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  • Table of Content
       , Volume 27 Issue 03 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
    THE ESTIMATION OF AREA CONSTRUCTED BY IMAGERY
    Wang Su,Sun Yang(Department of Psychology,Beijing University)
    . 1995, 27 (03): 225-230.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 103 )
    This experiment investigated the estimation of area constructed by imagery in comparison with the estimation of area perceived.The stimuli consisted either of a rectangle or of a group of its necessary component parts,e.g.the line(s)and corner(s),were presented visually or tactually.Ss were then asked to estimate the area of a rectangle perceived or constructed from the parts by imagery and to assign a number to it in accordance with a standard one which became familiar at the beginning of the experiment.It was found that the increase of area constructed by imagery obeyed the power function law as the increase of area perceived,the index was 0.601-0.830(visual experiment)and 0.524-0.787(tactual experiment).The results confirmed the functional equivalance of imagery and perception.
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    AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF DISCRIMINATION OF SURFACE COLOR DIFFERENCES ON ACHROMATIC COLOR SERIES BY THE CHINESE EYE
    Sun Xiuru,Lin Zhiding,Zhang Jiaying,Lin Zhongxian,Jing Qicheng(Institute of Psychology,Academia Sinica)
    . 1995, 27 (03): 231-240.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 126 )
    This paper offers the results of an experimental study of discrimination of surface color differences on the achromatic color series by the Chinese eye.It showed that,changes of achromatic color brightness had no significant effect on the discrimination of color differences of people.The values of color differences only varied with changes of the grade of visual evaluation.These results were consistent with those of other countries.On the basis of this research,a color tolerances of achromatic color series for the Chinese Color System was established, and also approved by the National Color Standardisation Committee.
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    TIMING ERROR ANALYSIS IN COMPUTER-CONTROLLED PSYCHOLOGICAL EXPERIMENTS
    Feng Ling(Institute of Psychology,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100012)
    . 1995, 27 (03): 241-246.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 90 )
    In the process of controlled psychological experiment,the computer may introduce various potential timing errors.Some of the errors should not be ignored,especially when the experimental stimuli occur in a short period.This article mainly analysed the limit of the screen refresh rate to the experimental design and the timing error that might occur,as well as the methods for solving these problems.
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    RESEARCH ON THE EFFECTS OF THE OUTCOME CONFLICT AND TASK DIFFICULTY ON DUAL-TASK PERFORMANCE
    Ge Liezhong,Zhu Zuxiang(Dept.of Psychology,Hangzhou University,310028)
    . 1995, 27 (03): 247-253.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 128 )
    Dual-task performance is a basic behavior pattern in complex man-ma-chine systems.The present research is focused on the effects of the outcome conflict and task difficulty on dual-task performance.The results of the data analysis support the following conclusions:(1)The interference between information-processings of the two tasks is a major source in dual-task decrecement.The higher the interference,the worse the dual-task performance;(2)The resource competition is another major source in dual-task decrecement.The higher the competition,the worse the dual-task performance.Based on the experiment,a two-factors theory was proposed.
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    A COMPUTATIONAL LEXICAL DECISION MODEL BASED ON SEMANTICS
    Liu Ying,Peng Danling(Psychology Department,Beijing Normal University,100875)
    . 1995, 27 (03): 254-262.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 117 )
    Lexical decision is a widely used paradigm in research on word recognition.A computation model based on distributed semantic representation was presented to explain the major phenomena which were found in lexical decision task.The model consisted of a forward network of five sets of orthographic,hidden,semantic,lexicon and decision units.Weights on connections between orthographic, hidden and semantic units were modified during a training phase using the back propagation learning algorithm.Weights on connections between semantic,lexicon and decision units were fixed before the learning process.The model simulated some aspects of human performance in lexical decision task,including a)frequency effect;b)semantic priming effect;c)the interaction between frequency and context;d)word repetition effect;e)degradation effect.The performance of the model came from the architecture of the model and the learning rule.
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    EFFECTS OF PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF STOMACH CANC
    Xu Zhenlei,Li Xintian(Department of Medical Psychology,Beijing Medical University,100083)Han Bing,Liu Jun,Tang Shusen(Health School of Daqing Oil Management,163351)
    . 1995, 27 (03): 263-267.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 259 )
    patients with stomach cancer and 50 healthy subjects were investigated with behavioral charecteristic questionnaire,life event scale and ability of immune including RB C-C_(3b)R、REC-IC、RCIA、CIC and C_3 in lab.The result revealed:(1)the group of patients had more depression,anxiety,inward anger and control;significantly less outward anger,less optimistic and less social support compared with the group of healthy subjects;(2)76% of the patients within 8 years before diagnosis and 62% of the patients within 3 years had life events;(3)the group of patients had significantly lower RBC-C_(3b)R and more RCIA and CIC compared with the group of healthy subjects.Through analysis one can conclude that the development of stomach cancer is related with some behavioral charecter especially with depression and inward anger;life event as a stress resource can induce stomach cancer;the machanism might be related with the immune system.
