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  • Table of Content
       , Volume 27 Issue 04 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
    EFFECTS OF COMPLEXITIES ON RECOGNITION FOR TILTED CHINESE CHARACTERS
    Yu Bolin,Li Zhaohui(Institute of Psychology,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing,100012)Zhang Shulin(Institute of Psychology,South-west Normal University,Chongqing, 630715)
    . 1995, 27 (04): 337-343.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 183 )
    The purpose of the present study was to explore processing modes of mental rotation and recognition for Chinese characters by means of its complexity.The complexities were manipulated separately on both the number of strokes and separability of components.They consisted of two independent experiments.In each experiment,the variable of angular deviations contained eight angular deviations from upright with increasing 45°step,i. e. ,0°,45°,90°,135°,180°,-45°,-90°and-135°.The experimental dependent variable was naming response time for rotated characters.The results were found that the indictors of the character's complexity,either number of strokes or the separability of components had respectively an interaction with the variable of angular deviations.This gave support to the whole-component mixed model in the processing modes for mental rotation and recognition of Chinese characters.
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    A STUDY ON NEGATIVE PRIMING EFFECT AND DISTRACTOR IDENTITY INHIBITION IN CATEGORIZATION TASK
    Jin Zhicheng,Zhang Yaxu(Department of Psychology,Northeast Normal University)
    . 1995, 27 (04): 344-349.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 160 )
    In categorization tasks,using Chinese single-character words as the material and negative priming as the technique,this study examined whether spreading inhibition,which was at the root of negative priming effects,was a limited resource mechanism.It also examined whether the negative priming effect,which was produced by distractor identity inhibition,could also be observed when an operation response was used.The results showed:1.The RT on a probe target,which had just been a distractor in a previous prime display,shortened when the number of distractors in the previous prime display increased.Therefore,the spreading inhibition was a limited resource mechanism;2.A very significant negative priming effect,which was produced by distractor identity inhibition,could be observed when the operation response was used.
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    BINOCULAR PERCEPTION OF THE SPEED AND DIRECTION OF MOTION IN DEPTH
    Zhang Haijun, Huang Wenhao(Department of Precision Machinery,University of Science and Technology of China. HeFei,230026)Xie Lanchang,Dong Taihe(Department of Optical Instruments,Zhejiang University,Hangzhou 310027)
    . 1995, 27 (04): 351-355.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 114 )
    Binocular perception of motion in depth was studied. The results showed that binocular velocity difference may be of use in detecting the speed of motion in depth,while binocular velocity ratio is of use in discriminating the direction.The perceived speed in depth is proportional to velocity difference between the left and right retinal images,while the perceived direction is uniquely related to velocity ratio.We propose that human visual system might contain binocular mechanisms which are responsible for recovering from two-dimensional retinal information about three-dimensional motion.The behaviour of binocular speed detection and the 0.2°acuity of directional discrimination can be quantitatively understood on the basis of these mechanisms.The theoretical model quite satisfactorily agrees with the experimental findings and everyday visual experience.
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    HUMAN PERFORMANCE AND MENTAL WORKLOAD UNDER MULTIPLE TASK DEMANDING CONDITIONS
    Liao Jianqiao(Department of Industrial Engineering, Huazhong university of Science and Technology,Wuhan, 430074)
    . 1995, 27 (04): 356-362.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 95 )
    The purpose of this study was to find out how human performance and mental workload changes when people face multiple task demands. In an experiment,the subjects were asked to do four information processing tasks simultaneously.The four tasks were tracking,choice reaction time, monitoring and mental arithmetic.The task demands were changed by increasing the speed of task presentation on computers.The experimental results showed that with the increase of task demands,the subjects'performance deteriorated, but the deterioration was task specific.When facing multiple tasks simultaneously,the human subjects seemed to be like a single channel mechanism,concentrating on one task and then switching their attention to another task.The reasons and the implications were discussed.
