ITS STRUCTURE AND INFLUENCING FACTORS
    Yu Guoliang, Xin Tao, Shen Jiliang(Institute of Developmental Psychology, Beijing Normal University, 100875)
    . 1995, 27 (02): 159-166.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 343 )
    Teacher's sense of teaching efficacy has been identified as a variable accounting for individual differences in effectiveness of teaching. The purpose of the present study was to explore the variable structure, and construct validation to support it. Factor analysis of responses from 382 middle-school Chinese teachers to a 42-item Teacher'Sense of Teaching Efficacy Scale yielded two substantial factors. One was general teaching efficacy, and the other was personal teaching efficacy. Its structure corresponded to Bandura's two-factor theoretical model of self-efficacy, and Ashton's model of teaching- efficacy. Finally, the number of years of teaching was found to have significant effect on general teaching efficacy and personal teaching efficacy.
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    QUANTITATIVE STUDYS OF RANDOM-DOT INDUCED STEREO VISION UNDER LUMINANCE CONTRAST AND COLOR CONTRAST
    Guo Kun, Li Chaoyi (Department of Sensory Information Processing, Shanghai Institute of Physiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, Laboratory of Vision Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing,100101)
    . 1995, 27 (02): 167-173.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 268 )
    The depth perception in random-dot stereograms (RDS) was investigated under two different display conditions: equiluminance with chromaticity contrast and heteroluminance without chromaticity contrast. The main results were: (1) RDSs were found to induce depth equally well under both display modes; (2)The disparity threshold for perceiving depth in isochromatic RDSs reached its minimum and leveled off at a luminance contrast of 30%, with larger disparities, depth was perceived down to about 10% contrast;(3) When the two eyes were stimulated with chromaticity RDSs, but with different color contrast, the disparity threshold was not significantly different from that with heteroluminance RDSs; (4) Under the condition that one eye was stimulated with chromaticity RDS and the other with heteroluminance RDS, the observers could perceive depth only when contrast of the chromaticity RDS was substantially above equiluminance. The findings suggested that stereoscopic depth is mediated by both the magnocellular and parvocellular (blob and interblob) systems.
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    EFFECTS OF STROKE LESION, CEREBRAL ATROPHY AND REGIONAL CEREBRAL BLOOD FLOW (rCBF)ON MENTAL DETERIORATION FOLLOWING STROKE
    Zhang Xiaoshu (Department of Neurology, 261 Hospital, Beijing, 100094) Wu Weiping (Department of Neurology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, 100853) Oike Yasaburo et al. (Hirosaki University, School of Medicine, Hirosaki City, 036, Japan)
    . 1995, 27 (02): 174-180.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 68 )
    The paper reported mental changes measured by Hasegawa's method in 189 patients with stroke, and analyzed the effects of lesion location and cerebral atrophy found by CT, and rCBF measured by SPECT on mental activities. In 69 of 189 patients, Hasegawa's Score was lower than 21. 5 points. It was found that up to 42. 9 % of the patients had dementia or predementia when stroke lesion was located in the left cerebral hemisphere, and only 23. 1% of the patients had dementia or predementia when the lesion was located in right hemisphere. The relationship between rCBF and Hasegawa's Score was analyzed. The authors found that, when lesion existed in the left cerebral hemisphere, there were very significantly positive relationships between Hasegawa's Score and rCBF in the left frontal lobe, the left temporal lobe and the left parietal lobe. The results indicated that the left cerebral hemisphere played a more important role in mental activities. Cerebral atrophy was also one of the factors influencing the intelligence of the patients.
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    STUDY ON THE PONTENTIAL EVOKED BY STEREOPSIS
    Lei Jingjiang, Wu Lezheng, Wu Dezheng, Liang Jiongji (National Ophthalmological Laboratory, Ministry of Public Health, Guangzhou 510060)
    . 1995, 27 (02): 181-187.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 83 )
    A software package which could give out three stimuli──Dynamic random dot stereograms (DRDS), Light-dark checkerboard and Random dot background stimulus, was developed. Using the three stimuli respectively, cortical visual evoked potentials (VEPs)in 34 normal subjects were recorded. The results showed that: (1) In the VEP elicited by DRDS, the latency of N1 peak was 265 ± 25ms and the power of the first harmonic was 63.2±18.9 percent of the total power; (2) In the VEP elicited by Light-dark checkerboard, the latency of N1 peak was 190 ± 22ms and the power of the first harmonic was 39.2 ± 19.6 percent of the total power; (3) The VEP elicited by random dot background consisted of some disorderly small waves. The results showed that there were some characteristics in the distribution of harmonics power besides latency of the VEP elicited by DRDS. The above characteristics are helpful in the objective evaluation of stereopsis.