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    THE PSYCHOLOGICAL STUDY ON THE TRANSFER-STATION FRAMEWORK
    Hu Zhenhua,Wan Faguan(Huazhong University of Science and Technology,Wuhan,430074)
    . 1995, 27 (03): 268-273.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 97 )
    By summarizing the characteristics of human problem solving,this paper presented a Transfer-station Framework of problem solving.The study used the protocol analysis showed that the framework is a kind of knowledge structure and an effective heuristic strategy of problem solving.The experiments verify that the orderness,the familiarity,the similarity,and the systematic controllability are the crucial factors on the solvability and the efficiency.And it is shown that the transfer-stations and their ordering,the strong rules,weak rules,and their co-operation,and the control strategy of the system reflect and simulate the expertise structure and control process of human beings while they solve some complex special problems.
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    THE NOTION OF SYSTEMATIC THEORY OF NEED AND THEORY OF SELF SOCIAL VALUE ACTUALIZATION
    Zhou Guansheng(Shanghai Normal University 200234)
    . 1995, 27 (03): 274-280.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 256 )
    The notion of self-actualization is a key postulation in Maslow's theory of need.This article is a study on Freud's psychoanalysis theory,Adler's social feeling theory and Maslow's notion of self-actualization.The study points out the application of systematic viewpoint of need and theory of self social-value actualization need.
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    PARENTS'FREE DESCRIPTIONS ON CHILDREN'S CHARACTERISTICS:A VERIFIED RESEARCH ON THE BIG FIVE FROM CHINESE DATA
    Zhang Yuqing,Lin Wei(China Child Development Centre,Beijing,100035)Gedolph A.Kohnstamm(Leiden University,The Netherlands)Chen Zhonggeng(Beijing University)
    . 1995, 27 (03): 281-287.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 329 )
    The present study interviewed 410 children aged 3,6,9,12 living in Beijing and Fuzhou city using the same interview and coding procedure as Dutch and American groups did.The personality characteristics found in Chinese children could completely be explained in applying"Five Factor Model"and could completely be coded into"14 categories system"developed by Dutch and American groups.Main differences between Chinese results and Western results were that Chinese parents gave strong emphasis on Category Ⅲ(Conscientiousness),more descriptions on Category Ⅴ(Intellect)and less descriptions on Category Ⅱ(Agreeableness),Several meaningful differences were found on the variables as sex,age and city of the child,father and mother and their SES.
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    RECENT STUDIES ABROAD ON YOUNG CHILDREN'S MORAL JUDGMENT
    Tang Hong,Fang Fuxi(Institute of Psychology,CAS,Beijing,100012)
    . 1995, 27 (03): 288-294.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 175 )
    This is a brief report on the recent studies abroad on young children's moral judgment from the viewpoint of information processing and emotional attribution.They reveal that the moral judgment of young children is affacted by their memory and comprehension; that its development shows an improvement in integration of story information and using different moral criterions in different situations;that young children's emotional attribution of moral events is not consistent with their moral cognition.
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    RESEARCH ON DECISION-MAKING PROBLEM IN THE STUDENTS'STYLE OF HELPING
    Xiao Feng(Psychology Department,Beijing Normal University)
    . 1995, 27 (03): 295-301.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 191 )
    The subjects in this experiment were 72 middle school students.The method used combined natural experiment with scale-measures and questionnaire evaluation to study the decision process of the way to help others.The result of the experiment showed that most of the students used customary decision model which could apparently enhance their ability of decision to help others and probability of prosicial behavior to change their decision model into a scientific one.This technique has much value to adolesent moral education.