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    THE STRUCTURE FOR THE NETWORK OF FRIENDS OF ADOLESCENTS IN DIFFERENT GRADES
    Fang Xiaoyi(Institute of Developmental Psychology,Beijing Normal University)
    . 1995, 27 (04): 363-370.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 200 )
    This study selected 1040 subjects from grade 6,8,and 10.All subjects were asked to list up to 10 friends.Number and reciprocity of friendship choices were explored by using network analysis technique.The results showed that the adolescents listed 6 ̄7 friends in average, among these friendrelationships, one-way choices were more significant than mutual choices.The interactions of gender×grade× achievement and the father's education level×mother's education level×structure of family were not significant, the main effects of gender、grade and achievement were very significant,but the main effects of the parents'education level and structure of family were not significant.
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    A PRELIMINARY STUDY ON THE INFLUENCING FACTORS ON THE CHILDREN'S ABILITY OF MOTION DISTANCE PREDICTION
    Pei Jiantao,Shen Jiaxian,Gong Jianfei(Peychology Department,South Chian Normal University)
    . 1995, 27 (04): 371-378.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 100 )
    This research investigated into 5─19 year─old children's ability of motion distance prediction in 4 age groups, focusing on the developing characters and influencing factors. The whole experimental process was set on computers. A light block randomly composed of three levels of moving speed and four levels of motion distance was shown on the computer screen.Every time the block moved for a certain distance in exposed condition, then it moved in hidden condition to a red line. The subject was asked to press a key as soon as he(or she)estimated that the light block reached the line.The results indicated that:(1)children's ability of motion distance prediction developed along with age, there were two fast developing periods in the 5─8 year-old range and 12─19 year-old range;the 8─12 year-old range was a slow developing period,there was a significant change in prone of mistakes;(2)there was a significant effect on prediction error value of the objects' moving speed,and in slow speed there were fewer error values;(3) both the object's hidden motion distance and sex of the subject didn′t show significant effects on the children's scores of prediction;(4)all the subjects in this research inclined to have low prediction.
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    THE CREATIVE MOTOR OPERATION AND PROTOTYPE EFFECT
    Xu Shangxia,Sidney H. Y.(South China Normal University)(San Jose State University)
    . 1995, 27 (04): 379-385.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 111 )
    In this study,subjects with different motor operation levels were tested in a series of experiments on operation of motor patterns.It was found that:1.Subjects may achieve a motor prototype after a series of motor learning;2.Motor prototypes had significant effects on motor performance,which specially focused on the subjects'creative motor operation;3. Subjects'motor operation levels had significant relationship with motor prototypes,and this kind of prototype effect was detected much higher in motor performances of those with higher level of performance.
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    RESEARCH ON MODERN SPORT PSYCHOLOGY
    Zhang Liwei(Beijing University of Physical Education,100084)Ren Weiduo(Beijing Sport Research Institute,100053)
    . 1995, 27 (04): 386-394.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 1237 )
    Research areas of modern sport psychology were described from a broad viewpoint.Research trends in different areas such as the athlete's personality,arousal and performance,anxiety and performance, psychological skill training and motivation in sport were analyzed.It was pointed out that cognitive sport psychology is still the main stream of research.Different kinds of research are gaining better theoretical guidance and ecological validity,to explore sports behavior from multiple dimentions,and to pay more attention to the aspects of interpreting and controlling sports behavior on the basis of describing and predicting it.