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    EXPERIMENTAL SYSTEM AND METHOD OF PSYCHOPHYSICS AND PHYSIOLOGY FOR THE STUDY OF STEREOPSIS VISION
    Ge Jiguang, Zheng Zhuying, Xu Jun (Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027)
    . 1995, 27 (02): 188-195.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 96 )
    Binocular Stereoscopic Vision involves complex mechanisms, therefore ,to study it one can only start from solving one problem from one aspect or with a certain method . This study was interested in producing multifunctional stimulation graphs with computer control and studying the effect of psychopysics. A multi-functional stimulation graph generate system which is widely used in stereopsis vision study was introduced in the paper, in which operating principle and structure design were discussed. Some experiments using the stimulative graph system with successful results were introduced.
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    APPLICATION OF RULE SPACE MODEL FOR IDENTIFYING COGNITIVE ERRORS IN PROBLEM SOLVING
    Yu Jiayuan (Department of Education Nanjing Normal University Nanjing, 210097)
    . 1995, 27 (02): 196-203.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 111 )
    This paper used rule space model for identifying cognitive errors in students'problem solving. This model linked cognitive psychology, item response theory and the algebraic theory of databases. It mapped subjects'binary response patterns into a set of ordered pairs in Cartesian product space. Then the Mahalanobis distance of a student's position in the rule space to the positions representing the erroneous rules was computed. The students'error patterns were classified with Bayes decision rule. In the research, based on the responses of 644 middle school students to 30 mathematical items, it was identified that 86% of the students could be classified into 18 cognitive error patterns.
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    A STUDY ON THE PROCESS OF PROBLEM REPRESENTATION
    Fu Xiaolan, He Haidong(National Research Center for Intelligent Computing Systems Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica, Beijing 100012)(Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica, Beijing 100012)
    . 1995, 27 (02): 204-210.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 115 )
    Problem representation is a means of understanding in solving problems. The experimental task of the current research involved an intellectual mathematics problem. By analyzing the results of 34 undergraduate students and the links in their problem representation, the process of problem representation and its effects on problem solving were investigated. The results showed that: (1) A correct problem representation is the prerequisite in problem solving, searching in wrong or incomplete problem space cannot reach the correct answer to the problem. (2) Problem representation is a process of abstracting and understanding the information contained in a problem, the problem rules are very important in problem representation. (3) In the process of problem representation, the factors leading to constructing a wrong or incomplete problem space include: information omitting (failing to abstract all the relative information from the problem), information misunderstanding (wrong analysis and misunderstanding of some problem information), metephor interference (the latent ambiguity of some problem information makes the subjects feel puzzled or has misled their direction of solution).
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    RESEARCH ON CAUSAL ATTRIBUTION FOR EXAM PERFORMANCE OF JUNIOR MIDDLE-SCHOOL STUDENTS
    Zhang Guiliang (Adult Education Institute, Beijing 100088) Guo Dejun (Psychology Department, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875)
    . 1995, 27 (02): 211-218.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 261 )
    On the basis of a wide investigation on causal attributions and affective reactions to exam performance of junior middle-school students, this article proposed a model on junior middle-school students'causal attribution for exam performance in terms of Weiner's attribution theory of motivation and emotion. This hypothesized model was tested on the use of a statistic mothod of covariance structure modeling. Athough this initial model was rejected on the basis of a chi-square goodness-of-fit test, a specification search yielded a final model that fit the data adequately and partly supported Weiner's theory. According to this model, effort attribution-locus dimension for junior middleschool students had a positive effect on self-confidence, expectation and achievement motivation.
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    EFFECT OF EDUCATIONAL FACTOR ON COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN AGING PROCESS
    Li Deming (Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012) Sun Fuli, Li Guiyun (Xiyuan Hospital, Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100091)
    . 1995, 27 (02): 219-224.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 144 )
    A study on the effects of age and educational factors on cognitive function was accomplished by using the methods of language-operation and mancomputer interaction in 12 tasks on 734 subjects of 46 to 75 years of age. The results indicated: 1) The effects of age and educational factors on the cognitive performances were not uniform in the different tasks. The obvious effect of age on the cognitive performances was observed in free recall of picture and meaningless picture recognition.The obvious effect of education on the cognitive performances was presented in picture classification, card classification and progressive matrices. Both age and educational factors showed a significant effect in symbol-digit, paired-association learning, visual and auditory digit span, No significant effects of age and educational factors were found for calculation. 2) The cognitive speed of 4 nonlexical tasks was influenced significantly by both age and educational factors.
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