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    COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN METAMEMORY AND MEMORY OF YOUNG AND OLD ADULTS
    Wu Zhenyun,Sun Changhua,Wu Zhiping,Xu Shulian(Institute of Psychology,Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijng,100012)
    . 1995, 27 (03): 302-307.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 172 )
    This study investigated on metamemory of 90 subjects using short Form Metamemory Inventory and MIA.The subjects were divided into young,old and old-old groups.The results showed that:1.The numbers of memory prediction of paired-association words and figures decreased with age.The age differences in memory prediction were significant.There was no age difference in accuracy of evaluation.After training,the predicted performance improved significantly,while the accuracy of evaluation didn't increase.The post-estimation was similar to prediction.The accuracy of evaluation in them was higher than that in prediction.It suggested that metamemory might be improved through memory process.2.The degree of self-confidence and the numbers of applying strategy decreased with age.They might be important factors influencing memory.3.The performance of Additional Paired-Association Learning and Figural Free Recall were correlated to most of the items in self-estimation of Short Form Metamemory Inventory and MIA in different degrees.It indicated that metamemory was significantly correlated to memory.
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    EFFECT OF AMYGADALAE LESSION ON SPATIAL COGNITIVE ABILITY IN RATS
    Sui Nan,Xie Dong,Kuang Peizi(Institute of Psychology,Academia sinica,Beijing 100012)
    . 1995, 27 (03): 311-316.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 99 )
    The effects of amygdalae(AE)lession in rats were tested for the aquisition and retention of spatial cognitive tasks in the Morris maze.The results indicated that subjects with AE Lesion produced spatial cognitive deficits and they usually used taxic strategies which were different from the mapping strategies used by the control subjects.The different strategies suggest that AE is related to the spatial cognitive system and belong to the auxiliary structure of the systme.
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    CORRELATION BETWEEN LEARNING-MEMORY AND THE CEREBRAL SYNAPTIC STRUCTURAL PARAMETERS IN MICE
    Zhang Zigui,Du Hongyan,Lu Hanxin(Neurobiology Laboratory,Biological Science and Technology Department,Nanjing University,Nanjing 210093)
    . 1995, 27 (03): 317-321.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 130 )
    This study investigated the correlation between learning-memory capacity of different month-aged mice and their central synaptic structural parameters.The discrimination learning capacity was tested by Y-maze and memory retention was observed by using one trial passive avoidance response in both 1-month and 6-month aged mice respectively.Then the animals were killed and the hippocampus and sensori-motor areas of the cerebral cortex were prepared for electron microscopy.The electron microphotographs were analysed quantitatively by XY-biological image analysis system.The main results were as follows:(1)The descrimination learning capacity of 1-month aged mice were significantly better than that of the 6-month aged mice(p<0.05),while memory retention of 1-month aged mice was slightly superior to that of the 6-month aged mice.(2)The curvatures of synaptic interface of 6-month aged mice were greater that of the 1-month aged mice(p<0.05 in the sensori-motor areas:p<0.01 in the hippocampus),while the PSDs of 6-month aged mice were less than that of the 1-month aged mice(p<0.01).These results suggested that changes of learning-memory capacity with increasing age may be based on the changes of the structure of synaptic interface in the brain of mice.
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    THEORETICAL MEANING OF THE STUDY ON METACOGNITION
    Yang Ning(Department of Chinese Language and Literature,Hebei University)
    . 1995, 27 (03): 322-328.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 264 )
    In the recent two decades,theories of metacognition have been proposed,for example,the theory of metacognition of Flavell,Brown,the triarchic theory of intelligence of Sternberg.It is consistent that all of these heories play emphasis on the subject's planning,monitoring,valuing and regulating toward their own cognitive activity.These theories reflect the recent trends increasing in contempory psychology:laying stress on self regulation,self-monitoring which advanced control processes in mental activity,Next,this article attempted to propose that there is an inner consistency between the theory of metacognition and Piaget's theory such as formal operation,self-regulation,equillibration.Meanwhile,the essence of metacognition can be explained by cybernetic perspective.
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    MOTHER-CHILD RELATIONSHIP,SOCIAL BEHAVIOR AND PEER ACCEPTANCE IN CHINESE CHILDREN
    Chen Xinyin(Department of Psychology,University of Western Ontario,Canada)Li Boshu,Li Zhengyun(Department of Educational Administration,Shanghai Teachers'University)
    . 1995, 27 (03): 329-336.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 802 )
    Two-wave longitudinal data on mother-child relationship,social behavior and peer acceptance were collected from a sample of children in Shanghai,P.R.China.Cross-lagged path analysis revealed that children's social behaviors and peer acceptance and rejection influenced each other.Moreover,there were mutual impacts between mother-child relationship and child aggression.It was also found that children's socially competent and aggressive behavior were highly stable and that mother-child relationship was moderately stable between the ages of 8 to 10 years.The stability of peer acceptance and rejection was mainly maintained by social behaviors.
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