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    LIFE SATISFACTION AND FACTORS RELATED TO ELDERLY CITIZENS IN BEIJING
    Xiang Manjun,Wu Xiaoguang,Liu Xianghong(Beijing Gerontology Clinical and Research Center)
    . 1995, 27 (04): 395-399.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 408 )
    Data collected in 1992 in the initial survey of the project "Beijing Multidimensional Longitudinal study on Aging" were analyzed. 2543 cases of elderly citisens aged 60 and over living in rural and urban areas of Beijing were interviewed on satifaction to 8 aspects of life,namely,marriage,parentchild relationship, general life, health,finance,housing,recreation and medical care.A global life satisfaction was calculated by averaging the scores.The results demonstrated that both global and satisfaction in 8 aspects of life were rather high. By multiple regression analysis it was shown that 17 factors were correlated to global life satisfaction significantly.The factors ranked in the first 5 orders were:self-rated health, family harmony,adequateness in economic need, morale and educational level.
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    A PSYCHO-LEXICAL STUDY ON CHINESE PERSONALITY FROM NATURAL LANGUAGE
    Wang Dengfeng,Fang Lin,Zuo Yantao(Department of Psychology, Peking University)
    . 1995, 27 (04): 400-406.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 305 )
    Following the efforts of both Chinese and Western Psychologists on in vestigating personality dimensions from natural languages,the present study selected 6156 Chinese words applied to describe human behavior differences from Chinese Modern Dictionary(1988).The words were classified into four categories:the stable trait description(1,274),the evaluation description(1, 239),the temporary state,emotion and feeling description(634),and action description(2,709).300 of them were deleted for their ambiguity. Meanwhile,1,638 personality descriptions were obtained from the description of 10 target figures made by 352 college students.They were also assigned to the previous categories respectively.Some preliminary results of psycholexical research were presented and the wide applications of the present list were also discussed.
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    THE STUDY ON SEX DIFFERENCES IN CALLIGRAPHY
    Mo Lei(South China Normal University)Yang Lianqing(Zhuhai Teacher's College)
    . 1995, 27 (04): 407-412.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 202 )
    This study investigated into the course of formation and the main expressions of the differences in calligraphy between boy students and girl students. 540 students were chosen randomly from primary schools and middle schools,60 students (30 boys and 30 girls)in each grade from the first grade of primary school to the third grade of junior high school.They were asked to transcribe a short article with about 400 characters,540 transcriptions were obtained.Then 40 experienced teachers were chosen to judge the sex of the transcribers of each sheet,after forming each judgement they were asked to choose the evidences from a questionnaire on which they had formed the judgement.By using the signal-testing method,the researcher analyzed the accuracy of the judgement on the sex of the transcribers from each grade and revealed the age phase and the characteristics of the formation of the sex difference.The results showed:1.The formation of sex difference in calligraphy is a gradual course.There was no evident of sex difference in the lower grades. The sex difference did not appear strictly until the middle and higher grades.There were two accelerative phases in the course of the formation of sex difference.One was between the second and third grade,the other between the fifth and sixth grade. 2.The judgement to the sex of lower grades was less accurate because the judgers mistook the calligraphy of girls for that of boys.This showed that at the initial stage of handwriting,either the handwriting from boy students or that from the girl students expressed the same characteristics (male characteristics).The handwriting from the girl students did not form femal characteristics until the middle and higher grades. 3.There were five kinds of sex differences in the calligraphy between boy and girl students,which were the size of the characters,the dynamic degree,the vigorous degree,the neat degree and the angular degree.
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    THE ERP CHARACTERISTICS OF MEANING ASSOCIATION AND THE IDENTIFICATION OF KNOWN AND UNKNOWN CHINESE CHARACTERS IN THE WHOLE VISUAL FIELD
    Wei Jinghan,Kuang Peizi,Zhang Dongsong,Pan Rautian(Institute of Psychology.Chinese Academy of Sciences)
    . 1995, 27 (04): 413-421.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 122 )
    The experimental stimuli paradigm was:warning tone──priming character operating character.The task of the subjects was to associate a character which should match the operating character and form a word with it.Experiment was divided into two items according to the categories of the associations:concrete and Abstract:A control item was conducted. The operating characters were divided into known and unknown characters in every item. The EEG electrodes were fixed at Fz,Cz, Pz,midpoint of P3-T5 and midpoint of P4-T6.It was observed that:(1) Chinese word- meaning association evoked greater amplitudes of P3 and positive slow wave (PSW).(2) The unknown character association invoked stronger increase in peak latency and amplitude of the PSW than the known character association did.(3)The PSW amplitudes which induced by both known and unknown characters associations of control item were the largest in the three items.(4)A pure psychological component P800 was extracted from PSW,it was the companion of the features of unknown character alone.(5) The P800 onset latency of the control item was the longest in the three items.The results proposed that PSW not only reflected the completion of a processing in the brain,but also related to the multiple processing of the sound,form,meaning and the association of Chinese characters.These proposed that it was a composite wave,The sound, form and meaning of Chinese characters have an intricate relationship and it is difficult to cut them apart.The PSW and P800 could be used as an indicator to identify whether the Chinese characters are known or unknown by the subjects in the present experimental conditions.
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    THE EFFECT OF STRESS ON BEHAVIORS AND GLUTAMATE LEVELS OF FOUR BRAIN REGIONS
    Yan Jin,Wang Chunan,Ye Ali,Chen Yizhang(Lab.of Neuroscience, Dept.of Physiology,2nd Military Medical University,Shanghai)
    . 1995, 27 (04): 422-427.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 112 )
    Glutamate(Glu)levels of the visual cortex(VC) ,hippocampus (Hi),hypothalamus(Hy)and cerebellum(Ce)during acute and chronic,and physical and psychological stress in rats were measured.Open-field behaviors (OFBs)during stress and after intracerebroventricularly(icv,lateral ventricle) administered L-AP4(10-3M/L,5ul)or saline(5ul)were recorded with TV camera The results showed that Glu levels of Hi and Hy in acute stress group and that of VC in chronic stress groups were higher and that of Ce was lower than that of the control (P<0.05),and there was a significant difference in Glu level of Hi between physical and psychological stress.OFBs were markedly reduced during chronic stress.It was similar to chronic stressed animals that OFBs in non-stress rats were reduced significantly in the 5min following icv administration of L-AP4.These suggested that stressinduced OFBs change was connected with Glu system in CNS.
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    LESIONS OF CPYR AND GLOBUS PALLIDUS IMPAIR MAPPING COGNITIVE ABILITY IN THE MORRIS MAZE
    Sui Nan,Weng Xuchu,Gao Yang,Kuang Peizi(Institute of Psychology,Academia Sinica,Beijing,100012)
    . 1995, 27 (04): 428-433.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 107 )
    The effects of CPYR and Globus Pallidus(GP)lesions in rats were investigated in the Morris Maze for the acquisition and retention of spatial cognitive tasks.The results indicated that both subjects with CPYR and GP lesions lead to the spatial cognitive deficits and they usually used taxic strategies which were different from the mapping strategies used by the controlled subjects.The different strategies suggested that CPYR and GP are related to the spatial cognitive system and belong to the auxiliary structure of the system.
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    THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN ATTACHMENT QUALITY AND PEER RELATIONSHIPS OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN
    Wu Pang,Zou Hong(Education Department,Hood College,U.S.A.)(Institute of Developmental Psychology,Beijing Normal University,China,100875)
    . 1995, 27 (04): 434-441.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 795 )
    The purpose of this study was to explore the association between preschool children's attachment relationships with adults and their peer relationships.Seventy-eight preschoolers (38 girls,40 boys),their mothers(n=78)and their preschool teachers (n=12) participated in the study.The average age of the children was four years and ten months.The measure used to assess attachment quality was the Waters and Deane's Attachment Q-set.The measures used to assess peer relationship were peer sociometric interviews and the teacher's rating.Research results indicated a strong correlation betweenyoung children's maternal as well as teacher-child attachment relationships and their peer relationships at preschool.Children with secure attachment relationskip with adults tend to be less aggressive,they like to help other children,and are more popular among peers.
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